150 Years of Rowing Faster! Ox as long as d-Cambridge Boat Race Winning Times 1845-2005 ”Evolutionary Constraints” These constraints result in:

150 Years of Rowing Faster! Ox as long as d-Cambridge Boat Race Winning Times 1845-2005 ”Evolutionary Constraints” These constraints result in: www.phwiki.com

150 Years of Rowing Faster! Ox as long as d-Cambridge Boat Race Winning Times 1845-2005 ”Evolutionary Constraints” These constraints result in:

Sauro, Tony, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 150 Years of Rowing Faster! Stephen Seiler PhD FACSM Faculty of Health in addition to Sport Agder University College Kristians in addition to , Norway Ox as long as d-Cambridge Boat Race Winning Times 1845-2005 FISA Men’s championship 1x Winning Times 1894-2004

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25-30% increase in average velocity over 150 years of competitive rowing What are the per as long as mance variables in addition to how have they changed How will future improvements be achieved Decrease Power Losses Decrease Drag Forces on Boat Increase Propulsive Efficiency of oar/blade Improve Technical Efficiency Increase Propulsive Power Aerobic Capacity Anaerobic Capacity Maximal Strength ”Evolutionary Constraints” Race duration ~ 6-8 minutes Weight supported activity Oar geometry dictates relatively low cycle frequency in addition to favors large stroke distance to accelerate boat High water resistance decelerates boat rapidly between as long as ce impulses

These constraints result in: High selection pressure as long as height in addition to arm length High selection pressure as long as absolute (weight independent) aerobic capacity Significant selection pressure as long as muscular strength in addition to anaerobic capacity Ned Hanlan ca 1880 173cm 71kg Biglin Brothers ca 1865 180cm 75-80kg Ward Brothers ca 1865 185cm 80+kg ”Since the 19th century there have been clearly documented secular trends to increasing adult height in most European countries with current rates of 10-30mm/decade.” Cole, T.J. Secular Trends in Growth. Proceedings of the Nurition Society. 59, 317-324, 2000.

97th percentile as long as height in Dutch 21 year-olds Redrawn after data from Fredriks et al, in Cole, T.J. Secular Trends in Growth. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 59, 317-324, 2000. Ox as long as d Crew-2005 Average Height: 197cm Average bodyweight 98.3 kg Taller Population= Taller Elite Rowers Scaling problems- Geometry or fractal filling volumes Based on Geometric scaling: Strength in addition to VO2max will increase in proportion to mass 2/3.

VO2 body mass scaling in elite rowers Relationship between maximal oxygen uptake in addition to body mass as long as 117 Danish rowers (national team c in addition to idates) From: Jensen, K., Johansen, L, Secher, N.H. Influence of body mass on maximal oxygen uptake: effect of sample size. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 84: 201-205, 2001. r = – 0.39 A key finding of this study was that VO2 scaled with body mass raised to the =.73 power, or close to the 0.75 value predicted by metabolic scaling Measuring Rowing Specific Physical Capacity Photo courtesy of Mathijs Hofmijster, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, Free University Amsterdam, Netherl in addition to s photos 1-4 from Miller, B. ”The development of rowing equipment” http://www.rowinghistory.net/equipment.htm 3. 4. 5.

The Maximum of Human Power in addition to its Fuel From Observations on the Yale University Crew, Winner of the Olympic Championship, Paris, 1924 Henderson, Y in addition to Haggard, H.W. American J. Physiology. 72, 264-282, 1925 Height: 185 cm Weight: 82 kg Crew average: Estimated external work required at racing speed based on: 1. Boat pulling measurements 2. Work output on a rowing machine 3. Rowing ergometer VO2 measurements (but did not go to max) Estimated an external work requirement of ~6 Calories/min or (assuming 20% efficiency) 30 Calories/min energy expenditure. Equals ~ 6 Liter/min O2 cost Assumed 4 L/min VO2 max in addition to 2 L/min anaerobic contribution during 6 min race. The ergometer of the day had to be redesigned to allow a quantification of work in addition to power. 1970s – VO2 max vs boat placement in international regatta From Secher NH. Rowing. Physiology of Sports (ed. Reilly et al) pp 259-286. 1971 Even if we assume 5 liter/min max as long as the dominant, champion 1924 crew, they would have been at the bottom of the international rankings 50 years later, as this team boat VO2 max data compiled by Secher demonstrates.

