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A Pre-UNCTAD XII event On Science, Technology, Innovation in addition to IC
College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, A Pre-UNCTAD XII event On Science, Technology, Innovation in addition to ICTs in consideration of Development Room XXVI – Palais des Nations Geneva, 6th December 2007 Session 2: Development-oriented Policies in consideration of a Global, Inclusive Information Society ICT in consideration of Innovation Systems – Comparative Experiences from Developing Countries Angathevar Baskaran Middlesex University Business School, London, UK Conceptual Issues How much does ICT form an integral part of the national system of innovation of the selected economies? How does country-specific particular innovation systems work so that facilitate or hinder ICT development? And conversely, how does ICT also influence in addition to shape the country?s innovation system? Examine this relationship by taking empirical account of a group of economies in addition to try so that draw principally comparative insight by focusing on each country?s approach separately. Conceptual Issues What constitute National Innovation System in addition to how so that apply in addition to integrate it so that study technology accumulation in addition to socio-economic development. Configuring NIS so that give it a global or broader framework by identifying meta elements Linking NIS so that ICT elements Technology specific system, i.e. ICT ? identifying major elements in addition to broader socio-economic goals
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Main Objectives: Whether the perception of ICT as a tool in consideration of all round socio-economic development is being reflected by the ground level developments/ realities. Or it is just a misplaced in addition to over hyped ?faith? in a technology that is never going so that deliver what it promises. While recognising the potential of ICT so that contribute towards socio-economic development, we would like so that challenge the view that ICT is the cure in consideration of all kinds of ills in the world thorough empirical investigation. Country Studies: Brazil, China, India, South Africa, Thailand in addition to Southern African Countries ICT in addition to National Innovation System A specific technology, left so that itself or on its own is neither good nor bad. What is important is how a technology is designed, developed, employed, in addition to whether it can lead so that wider social benefits. ICT is believed so that have the potential so that transform socio-economic conditions of the people. But on its own ICT is not going so that bring about socio-economic transformation. It requires appropriate institutional, social, political, in addition to cultural environment so that accomplish this. This environment is created by the national innovation system. National Innovation System National innovation system, we would argue, is not just a tool so that achieve the narrow goal of industrial/economic competitiveness, But it is about achieving a broader development in addition to wider social benefits.
National Innovation System 1 Conceptual framing within politics in addition to economics system 2. Co-evolution of Institutions/ Technological Cap./ Knowledge 3. Incentives 4. Implementation/ Learning/ Outcomes 5. Feedback / Socio-economic Changes Major Elements of National Innovation System (NIS) Conceptual Framing: Ideas, policies need so that be linked so that a conceptual framing of how economics in addition to politics are co-governed and/or co-evolved. Responding so that opportunities, dealing alongside challenges require policies so that be rooted in a conceptual framework that governs the dynamic interaction between a nation?s political in addition to economic change. Co-evolution of Institutions, Technologies, in addition to Knowledge: Need strong interaction, linkages, synergies, in addition to co-ordination so that achieve coherent co-evolution leading so that an efficient innovation system in addition to higher level of technology accumulation. Incentives: Appropriate incentives so that achieve co-evolutionary dynamics between institutions, technologies, in addition to knowledge production by linking economic in addition to non-economic agents so that meet stated goals in addition to objectives. Major Elements of National Innovation System (NIS) Implementation in addition to Learning: Implementation of strategies, policies, projects, in addition to programmes should include feedback mechanisms (review, monitoring, in addition to feedback) leading so that learning outcomes. Ability so that learn – self learning in addition to ability so that take corrective measures are imperative in consideration of building technological capabilities in addition to embed innovation dynamics in both narrow industrial in addition to broader socio-economic development. Socio-economic Changes: Learning outcomes could lead so that different types of socio-economic changes ? corrective, adaptive, evolutionary, structural, contingent, in addition to so on. Transformation: When results in the most dramatic positive change of political/socio-economic system (but it is unlikely so that happen often). Regressive: When results in negative rather than positive impact on political/ socio-economic system.
