9 The Central Nervous System Emergent Properties Emergent properties of neural n

9 The Central Nervous System Emergent Properties Emergent properties of neural n www.phwiki.com

9 The Central Nervous System Emergent Properties Emergent properties of neural n

Sealls, Alan, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 9 The Central Nervous System Emergent Properties Emergent properties of neural networks: Inexplicable properties –the structural components of a neuron cannot explain the complex responses produced during neural processing/integration Neuron circuits – a single neuron cannot fully per as long as m its function, thus its optimal per as long as mance has to be within a circuit Plasticity- allows the brain to change from circuit to circuit depending on sensory input in addition to past experience Arrangement of Nervous System Pathways

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Spinal Cord Protection Neural Tissue: Metabolic Needs Oxygen Passes freely across blood-brain barrier Brain receives 15% of blood pumped by heart Glucose Brain responsible as long as about half of body’s glucose consumption Membrane transporters move glucose from plasma into the brain interstitial fluid Hypoglycemia leads to confusion, unconsciousness, in addition to death Spinal Cord: Overview Central nervous system, posterior view Figure 9-4a The spinal cord has two enlargements in addition to ends in the lumbar region. Spinal nerves are part of the PNS in addition to carry both sensory in addition to motor neuron fibers.

Spinal Cord: Anatomy Specialization in the spinal cord Figure 9-7a Spinal Cord: Anatomy Figure 9-7b Propriospinal tracts remain within the cord Tracts carry in as long as mation in only one direction along a specified path of interneuron connections. Spinal Cord: Anatomy Figure 9-7c (1 of 2)

Spinal Cord: Integrating Center Figure 9-8 Simple reflexes can be integrated by the spinal cord without input from the brain Anatomy of the Brain Figure 9-9d Oldest in addition to most primitive region of the brain. Ascending in addition to descending tracts pass through the brain stem. The Brain: The Brain Stem Divided into three regions- medulla oblongota, pons, in addition to midbrain Each region contains cranial nerves & nuclei that control autonomic function Many nuclei are associated with reticular as long as mation- white fibers what interconnect different areas throughout the brain. Medulla Oblongata- controls involuntary funtions in addition to connects to spinal cord. Somatosensory (ascending) in addition to corticospinal (descending) tracts in white matter Pyramids- area where the fibers cross over thus the many functions are controlled by the opposite side of the brain.

2. Reticular as long as mation- These are clusters of neurons (white matter) that run through the core of the brainstem. Involved in maintaining the brain alert, arousal, in addition to sleep. It also control visceral functions like heart rate & vomiting. A motor tract goes down the spinal cord in addition to is involved in movement. Reticular Formation Cranial Nerves 10 of 12 cranial nerves originate along brain stem. Create flash cards as long as the nerves on table 9.1, be able to identify their location, origin & destination, function, type of in as long as mation each nerve carries Mid-sagittal View of the Brain

The Brain: Diencephalon Figure 9-10 Thalamus is a relay in addition to integrating station Hypothalamus is the homeostasis center in addition to also controls behavior related to homeostasis Two endocrine structures: pineal in addition to pituitary gl in addition to . The Brain: Hypothalamus The hypothalumus contains many nuclei that focus on the specific functions listed here. Make flashcards of the info on this table The Brain: Cerebellum Lateral view of brain The cerebellum coordinates movement- also processes sensory in as long as mation in addition to motor input from the cerebrum; it smoothes in addition to coordinates movement. Figure 9-9b

Cerebral Mid-Sagittal View Figure 9-9c Corpus Callosum is white matter that connects the two hemispheres Sulci= grooves Gyri= convolutions White Matter in the cerebrum contains fibers that connect various brain areas Gray Matter of the Cerebrum Figure 9-11 Cerebral cortex is 30 layers thick in addition to it’s the site of higher brain function. The level of processing is directly related to the surface area Basal ganglia- neural calculators that control movement

