10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Supersonic Combustion Theresita Buhler

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Supersonic Combustion Theresita Buhler www.phwiki.com

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Supersonic Combustion Theresita Buhler

Radio, Keith, Morning Shot Co-Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Supersonic Combustion Theresita Buhler Sara Esparza Cesar Olmedo 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Supersonic Outline Purpose & Goals Introduction to combustion Engine parameters Jet Engine Ramjet Scramjet Jet Engine vs. Scramjet Model Reference stations Analytical approach Compressible flow Shockwaves Inlet: Diffuser design COSMOSWorks design Engine: Cowl design Combustion schemes & fuels Exhaust: Expansion Prototype design Materials Design Specifications Installation in the wind tunnel Location Fuel lines in addition to ignition wires Hydrogen safety History Cost Acknowledgements Questions 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Hypersonic Vehicle High speed travel Commercial flight Reaction engines Circumnavigation in four hours NASA Goals Global reach vehicle Reduced emissions Challenges Shockwaves High heat Combustion instability Flight direction control NASA X-43 Vehicle NASA X-51 Testing

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10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Combustion Fuel Air Heat High pressure flow, at high compression Quickly changing conditions Temperature difficulties Frictional heating High as long as ced convection Highly turbulent Shock 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Engine Parameters Fit engine to aerospace system Jet Engines – Low orbit, max Mach 3 Ramjets – High altitude, supersonic flight, subsonic combustion Scramjets – High altitude, hypersonic flight, supersonic combustion 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Jet Engines Inlet design Feed air into chamber Compressor blades Increase pressure of flow Combustion chamber Introduce fuel House combustion Turbine blades Capture expansion of exhaust gases

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Ramjet Vehicle travels at supersonic speed Simplest air-breathing engine No moving parts Compression of intake achieved by supersonic flow – inlet speed reduction Shockwave system Relatively low velocity Combustions at subsonic speeds Very high reduction in speed High drag High fuel consumption Temperature at 3000 K (4940°F) Diffuser Exit plane contracts Exhaust at supersonic speed Travel: M = 3 Combustion: M= 0.3 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Scramjet Hypersonic flight No moving parts Combustion at Supersonic speed Flow ignites supersonically Fuel injection into supersonic air stream Steer clear of shock waves Is Aerodynamically challenged 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Scramjet Boeing

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Then in addition to Now 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A What is Supersonic Combustion Combustion maintained at supersonic speed How is it achieved Design Shockwave Fuel Injector Detonation Combustion 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Shock Waves Oblique shocks Mach number decreases Pressure, temperature, in addition to density increase Attached to vehicle Normal shocks Mach number decreases Pressure, temperature, in addition to density increase Creates subsonic region in front of nose Detached

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Shock Waves Oblique shock Mach number decreases Pressure, temperature, in addition to density increase Expansion wave Mach number increases Pressure, temperature, in addition to density decrease 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Diffuser Development Wind tunnel specifications Inlet speed Mach 4.5 Cross-sectional area 6 x 6 in Length of test section 10 in 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Design of Diffuser Initial design of diffuser Use manifold design to introduce fuel Diffuser was designed in to two separate pieces Goal Seek 18° 28.29° 19.67°

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Design of Diffuser Top part of the diffuser Has machined holes as long as fuel in addition to ignition wires. Also four holes as long as securing the base of the diffuser 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Design of Diffuser 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A 2D Shockwaves

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Inefficient Designs Bow Shock – Cowl Interference Oblique Shock – Cowl Spillage 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmo Flowork Analysis 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis Velocity Profile Mach Speed Profile

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis Pressure Contours Inlet Mach = 4.5 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis Temperature Contours Inlet Mach = 4.5 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis

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10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Ramp Fuel Injections Ramped Outward Ramped Inward 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Cosmos Flowork Analysis 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Combustion Combustion Stoichiometry Ideal fuel/ air ratio Recommended fuel as long as scramjets Hydrogen Methane Ethane Hexane Octane Only Oxidizer is Air Maximum combustion temperature Hydrocarbon atoms are mixed with air so Hydrogen atoms as long as m water Oxygen atoms as long as m carbon dioxide Most common fuel as long as scramjets Hydrogen In scramjets, combustion is often incomplete due to the very short combustion period. Equivalence ratio Should range from .2 -2.0 as long as combustion to occur with a useful time scale Lean mixture ratio below 1 Rich mixture ratio above 1

10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Textbook References Anderson, J. “Compressible Flow.” Anderson, J. “Hypersonic & High Temperature Gas Dynamics” Curran, E. T. & S. N. B. Murthy, “Scramjet Propulsion” AIAA Educational Serties, Fogler, H.S. “Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering” Prentice Hall International Studies. 3rd ed. 1999. Heiser, W.H. & D. T. Pratt “Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion” AIAA Educational Searies. Olfe, D. B. & V. Zakkay “Supersonic Flow, Chemical Processes, & Radiative Transfer” Perry, R. H. & D. W. Green “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ H in addition to book” McGraw-Hill Turns, S.R. “An Introduction to Combustion” White, E.B. “Fluid Mechanics”. 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Journal References Allen, W., P. I. King, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, K. Y Hsu, “Fuel-Air Injection Effects on Combustion in Cavity-Based Flameholders in a Supersonic Flow”. 41st AIAA Joint Propulsal. 2005-4105. Billig, F. S. “Combustion Processes in Supersonic Flow”. Journal of Propulsion, Vol. 4, No. 3, May-June 1988 Da Riva, Ignacio, Amable Linan, & Enrique Fraga “Some Results in Supersonic Combustion” 4th Congress, Paris, France, 64-579, Aug 1964 Esparza, S. “Supersonic Combustion” CSULA Symposium, May 2008. Grishin, A. M. & E. E. Zelenskii, “Diffusional-Thermal Instability of the Normal Combustion of a Three-Component Gas Mixture,” Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1988. Ilbas, M., “The Effect of Thermal Radiation in addition to Radiation Models on Hydrogen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Modeling” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Vol 30, Pgs. 1113-1126. 2005. Qin, J, W. Bao, W. Zhou, & D. Yu. “Per as long as mance Cycle Analysis of an Open Cooling Cycle as long as a Scramjet” IMechE, Vol. 223, Part G, 2009. Mathur, T., M. Gruber, K. Jackson, J. Donbar, W. Donaldson, T. Jackson, F. Billig. “Supersonic Combustion Experiements with a Cavity-Based Fuel Injection”. AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2006-271. Nov 2001 McGuire, J. R., R. R. Boyce, & N. R. Mud as long as d. Journal of Propulsion & Power, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov-Dec 2008 Mirmirani, M., C. Wu, A. Clark, S, Choi, & B. Fidam, “Airbreathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Modeling in addition to Control, Review, Challenges, in addition to a CFD-Based Example” Neely, A. J., I. Stotz, S. O’Byrne, R. R. Boyce, N. R. Mud as long as d, “Flow Studies on a Hydrogen-Fueled Cavity Flame-Holder Scramjet. AIAA 2005-3358, 2005. Tetlow, M. R. & C. J. Doolan. “Comparison of Hydrogen in addition to Hydrocarbon-Fueld Scramjet Engines as long as Orbital Insertion” Journal of Spacecraft in addition to Rockets, Vol 44., No. 2., Mar-Apr 2007. 10/29/2009 NASA Grant URC NCC NNX08BA44A Acknowledgements Dr. H. Boussalis Dr. D. Guillaume Dr. C. Liu Dr. T. Pham Dr. C. Wu SPACE Center Students Combustion Team Wind Tunnel Team Nhan Doan Long Ly Sheila Blaise Don Roberto Cris Reid Dr. D. Blekhman Cesar Huerta Celeste Montenegro Dr. C. Khachikian Keith Bacosa D. Maurizio

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