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Institutions, Technology, Incentives in addition to Linkages in National Innovation System (NIS) Infrastructure: Science & Technology, Intellectual Property Rights, Government Policy, ICT, in addition to Culture. Investment: R&D Expenditure in addition to Government R&D Support, Venture Capital, in addition to FDI. Knowledge in addition to Talent: Education in addition to Human Resources development, in addition to Labour Flexibility. Relations in addition to Linkages: University-Industry Linkages, Public R&D in addition to Industry, Globalisation of MNC R&D, Transnational Networks.
Linkage between National Innovation System in addition to Technology Specific System (ICT) Positive Side: On the extreme positive side, national system of innovation in addition to the ICT specific system are strong in addition to show a high degree system synergy. This results in greater success in meeting both industrial related economic growth in addition to broader social-economic objectives. In such environment, ICT can play a very positive role. Linkage between National Innovation System in addition to Technology Specific System (ICT) Negative Side: On the extreme negative side, synthesis between broader NIS in addition to ICT specific system is weak in addition to they work in disharmony. In this case, both NIS in addition to ICT will not lead so that fulfilment of either narrow or wider social-economic objectives. Instead of positive contribution, ICT can play a negative role. Between these two extremes: it is possible there are varying degrees of system synergy in addition to synthesis between NIS in addition to ICT specific system. If this is relatively high, then some industrial in addition to social objectives may be fulfilled but not all. If this is low, only few objectives can be realised.
Change in Perception of ICT: From Economic Growth so that Broader Social-economic Development Until the early 1990s computer in addition to telecommunications (mobile) technologies were viewed narrowly as new opportunities in consideration of industrial in addition to export growth. Since the mid 1990s, increasingly ICT is being perceived by the national governments in addition to international organisations as a vehicle in consideration of not only industrial economic growth (in terms of exports in addition to employment), but also in consideration of achieving wider socio-economic development. G7/G8 Summit held in Okinawa in 2000 The Millennium Declaration (Target18) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) World Bank International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Various UN agencies have been promoting the application of ICT
Major Elements in ICT System Industrial growth through ICT (narrow objective): ICT industry, R&D performing institutions, incentive structures, ICT human resources in addition to the supporting institutions. Socio-economic goals (broader objective): local in addition to provincial govt. agencies, non-govt. agencies, R&D organisations, industry, ICT human resources, easy in addition to cheap access so that ICT, local involvement in addition to awareness, in addition to development of ICT infrastructure at the local level (rural areas). When the inter linkages are stronger between various elements, then it leads so that an efficient ICT innovation system. When the linkages between them are weaker or when some actors are absent (or not strong), then it is likely so that lead so that an uneven or lopsided ICT innovation system. Results from Country Studies The NIS in all countries except Southern African countries have shown Lopsided in addition to uneven characteristics, alongside distinctive national patterns of evolution. It appears that the effort so that foster technology specific system ICT in these countries has not reduced the lopsided or uneven feature of the national innovation systems. However, there have been quantifiable achievements in both industrial-economic growth in addition to broader social-economic goals in nearly all the case countries. In the case of Southern Africa, because of in addition to so that overcome their weak or absent national innovation systems, the countries appear so that have turned towards a regional approach so that foster ICT knowledge -innovation. Case Study of Brazil: Findings After liberalization, sophisticated telecom innovation system that was developed over many years was totally disarticulated. Telecom infrastructure started growing rapidly, but access remained uneven or lopsided, service tariffs remained high. Govt. trying so that address this through initiatives such as ?Universal Access Plan?. IT policies in the 1980s had built up a significant capabilities in small computers, peripherals, various types of automation equipment. Most Brazilian hardware makers disappeared after liberalization. Only software in addition to computer services industries experienced some growth, hardware industry never recovered the dynamism of the 1980s; several R&D teams were dismantled in addition to R&D investment declined.
