18 Gas Exchange in addition to Transport Overview Overview of oxygen in addition to carbon dioxide exc

18 Gas Exchange in addition to Transport Overview Overview of oxygen in addition to carbon dioxide exc www.phwiki.com

18 Gas Exchange in addition to Transport Overview Overview of oxygen in addition to carbon dioxide exc

Holder, Jon, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 18 Gas Exchange in addition to Transport Overview Overview of oxygen in addition to carbon dioxide exchange in addition to transport Figure 18-1 Diffusion in addition to Solubility These are factors that affect diffusion if membrane permeability remains the same Surface area- diffusion rate is proportional to available surface area Constant- remains the same over a long period of time Concentration gradient- diffusion rate is proportional to concentration gradient Most important factor- O2 in addition to CO2 gradients will be present at lung in addition to tissue capillaries Membrane thickness – diffusion rate is inversely proportional which is why walls are so thin Constant- number of cells in walls should not change Diffusion distance- diffusion rate is inversely proportional, another reason why walls are thin Constant

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Movement of Gases These are factors that influence the movement of gasses from air into a liquid Pressure gradient- drives gas flow Solubility- the gas must be able to dissolve in the liquid, diffusion will continue until it reaches equilibrium, increased pressure may dissolve some gas if solubility is low. Temperature- temperature is constant so it doesn’t play a role in the body unless there is pathology Behavior of Gases in Solution Figure 18-2a–c The pressure equilibrium is not the same as the concentration dissolved. Behavior of Gases in Solution Figure 18-2c–d Oxygen is less soluble in water than carbon dioxide

Partial Pressures Gas Exchange at the Alveoli in addition to Cells Figure 18-3 Animation: Respiratory System: Gas Exchange PLAY Gases move from areas of high partial presssures to areas of low partial pressure Venous blood has the same Po2 as tissues Gas Exchange Oxygen diffuses across alveolar epithelial cells in addition to capillary endothelial cells to enter the plasma Figure 18-5 Gas exchange is rapid in addition to blood flow is slow which allows as long as equilibrium in 1 second!

Gas Exchange Hypoxia is not a disease, it is caused by something that decreases diffusion or oxygen deliver, that can cause disease Oxygen Transport Figure 18-6 (3 of 9) 98% of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin in addition to the other 2% is dissolved in plasma Oxygen Transport Figure 18-6 (4 of 9) Because oxygen is not easily dissolve in water, hemoglobin is a protein that binds O2 in addition to dramatically increased the amount of blood in the plasma

Oxygen Transport Figure 18-6 (5 of 9) One reason why blood transfussions are used is to provide hemoglobin as long as efficient O2 transport. Researcher are working on carrier proteins Oxygen Transport Figure 18-6 (9 of 9) Oxygen can travel bound to hemoglobin or to be dissolved in plasma Oxygen Transport The role of hemoglobin in oxygen transport Figure 18-7a This shows that without hemoglobin very little oxygen would dissolve into the plasma- an amount that is not sufficient as long as cell dem in addition to

Oxygen Transport Figure 18-7b In the presence of hemoglobin a higher concentration can be dissolved in blood when pressure equilibrium is reached Oxygen Transport Figure 18-7c If there are no problems with hemoblogin binding oxygen, then low blood oxygen levels could be due to a problem with ventilation The Hemoglobin Molecule The amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin depends on the PO2 of plasma- each hemoglobin can carry 4 oxygen molecules, the % saturation tells how much is carried. Figure 18-8

Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve Figure 18-9 In vitro testing reveals a varying amount of O2 saturation dependent on O2 partial pressure- it doesn’t reach 100% within physiological conditions Oxygen Binding Physical factors alter hemoglobin’s affinity as long as oxygen Figure 18-10a Changes can alter the hemoglobin con as long as mation which influence delivery at tissues more than obtaining oxygen in the lungs. Release more O2 at pH 7.2 (during exercise) than pH7.4 Oxygen Binding Figure 18-10b Higher temperature decreases saturation shifting curve to the right

Oxygen Binding Figure 18-10c Increased CO2 decreases O2 saturation Oxygen Binding 2,3-DPG alters hemoglobin’s affinity as long as oxygen Figure 18-11 Released as a response to low O2 levels as can happen in anemia or high altitudes Oxygen Binding Differences in oxygen-binding properties of maternal in addition to fetal hemoglobin Figure 18-12 Fetal hemoglobin has greater affinity

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Oxygen Binding Factors contributing to the total oxygen content of arterial blood Figure 18-13 Carbon Dioxide Transport Dissolved: 7% – although CO2 is more soluble in plasma than oxygen only a small amount is dissolved in it. Converted to bicarbonate ion: 70% – an enzyme converts of the CO2 in RBCs into bicarbonate Bound to hemoglobin: 23% – Hemoglobin also binds H+ – hemoblogin acts as a buffer binding H+ to resists pH changes Hb in addition to CO2: carbaminohemoglobin – as long as med with CO2 in addition to hemoglobin bind, it decreases affinity as long as O2 Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood Figure 18-14

Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood Figure 18-14 Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood Figure 18-14 Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood Figure 18-14 Reverse chloride shift H+ disassociate H+ combine to as long as m carbonic acid

Regulation of Ventilation Carotid body oxygen sensor releases neurotransmitter when PO2 decreases Figure 18-18 Regulation of Ventilation Central chemoreceptors monitor CO2 in cerebrospinal fluid Figure 18-19 Regulation of Ventilation Chemoreceptors in the brain in addition to outside the CNS response to increased PCO2 Figure 18-20

Holder, Jon Meteorologist

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