A well constructed focus question introduces a topic area, in addition to prompts clear in addition to specific responses, while also allowing a diversity of responses whereby this, “allows the voices of the participants to be heard.”

A well constructed focus question 		introduces a topic area, in addition to prompts clear in addition to specific responses, while also allowing a 		diversity of responses whereby 		this, “allows the voices of the participants to be heard.” www.phwiki.com

A well constructed focus question introduces a topic area, in addition to prompts clear in addition to specific responses, while also allowing a diversity of responses whereby this, “allows the voices of the participants to be heard.”

Chen, George, Contributing Music Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal P154 Felipe González Castro, M.S.W., Ph.D., Professor Department of Psychology in addition to Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center Arizona State University, & Tanya Nieri, Ph.D., Assistant Professor Department of Sociology, University of Cali as long as nia Riverside Theory, Methods in addition to Applications Presentation at the Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, August 14, 2009, El Paso, TX I Purpose of This Workshop The purpose of this workshop is to introduce in addition to illustrate an Integrative Mixed-Methods (IMM) approach, in addition to to allow participants to utilize this approach in their own research. This includes: Introducing conceptual, methodological, in addition to applied issues Underst in addition to ing the strategy as long as integrating qualitative in addition to quantitative evidence (data) Discussing in addition to illustrating data analytic in addition to interpretive approaches Describing in addition to illustrating the IMM methodology including practice exercises

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1. To provide a framework as long as underst in addition to ing the IMM approach 2. To review issues in the conceptualization in addition to measurement under the IMM approach 3. To examine research design in addition to implementation issues 4. To offer interactive question- in addition to -answer periods to discuss issues in the application of the IMM approach. 5. To present practice exercises in the use of the IMM methodology. Overview of Workshop Objectives Qualitative Rich details of a phenomenon under study Contextualization Meaning in addition to interpretation Quantitative Valid in addition to reliable measurement Assessment of strength of associations Group comparisons Hypothesis testing Strengths of Quantitative in addition to Qualitative Approaches Aims of general mixed-methods approaches are to obtain “the best of both worlds” by using both qualitative in addition to quantitative procedures within a single study (Bryman, 2007). Limitations of quantitative only studies Measurement decontextualizes evidence Results may be precise, but nevertheless lacking in explanatory power. Advantages of Mixed-Methods Approaches Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative in addition to qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 8-22.

Limitations of qualitative only studies Difficulties in integration across cases Cannot examine strength of associations among variables Conclusions are suggestive, not confirmatory Small sample sizes greatly limit generalizability in addition to applicability. Limitations of sequential mixed-methods designs (Bryman, 2007) Limitations of Qualitative in addition to Quantitative Approaches Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to integrating quantitative in addition to qualitative research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 8-22. Integrative Mixed-Methods aims to be a “best combination” design Strength of confirmatory results derived from the quantitative analyses Deep-structure explanatory descriptions from analysis of the qualitative text narratives Offers a concurrent in addition to integrative methodology as long as rigorous analyses that aim to attain, “the best of both methodologies: An integrative QUAL+QUANT design (Castro, Kellison, Boyd & Kopak, under review). Advantages of Mixed-Methods Approaches Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology as long as conducting integrative mixed-methods research in addition to data analyses. Allows greater authenticity in the study of culture, cultural nuances Facilitates a “deep-structure” study of complex constructs Acculturation: A complex process of culture change Traditionalism: Core cultural orientations in addition to values that persist across time Cultural Gender Roles: Machismo, Marianismo Cultural Identity: Mexican, Mexican American, Puerto Rican conceptions in addition to feelings about that identity. Specific Gains from the IMM Approach

Allows process analysis of developmental sequences Short-term coping processes Longer-term developmental effects Allows analysis of complex emotional states Ambivalence: The mixed emotion Complex emotional states: Depression with anger vs. depression with anxiety Specific Gains from the IMM Approach Allows discovery of new aspects not previously identified Can recontextualize results of quantitative analyses adding depth of meaning Recontextualization “relates results of data analyses to their original context in addition to lends depth of interpretation to the quantitatively derived results.” (Castro et al., under review; Castro & Coe, 2007). Storylines: Allow deep-structure analysis of quantitative results by generating a descriptive story from the narratives of specific cases The text narratives of contrasting groups of cases can used to develop storylines. Specific Gains from the IMM Approach

II 1. Broad conception of measurement (“integrative qual-quant” approach): Two as long as ms of research evidence 2. Focusing the method- Format of the focus question 3. Independence of observations/cases: A “Focus Group of One.” Unit of analysis is individual case. Major Assumptions Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann M. L., & Hanson W. E. (2003). Advances in mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddle (Eds.), H in addition to book of mixed methods in social in addition to behavioral research (pp. 209-240). Thous in addition to Oaks, CA: Sage. 4. Recurring themes exposed independently reflect consensual “cultural expressions” (beliefs, perceptions, attitudes, values) that exist within a local community 5. Rigor is essential in qualitative ( in addition to quantitative) design in addition to analyses 6. “Concurrent Qual-Quant Design” allows transfer across evidence domains Major Assumptions Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann M. L., & Hanson W. E. (2003). Advances in mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddle (Eds.), H in addition to book of mixed methods in social in addition to behavioral research (pp. 209-240). Thous in addition to Oaks, CA: Sage.