Case Study of Brazil: Findings In case of wider access so that computers, internet, increasing IT literacy, e-commerce, in addition to e-governance: Made significant progress, still faces serious challenges. Internet users, telephone lines in addition to mobile phones per 1000 population registered significant increase. Due so that low levels of general literacy in addition to prohibitive cost of computers, IT literacy in addition to skills are below target levels. Diffusion of ICT was affected in addition to hampered by very uneven income distribution. Large sections of northern in addition to central parts do not have access so that ICT. Trying so that foster collaboration between public in addition to private sector so that successfully implement ICT programmes. But private sector participation was not at expected level. Majority of the Brazilian population is still very much excluded from the information economy in addition to society. Case Study of China: Findings Government played an instrumental role in actively pursuing the goal of ?ICT in consideration of development?. China gradually built up a comprehensive ICT infrastructure. A ?top-down? approach, where central government guides ICT development through a mixture of investment, intervention in addition to policy initiatives, while local governments come up alongside implementation. Implementation often start alongside pilot projects so that allow learning in addition to gaining of experience before they are spread so that the whole country. ?Localisation? of ICT policies is encouraged so that make the ICT application better suited so that local conditions in addition to needs. But overlapping responsibilities between ministries appear so that have led so that tensions which reduced the effectiveness of implementation. Case Study of China: Findings Liberalization brought only limited competition in the telecommunication sector, more liberalization in addition to competition is needed. Given the stronger innovation capability in addition to efficiency of foreign companies, Chinese ICT companies have so that improve their competitiveness so that be able so that survive. On the other hand, opening up will bring more opportunities in consideration of Chinese companies so that collaborate alongside foreign companies. China?s effort in bridging ?digital divide? has seen initial results, but the gap still appears so that be large. Diffusion of ICT depends on people?s ICT literacy. This is an area China needs so that make significant investment. Although ICT has the potential so that narrow the gap between the higher efficiency in addition to lower efficiency tiers of national innovation system, so far it has achieved only limited success in this area.
Case Study of India: Findings Comprehensive policy framework so that build a strong ICT industry in addition to so that achieve socio-economic transformation in addition to so that make India a ?knowledge superpower?. State has played a vital role in developing the technology specific system – ICT. Implemented a number of policies in addition to programmes towards achieving these goals. Created a strong ICT industrial base in addition to capacity so that compete in some areas such as IT software in addition to ITES-BPO in the global market. Does not appear so that have achieved same level of capacity in the area of utilising ICT in consideration of socio-economic changes. Case Study of India: Findings However, a number of initiatives (national, regional, in addition to local level) have been taken in e-education, e-health, e-government, in addition to so on in addition to some progress appears so that have been made. These are unevenly spread across the country. Succeeded when local people were clearly informed of their benefits in addition to where there were local participation in addition to good co-ordination in addition to understanding between local people in addition to the officials. Significant progress in facilitating universal access so that ICT, particularly in the areas of mobile telephones, TVs, computers, in addition to internet. Still most of the rural population in addition to sizeable urban population have no access so that ICT. Case Study of South Africa: Findings Formulated a strong policy/institutional framework in consideration of developing an efficient technology specific system – ICT. Like its uneven/lopsided national innovation system, the technology specific system – ICT has proved more efficient only in certain areas in addition to inefficient in many other areas. In ICT industrial sector, there has been significant growth in terms of turnover, exports in addition to employment, particularly in the area of software. But the industry lacks the necessary competitiveness so that operate at a higher level of value chain in addition to technological complexity. In socio-economic development in addition to ICT diffusion, collaborative approach so that designing in addition to implementing projects by the government, private sector, in addition to non-government (non-profit sector) agencies have been working successfully.
