13 Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement

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13 Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement

Castle, Jeff, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 13 Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement Neural Reflexes Somatic Motor Reflexes Monosynaptic in addition to polysynaptic somatic motor reflexes Figure 13-1a

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Autonomic Reflexes Some visceral reflexes are spinal reflexes Figure 13-2 Skeletal Muscle Reflexes Proprioceptors are located in skeletal muscle, joint capsules, in addition to ligaments Proprioceptors carry input sensory neurons to CNS CNS integrates input signal Somatic motor neurons carry output signal Alpha motor neurons Effectors are contractile skeletal muscle fibers Examples of proprioceptors Muscle spindle Golgi tendon organ Joint receptors Are found in capsules in addition to ligaments around joints Proprioceptors Muscle spindles are sensory receptors in muscle that control muscle tone in addition to prevent injury from overstretching of the muscle. They are found in all muscles in addition to are tonically active, firing increases as the muscle stretches. Figure 13-3a–b

Muscle Spindles Muscle spindles monitor muscle length in addition to prevent overstretching of the same muscle. The tonic signaling produces muscle tone. Figure 13-4a Muscle Spindles Figure 13-4b During a stretch reflex increased firing by the sensory neuron increases signaling by the alpha motor neuron causing the muscle to contract. Alpha-Gamma Coactivation Figure 13-5a Gamma motor neurons intervate the ends of intrafusal fibers in muscle spindles in addition to keep the sensory neuron active even when the muscle contracts

Alpha-Gamma Coactivation Figure 13-5b, steps 1–3 When an alpha motor neuron fires the muscle contracts in addition to shortens but the gamma motor neuron will also fire in addition to thus there will be stretching at the spindle fiber to keep the tonic firing. Proprioceptors Golgi tendon organs are sensory receptors in muscle that respond to tension changes in the muscle in addition to attempt to prevent injury from excessively strong contractions. When golgi sensory neuron fibers the efferent signal in inhibitory in addition to thus there is a loss in contraction strength Figure 13-3a, c Muscle Reflexes: response to load in addition to overload

Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Figure 13-7 Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Figure 13-7 Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Figure 13-7

Flexion Reflex in addition to the Crossed Extensor Reflex Figure 13-8, steps 1–3a Flexion Reflex in addition to the Crossed Extensor Reflex Figure 13-8, steps 1–3b Flexion Reflex in addition to the Crossed Extensor Reflex Figure 13-8, steps 1–3c

Movement Classification Three types of movement: Reflex (simplest) voluntary (most complex) Rhythmic (a combination of relex in addition to voluntary). CNS Integrates Movement Spinal cord integrates spinal reflexes in addition to contains central pattern generators Brain stem in addition to cerebellum control postural reflexes in addition to h in addition to in addition to eye movements Cerebral cortex in addition to basal ganglia Voluntary movement- can become reflexive once well learned Rhythmic movement is initiated at the cerebrum but maintained by interneurons in the spinal cord Integration of Muscle Reflexes Figure 13-9 Reflexes are managed by the spinal cord, cerebellum, in addition to brain stem. They do not require input from the cerebrum. However, sensory input is send to the cerebrum so we aware of what happens.

CNS Control of Voluntary Movement Figure 13-10 Voluntary movement can be planned based on postural reflex in as long as mation. There are 3 phases, sensory feed back is used in the first two. Voluntary Movement Feed as long as ward reflexes in addition to feedback of in as long as mation during movement Figure 13-13 Visceral Movement Contraction of cardiac in addition to smooth muscle Moves material in hollow organs by changing the shape of the organ Controlled by ANS as a reflex Some create own action potentials Muscle can respond to hormones or signaling from neighboring cells through gap junction

Castle, Jeff WAFF 48 Noon News - WAFF-TV Meteorologist www.phwiki.com

Castle, Jeff Meteorologist

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