23 Endocrine Control of Growth in addition to Metabolism

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23 Endocrine Control of Growth in addition to Metabolism

Jacks, Richard, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 23 Endocrine Control of Growth in addition to Metabolism About this Chapter Adrenal glucocorticoids Thyroid hormones Growth hormone Tissue in addition to bone growth Calcium balance Adrenal Glucocorticoids Structure in addition to function of the adrenal gl in addition to Figure 23-1a

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Cortisol The HPA pathway as long as the control of cortisol secretion CRH- Corticotrophic Releasing Hormone ACTH- Adrenocorticotrophic hormone Cortisol- lipophilic hormone that enters the nucleus in addition to althers gene expression, transcription, in addition to translation Figure 23-3 Cortisol Cortisol receptors are found in every tissue in the body in addition to release varies throughout the day. Cortisol Promotes gluconeogenesis- stimulates the liver to increase blood glucose levels Causes breakdown of skeletal muscle proteins – releases amino acids to act as substrates as long as gluconeogenesis Enhances lipolysis- releases glycerol as long as gluconeogenesis in addition to fatty acids as long as cellular respiration Suppresses the immune system- reduces inflammation in addition to other immune system functions. When used as a medication (ibuprofen) it need to be taper off once not needed. Causes negative calcium balance – reduces absorption in addition to increases bone matrix breakdown Influences brain function – affect mood, memory, in addition to learning.

Cortisol: Therapeutic Drug Suppresses the immune system – prevents cytokine & antibody production, helps prevent organ rejection, Inhibits the inflammatory response – reduced the mobility of leukocytes Used to treat: Bee stings, poison ivy, in addition to pollen allergies Prevents rejection of transplanted organs Hypercortisolism Figure 23-5 Adrenal tumor that autonomously secretes cortisol- primary hypercortisolism Pituitary tumor that autonomously secretes ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)- secondary hypercortisolism Cushing’s disease- hyperglycemia, muscle breakdown, lipolysis, extra fat in trunk in addition to face, Iatrogenic hypercortisolism- resulting from cortisol therapy (exogenous cause) Individual with Cushing’s Syndrome cause by adrenal or pituitary tumor Hypocortisolism Less common than Cushing’s syndrome Addison’s disease- hereditary defects in enzymes needed to make the steroid hormones Hyposecretion of all adrenal steroid hormones Autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex

CRH Family CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) – is involved in the following: Inflammation in addition to immune response Decreases food intake Signals that mark onset of labor Linked to anxiety, depression, in addition to other mood disorders Urocortin: brain neuropeptide related to CRH ACTH in addition to Melanocortins ACTH- secretion stimulated by CRH Synthesized from POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin) POMC products include -endorphin- an opiate that blocks pain Processed in tissue outside the pituitary- produces different molecules Additional processing creates -MSH- it inhibits food intake in brain in addition to acts on melanocytes in skin Melanocortins Family name as long as the MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) hormones in addition to ACTH there are five melanocortin receptors in the adrenal gl in addition to in addition to skin cells (melanocytes) Thyroid: Structure Figure 23-7a

Thyroid Thyroid hormones are made from iodine in addition to tyrosine- they are thermogenic so they increase O2 as long as oxydative phosphorylation. Thyroid hormones synthesis takes place in the colloid of the thyroid follicle Figure 23-8 Pathway of Thyroid Hormone Control Figure 23-12 Negative feedback mediated by thyroid hormones reaches the hypothalamus to stop production at the pituitary. In thyroid disorders negative feedback is removed Hyperthyroidism Affects: metabolism, the nervous system, & the heart Increases oxygen consumption in addition to metabolic heat production – patients have a high metabolism in addition to since they generate a lot of heat they don’t tolerate hot environments well. Increase protein catabolism in addition to may cause muscle weakness – the body breaks down the protein in muscle cells which also causes weight loss. Hyperexcitable reflexes in addition to psychological disturbances – may affect the nervous tissue structure in addition to receptors. Influence -adrenergic receptors in the heart – increases heart rate in addition to contraction as long as ce

