19 The Kidneys Functions of the Kidneys Regulation of extracellular fluid volume

19 The Kidneys Functions of the Kidneys Regulation of extracellular fluid volume www.phwiki.com

19 The Kidneys Functions of the Kidneys Regulation of extracellular fluid volume

Huffines, Brad, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 19 The Kidneys Functions of the Kidneys Regulation of extracellular fluid volume in addition to blood pressure – works with CV system to ensure tissues get enough oxygen in addition to BP is within normal values Regulation of osmolarity – blood osmolarity needs to be maintained around 290mOsM Maintenance of ion balance – in response to diet urinary loss helps to maintain proper levels of Na+, K+, Ca 2+ . Homeostatic regulation of pH – they remove either H+ or HCO3- as needed, they don’t correct pH imbalances as effectively as the lungs Excretion of wastes – removes waste molecules dissolved in the plasma like urea (from amino acid breakdown), uric acid (nucleic acid turnover), in addition to creatine (from creatine phosphate breakdown). Production of hormones – erythropoietin (signal RBC production), renin (influence BP in addition to BV), in addition to vitamin D conversion to control Ca 2+ . Anatomy: The Urinary System Figure 19-1a

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Anatomy: The Urinary System Figure 19-1c Cortico & juxtamedullary nephrons Anatomy: The Urinary System Figure 19-1d–e Anatomy: The Urinary System Figure 19-1g–h

Anatomy: The Urinary System Figure 19-1f Kidney Function Figure 19-2 (1 of 4) Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Peritubular capillaries Proximal tubule Bowman’s capsule Collecting duct To renal vein F F Loop of Henle = Filtration: blood to lumen KEY Distal tubule Kidney Function Figure 19-2 (2 of 4) Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Peritubular capillaries Proximal tubule Bowman’s capsule Collecting duct To renal vein F R F R R R R R Loop of Henle = Filtration: blood to lumen = Reabsorption: lumen to blood KEY Distal tubule

Kidney Function Figure 19-2 (3 of 4) Kidney Function Figure 19-2 (4 of 4) Kidney Function The urinary excretion of substance depends on its filtration, reabsorption, in addition to secretion Figure 19-3

Filtration Fraction Figure 19-5 Filtration at the glomerulus Podocytes wrap around fenestrated capilaries creating filtration slits at the glomerulus. Forces that Influence Filtration Hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) – pressure of flowing blood in glomerular capillaries is 55mmHg, it favors the movement of filtrate into Bowman’ Capsule Colloid osmotic pressure –Plasma proteins that enter the capsule create a gradient the favors movement back into the capillaries Fluid pressure created by fluid in Bowman’s capsule – The fluid build-up in the enclosed capsule creates a gradient that favors movement back into the capillaries The combination of these factors causes filtration to return plasma into the capillaries in addition to allow as long as only 20% of the filtered plasma to move along the tubules.

Filtration Filtration pressure in the renal corpuscle depends on hydrostatic pressure, colloid osmotic pressure, in addition to fluid pressure Figure 19-6 Filtration Autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate takes place over a wide range of blood pressure Figure 19-7 Glomerular Filtration Rate Changes GFR is controlled by a myogenic response, tubuloglomerular feedback, hormones in addition to autonomic neurons Changing resistance in arterioles altes the filtration coefficient

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Figure 19-9 Juxtaglomerular cells in addition to Macula densa monitor blood flow in addition to blood pressure along the arteioles. They send chemical signals needed to restore the proper filtration rate Tubuloglomerular Feedback Figure 19-10, steps 1–2 Tubuloglomerular Feedback Figure 19-10, steps 1–4

Tubuloglomerular Feedback Figure 19-10, steps 1–5 (2 of 4) Tubuloglomerular Feedback Figure 19-10, steps 1–5 (4 of 4) Reabsorption Principles governing the tubular reabsorption of solutes in addition to water. Sodium in addition to water always follow each other.Transepithelial transport- (passing through cells)-Substances cross both apical in addition to basolateral membraneParacellular pathway (passing around cells)-Substances pass through the junction between two adjacent cells Figure 19-11

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Reabsorption Saturation of mediated transport Figure 19-14 Transport rate is proportional to plasma concentration until transport saturation=renal threshold Reabsorption Glucose h in addition to ling by the nephron Figure 19-15a This graph does not show saturation at Bowman’s capsule Reabsorption Figure 19-15b Saturation is reached within the proximal tubule

Reabsorption Figure 19-15c Excretion rate shows that no glucose is excreted with when plasma glucose concentration is low. Reabsorption Figure 19-15d Glucose is not secreted When filtration in addition to reabsoption are equal in addition to below threshold there is no secretion. Above that results in glucosuria or glycosuria Secretion Transfer of molecules from extracellular fluid into lumen of the nephron – dependent on membrane transport proteins to move organic compounds Active process – move against concentration gradient in addition to use secondary active transport to move into lumen Secretion of K+ in addition to H+ is important in homeostatic regulation Enables the nephron to enhance excretion of a substance – adds to the substances collected during filtration, making excretion more effective Competition decreases penicillin secretion – doctors combined probenecid with penicillin so it would compete as long as the transporter protein in addition to keep the kidneys from clearing penicillin so quickly.

Excretion The relationship between clearance in addition to excretion is that clearance is the rate of excretion. Different substance have difference clearance. Micturition The storage of urine in addition to the micturition reflex Figure 19-18a Micturition Figure 19-18b

Huffines, Brad Meteorologist

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