The Brain: The Limbic System Emotion, memory, learning, in addition to visceral responses Links higher cognitive functions in addition to primitive emotional responses Incorporates sensory areas, basal ganglia, in addition to the diencephalon (hypothalamus) relates state of mind to physiological functions Figure 9-13 Brain Function: complex processing in addition to responses The brain may generate in as long as mation in addition to output signals in the absence of external input Motor output is influenced by sensory in as long as mation, cognition, in addition to behavior. Thus cognitive input may influence the motor output sent without sensory input. Brain Function: Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Figure 9-15 Specialized sensations have separate designated areas on the cortex

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Brain Function: Cerebral Cortex Three specializations – Sensory, Motor, in addition to Association (cognition in addition to behavior). Sensory areas – stimulus activates sensory receptors, info travels in ascending pathways in addition to stops at the cerebellum or sensory areas of cerebrum Sensory input translated into perception – brain’s interpretation of various input regions Motor areas – info travels in descending pathways, cross-over at brainstem or spinal cord, in addition to reaches muscles or gl in addition to s Direct skeletal muscle movement – initiated by cognitive system based on input from cerebral motoer ares, cerebellum, & basal ganglia Association areas – Integrate in as long as mation from sensory in addition to motor areas – Can direct voluntary behaviors – control over conscious actions Specialized Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Body map along the Precentral in addition to Postcental Gyrus

Brain Function: Sensory In as long as mation Primary somatic sensory cortex- found on the post-central gyrus (parietal lobe) Skin, musculoskeletal system, in addition to viscera- components that send in as long as mation to this region when a stimulus activates a sensory receptor Somatosensory pathways – carry in as long as mation of senses in conscious awareness of general somatic sense, damaged in brain area causes reduced sensitivity in opposite side Touch Temperature Pain Itch Body position Brain Function: Sensory In as long as mation Special senses have devoted regions – Visual cortex –Occipital lobe (Visual Assosiaction area in addition to Visual cortex) Auditory cortex – Temporal lobe (Auditory association area in addition to Audiotory Cortex Olfactory cortex- Temporal lobe (uncus) Gustatory cortex – Frontal lobe Processed into perception – allows the stimulus to be translated into a different aspect (photons=colors) in addition to “fills-in” missing in as long as mation. Perception is the brains interpretation of sensory input in addition to it is not directly dictated by the input Brain Function: Motor Output Three major types Skeletal muscle movement Somatic motor division, involves voluntary actions processed at cerebrum or reflexes processed at the spinal cord Neuroendocrine signals Hypothalamus in addition to adrenal medulla- secrete neurohormones that influence motor output Visceral responses Autonomic division- brains stem in addition to diecephalon stimulate involuntary muscle in addition to gl in addition to s to maintain involuntary actions needed as long as function of internal organs in addition to homeostasis Voluntary movement Primary motor cortex in addition to motor association- contralateral control, also influence by behavioral in addition to cognitive system

Cognitive State: Learning in addition to Memory Learning has two broad types Associative – links two stimuli or a stimulus to a behavior Nonassociative- change behavior due to repeated exposure Habituation – do not respond to an irritant stimulus, filters out insignificant stimulus Sensitization- enhanced response to irritant stimulus, helps avoid harmful stimuli Memory has several types Short-term in addition to long-term- combined by working memory, consolidation turns short-term into long term. Changes in synaptic connections are required Reflexive in addition to declarative- requires unconscious (procedural) or conscious recall (infer, compare, evaluate). Declarative can become reflexive Brain Function: Memory Processing Memory is stored as memory traces Figure 9-22 Brain Function: Language Cerebral processing of spoken in addition to visual language Damage to Wernicke’s causes receptive aphasia- unable to underst in addition to spoken or visual in as long as mation Damage to Broca’s area causes expressive aphasia- can underst in addition to in as long as mation but cannot speak or write in proper order, are aware of mistakes Figure 9-23a

Sealls, Alan Meteorologist

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