Thyroid Exophthalmus, caused by hypertrophy of tissues in the eye socket, is a sign of hyperthyroidism Figure 23-15 Hypothyroidism Slow metabolic rate in addition to oxygen consumption – less tolerant to cold because they don’t generate much internal heat due to lower metabolic rate. Decreases protein synthesis – causing brittle nails, thinning hair, dry thin skin, in addition to myxedema. In children it retards growth. Slowed reflexes, slow speech in addition to thought processes, in addition to feelings of fatigue – nervous response is slower or less efficient Cretinism in infants- decreased mental capacity Bradycardia – slower heart rate Thyroid A man with goiter due to excessive TSH stimulation –immunoglobulins released in hyperthyroidism mimic TSH in addition to stimulate thyroid enlargement (Grave’s Disease) may also be caused by excess thyroid-stimulation in hypothyroidism Figure 23-13

Thyroid Goiter can occur in both hyperthyroidism in addition to hypothyroidism Figure 23-14a Normal Growth Growth hormone in addition to other hormones – GH, thyroid hormones, insulin, in addition to sex hormones at puberty are important as long as normal growth in addition to development. An adequate diet – sufficient calories, protein, vitamins in addition to minerals provide the building blocks as long as proper growth. Absence of stress – stressful environments cause children to release cortisol which stunts growth Genetics – height potential is inherited Pathway of Growth Hormone Control Figure 23-16 Growth hormone promotes anabolism of proteins. It is released by anterior pituitary in addition to IGF provides negative feedback cycles. GH is bound to a binding protein to keep it from being excreted in urine in addition to to increase its lifetime.

Growth Hormone In adults, pulses of GH are released during the first two hours of sleep. The greatest amount of GH release occurs during puberty. Growth Hormone Severe GH deficiency leads to dwarfism Oversecretion of GH in children leads to giantism Oversecretion of GH in adults leads to acromegaly Tissue in addition to Bone Growth Growth is determined by increase in soft tissue (weight) in addition to bone length (height) Tissue growth requires hormones in addition to paracrines GH in addition to IGFs required as long as protein in addition to cell division as long as hypertrophy in addition to hyperplasia Thyroid hormone plays permissive role- directly affects nervous system development Insulin supports tissue growth- stimulates protein synthesis in addition to provides energy, has a permissive role Bone growth requires adequate dietary calcium Hydroxyapatite- most common as long as m of calcium review parts of a long bone as covered in anatomy

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Bone Growth Compact in addition to trabecular bone Figure 23-18 Bone length increases at the epiphyseal plate in addition to diameter with matrix deposits around surface Bone growth Linear growth of long bones takes place at the epiphyseal plates- sex hormones eventually inactivate epilhyseal plates. Figure 23-19 Calcium Important signal molecule – increased Ca 2+ concentrations allows as long as cell responses like exocytosis in addition to muscle contraction. Active transport is needed to decrease cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration. Part of intercellular cement that holds cells together at tight junction – integrated component of the cell junction protein structure Cofactor in the coagulation cascade – The body will always have enough calcium to mediate coagulation Affects the excitability of neurons – hypocalcemia causes the NS to become hyperexcitable, thus increasing muscle contraction. Hypercalcemia cause NS to be hypoexcitable causing depressed neuromuscular activity.

Calcium Balance in the Body Figure 23-20 (2 of 5) Calcium in the ECF is either bound to proteins or free to diffuse. Calcium in ICF is stored in mitochondria, or ER, or free in cytosol Calcium Balance in the Body Figure 23-20 (3 of 5) Bone is largest calcium reservoir. It is stored as hydroxyapartite crystals. Calcium is released to maintain plasma levels Calcium Balance in the Body Figure 23-20 (4 of 5) Only 1/3 of the calcium ingested is absorbed. Absorption is regulated by a hormone. A healthy diet needs to be high in calcium in order to match the amount excreted

Calcium Balance Calcium in addition to phosphate homeostasis are linked- most phosphate in the body is found in bone, it is processed similarly in the same three organs that process calcium by the same hormones. Phosphate is key ingredient of hydroxyapatite Phosphate has other roles Energy transfer in addition to storage Activation in addition to deactivation of enzymes, transports, in addition to ion channels Part of DNA in addition to RNA backbone Osteoporosis Normal bone (left) in addition to bone loss in osteoporosis (right) Figure 23-24

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