193 cm, 92 kg 6.23 L/min VO2 cycling. Subject reached 6.1 to 6.4 L/min during repeated testing in different boats. Jackson, R.C. in addition to N. H. Secher. The aerobic dem in addition to s of rowing in two Olympic rowers. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 8(3): 168-170, 1976. This study was unique because 1) on water measurements were made of champion rowers in addition to , 2) the authors of the paper WERE the Champion rowers (Niels Secher, Denmark in addition to Roger Jackson, Canada) who went on to very successful sport science careers. Aerobic Capacity Developments Dr. Fred Hagerman 7+ L/min Ohio University There is just not much data available prior to the late 60s, so the question marks emphasise that this is guessing. But that aerobic capacity has increased Is clear. Today, isolated 7 liter values VO2 max values have been recorded in several good laboratories as long as champion rowers.

How much of per as long as mance improvement is attributable to increased physical dimensions Based on W Cup results from Lucerne over: 3 years 3 boat types 1st 3 places Here I use present day differences in boat velocity as long as world class lightweight in addition to heavyweight crews to demonstrate that the massive scale up in body size has not resulted in a proportional increase in boat speed, due to increased power losses associated with greater boat drag. The difference between these two weight classes today is about the same as the increase in body size observed over 150 years Rise at 7 a.m: Run 100-200 yards as fast as possible About 5:30: Start as long as the river in addition to row as long as the starting post in addition to back Reckoning a half an hour in rowing to in addition to half an hour from the starting point, in addition to a quarter of an hour as long as the morning run- in all, say, one in addition to a quarter hours. US National Team training during peak loading period 3 sessions/day 30+ hr/wk From US Women’s national team 1996

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Developments in training over last 3 decades Fiskerstr in addition to A, Seiler KS Training in addition to per as long as mance characteristics among Norwegian international rowers 1970-2001. Sc in addition to J Med Sci Sports. 2004 (5):303-10. Developments in training over last 3 decades Fiskerstr in addition to A, Seiler KS Training in addition to per as long as mance characteristics among Norwegian international rowers 1970-2001. Sc in addition to J Med Sci Sports. 2004 (5):303-10. 1860s – ”Athletes Heart” debate begins 1867- London surgeon F.C. Shey likened The Boat Race to cruelty to animals, warning that maximal ef as long as t as long as 20 minutes could lead to permanent injury. 1873- John Morgan (physician in addition to as long as mer Ox as long as d crew captain) compared 251 as long as mer oarsmen with non-rowers -concluded that the rowers had lived 2 years longer! Myocardial hypertrophy was key topic of debate, but tools as long as measurement (besides at autopsy) were not yet available. See: Park, R.J. High Protein Diets, ”Damaged Hearts in addition to Rowing Men: antecendents of Modern Sports Medicine in addition to Exercise Science, 1867-1928. Exercise in addition to Sport Science Reviews, 25, 137-170, 1997. See also: Thompson P.D. Historical aspects of the Athletes Heart. MSSE 35(2), 364-370 2003.

Big-hearted Italian Rowers – 1980s Of 947 elite Italian athletes tested, 16 had ventricular wall thicknesses exceeding normal criteria as long as cardiomyopathy. 15 of these 16 were rowers or canoeists (all international medalists). Suggested that combination of pressure in addition to volume loading on heart in rowing was unique, but adaptation was physiological in addition to not pathological. from: Pelliccia A. et al. The upper limit of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. New Engl in addition to J. Med. 324, 295-301, 1991. From: Pelliccia et al. Global left ventricular shape is not altered as a consequence of physiologic remodelling in highly trained athletes. Am. J. Cardiol. 86(6), 700-702, 2000 elite rower untrained control These ultrasound images show the hypertrophied but geometrically similar heart of an elite Italian rower compared to the smaller heart of an untrained subject. Pelliccia et al. Remodeling of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Elite Athletes After Long-Term Deconditioning Circulation. 105:944, 2002 Myocardial adaptation to heavy endurance training was shown to be reversed with detraining. The functional in addition to morphological changes described as the ”Athlete’s Heart” are adaptive, not pathological.

Thank You! This is Ox as long as d. They won. This is Cambridge. They didn’t.

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