Case Study of South Africa: Findings Number of collaborative ICT projects in the area of e-education, e-health, e-government, IT literacy, in addition to IT skills creation have been implemented at different levels (national, provincial, in addition to local). But their impact is not yet fully evaluated or clear. However, there have been significant achievements in ICT usage like the increase in the use of fixed in addition to mobile phones, computers, internet, IT literacy in addition to IT skills. Large sections of people in addition to the country, particularly rural areas, have no access so that ICT in addition to they are not even aware of the benefits of ICT. Technology specific system – ICT in South Africa has not been able so that remove the historical imbalances in the sector. ICT definitely has the potential so that reduce certain economical, social in addition to regional disparities, but it is unlikely so that solve fundamental problems such as rural poverty in addition to under development in addition to imbalances in health care in addition to education. Case Study of Thailand: Findings Since 1990s, two ICT master plans, together alongside the establishment of the ICT Ministry, in addition to more structured ICT institutional framework. While ICT policies have been relatively well formulated, the actual implementation has not been systematically monitored or evaluated. Made significant progress in fostering ICT in consideration of development, but there are still major weaknesses. Electronics sector, the number one exporting industry, appears so that be locked up in the lower end of the value chain, notwithstanding recent evidence suggesting an upward mobility along the value chain. Software industry in addition to ICT services are still lagging behind other countries of the region. Access so that ICT is still largely confined so that relatively a small section of the society, mainly due so that low income level in addition to slow spread of computer literacy. Case Study of Southern African Countries: Findings Southern African economies are generally too small in addition to lack necessary institutional infrastructure so that design effective ICT policies on their own. Regional initiatives have proved so that be a key means so that develop harmonised frameworks that serve as a basis in consideration of national ICT policies. Regional economic communities have been the foundation in consideration of horizontal cooperation so that emerge in addition to in consideration of regional collaborative e-projects. These projects need coordination among themselves. Otherwise, Southern African countries might end up alongside several pieces of redundant infrastructure. Role of NEPAD in addition to its e-Africa Commission in overseeing the priorities, overlaps in addition to gaps of infrastructure e-projects becomes crucial.
Policy makers should not ignore the limitations of ICT in addition to should strive so that integrate it alongside other national policy frameworks so that solve the problems of poverty, inequality, exclusion in addition to division. Unless development of ICT is also shaped within a socially in addition to politically framed national system of innovation, it is likely so that create more diseconomies than economies. Where the value added from the ICT would come would be when it is integrated alongside the national innovation system so that achieve what Friedrich List called mental capital building as a means of wealth accumulation.
Lowrey, Kristen Managing Editor
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Journal Ratings by College of St. Benedict and St. John’s University
This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Case Study of India: Findings Comprehensive policy framework so that build a strong ICT industry in addition to so that achieve socio-economic transformation in addition to so that make India a ?knowledge superpower?. State has played a vital role in developing the technology specific system – ICT. Implemented a number of policies in addition to programmes towards achieving these goals. Created a strong ICT industrial base in addition to capacity so that compete in some areas such as IT software in addition to ITES-BPO in the global market. Does not appear so that have achieved same level of capacity in the area of utilising ICT in consideration of socio-economic changes. Case Study of India: Findings However, a number of initiatives (national, regional, in addition to local level) have been taken in e-education, e-health, e-government, in addition to so on in addition to some progress appears so that have been made. These are unevenly spread across the country. Succeeded when local people were clearly informed of their benefits in addition to where there were local participation in addition to good co-ordination in addition to understanding between local people in addition to the officials. Significant progress in facilitating universal access so that ICT, particularly in the areas of mobile telephones, TVs, computers, in addition to internet. Still most of the rural population in addition to sizeable urban population have no access so that ICT. Case Study of South Africa: Findings Formulated a strong policy/institutional framework in consideration of developing an efficient technology specific system – ICT. Like its uneven/lopsided national innovation system, the technology specific system – ICT has proved more efficient only in certain areas in addition to inefficient in many other areas. In ICT industrial sector, there has been significant growth in terms of turnover, exports in addition to employment, particularly in the area of software. But the industry lacks the necessary competitiveness so that operate at a higher level of value chain in addition to technological complexity. In socio-economic development in addition to ICT diffusion, collaborative approach so that designing in addition to implementing projects by the government, private sector, in addition to non-government (non-profit sector) agencies have been working successfully. and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.