Castro, F. G., & Coe, K. (2007). Traditions in addition to alcohol use: A mixed-methods analysis. Cultural Diversity in addition to Ethnic Minority Psychology13. 269-284. , Conceptual Framework as long as IMM Research 7. Parallelism between qualitative in addition to quantitative “The greater the quantitative-qualitative parallelism incorporated a-priori into a study design, the easier it will be to trans as long as m in addition to transfer the textual in addition to numeric as long as ms of evidence.” (Castro et al., under review). 8. Unified conceptualization of in as long as mation as research evidence with verbal in addition to numeric as long as ms Conceptual Framework as long as IMM Research Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology as long as conducting integrative mixed-methods research in addition to data analyses. Focus on a core construct, e.g., traditionalism or machismo Six stages of an IMM research study Can examine relationships among variables, e.g., convergent in addition to discriminant validity of constructs, both as long as those quantitatively measured (scales) in addition to those qualitatively constructed (thematic variables) (Castro et al., under review). Conceptual Framework as long as IMM Research Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology as long as conducting integrative mixed-methods research in addition to data analyses.

Newly generated thematic variables are sample specific The quality of probing influences narrative production in addition to depth Face validity of the constructed thematic variables; are they valid beyond face validity, e.g., construct validity Focus question approach suited to some, but not all, research questions IMM is an emerging in addition to evolving methodology with some issues still being addressed in addition to resolved. Limitations of the IMM Method Deep Structure in Cultural Research “Culture” is a complex entity with many conceptions in addition to definitions (Baldwin & Lindsey, 1994). Scientific research that effectively addresses cultural issues must recognize the complexity of culture, in addition to conduct a “deep structure” approach (Resnicow, Braithwaite, Ahluwalia, & Butler, 2000) to the study of cultural effects in addition to cultural contexts. How can we integrate quantitative in addition to qualitative evidence in addition to methods into an integrative methodology that also constitutes sound science Baldwin, J.R., & Lindsley, S.L. (1994). Conceptualizations of culture. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. Resnicow, K., Soler, R., Braithwaite, R. L., Ahluwalia, J. S. & Butler, J. (2000). Cultural sensitivity in substance use prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 271-290.

To generate recurring thematic content derived inductively across cases, in addition to from open-ended responses to one or more focus questions (group-related thematic categories). In a “focus group of one,” each focus question introduces a topic area, e.g., “What is a real macho like A real macho is: -, which allows rich responses to that question. Independent interviews (independent data points) allow the statistical analysis of inductively constructed thematic variables. Aims in Deep Structure Cultural Research Simple “cultural indicators” e.g., race/ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic white, Black) even in large sample epidemiologic studies may offer high “predictive power” (power to detect or relate) but often yields low “explanatory power.” The meaning of a statistically-significant association may be limited. Explanatory Power in addition to Process Analysis Ecological Contexts Context : 1. refers to “ surrounding conditions that can affect a specific process or outcome (Castro, Shaibi & Boehm-Smith, 2009, p. 91). 2. refers to “conditional effects a health outcome is dependent on the particular level of a specific or controlling condition that affects the outcome.” 3. characteristics or conditions “can temper or even modify the meaning of [an] event.” Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehn-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts as long as preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino in addition to other racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 89-105.

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Sociocultural contexts are “surrounding” macro-level environmental influences that can influence or otherwise modify the meaning of a micro-level event (an event at the biological, personal, or familial levels). Ecodevelopmental Model An Ecodevelopmental Temporal Effects Model Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehn-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts as long as preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino in addition to other racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 89-105. An Ecodevelopmental Temporal Effects Model Castro, F. G., Shaibi, G. Q., & Boehn-Smith, E. (2009). Ecodevelopmental contexts as long as preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino in addition to other racial/ethnic minority populations. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 89-105.

In addition to generating specific confirmatory results, the integrative mixed-methods approach aims to generate results rich in explanatory power: A more complete explanation of: A complex construct A sociocultural process Complex interaction effects Aims of the Integrative Mixed Methods Approach Castro, F. G., Kellison, J., Boyd, S., Kopak, A. (under review). A methodology as long as conducting integrative mixed-methods research in addition to data analyses. The mixed-methods approach (Creswell et al, 2003; Hansen et al, 2005) can be more in as long as mative in identifying person x situation aspects of health (Creswell et al., 2003; Hansen et al., 2005). As applied to health research, the mixed methods approach can uncover previously undetected thematic patterns that exist within special populations. Assumptions in addition to Approach Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddle (Eds.), H in addition to book of mixed methods in social in addition to behavioral research (pp. 209-241). Thous in addition to Oaks, CA: Sage. Hansen, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Petaka, K. S., & Creswell, J. D. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 224-235. Starting with an Appreciation as long as Culture Value of cultural factors as an important in scientific research, especially with special populations. Devaluing cultural factors promotes culturally-shallow research. Incorporating cultural factors from the beginning; at the stage of research conceptualization in addition to design. Need rigor in both the design in addition to implementation of qualitative in addition to quantitative aspects of the research study.

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