A105 Stars in addition to Galaxies Today’s APOD Announcements SOLAR LAB Wednesday @2 PM

A105 Stars in addition to Galaxies Today’s APOD Announcements SOLAR LAB Wednesday @2 PM www.phwiki.com

A105 Stars in addition to Galaxies Today’s APOD Announcements SOLAR LAB Wednesday @2 PM

Hayes, Sherron, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal A105 Stars in addition to Galaxies Last units: 81, 82, 83, 84 Complete Nov. 21 NQ by TONIGHT FINAL NQ AVAILABLE WEDS MORNING, ONLINE LAST(!) homework due Thursday Projects due THURSDAY Today’s APOD Announcements SOLAR LAB Wednesday @2 PM The BIG BANG Theory What is the Big Bang Theory Overview The Universe began at a certain point in time The Universe began in a hot, dense state The Universe is exp in addition to ing The Universe is evolving The Universe is cooling as it exp in addition to s What evidence leads us to the Big Bang Theory Olber’s Paradox The Expansion of the Universe The Cosmic Microwave Background The Helium Abundance

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Olber’s Paradox You are lost in a very large as long as est The as long as est is uni as long as mly dense with trees What do you see Why Is the Sky Dark IF: The universe is infinite The universe is filled with galaxies, clusters of galaxies, in addition to superclusters The universe is eternal in addition to unchanging Olbers’ Paradox If universe were 1) infinite 2) unchanging 3) everywhere the same Then, stars would cover the night sky everywhere

The Resolution of Olber’s Paradox The Universe has a finite age (about 14 billion years We can only see objects that are less than 14 billion light years from us Only those objects are close enough that their light has had time to travel to us This solution was first proposed by Poe in 1848 The Universe cannot be infinitely old. The Expansion of the Universe The spectral lines of galaxies are redshifted – galaxies are moving away from us. The velocity of recession depends on the distance to the galaxy: the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it recedes from us! Hubble’s Law The correlation discovered by Hubble was reported in 1929 as the as long as mula: Velocity of Recession = Ho x Distance Ho is now know as the Hubble constant, in addition to is measured in kilometers per second per megaparsec

The Hubble constant gives us the age of the Universe Velocity X Time (age) = Distance Age = Distance/Velocity Velocity = 45,000 km/sec Distance = 700 Mpc x 3×1019 km/Mpc Age = (2 x 1022 km) / (4.5 x 104) km/sec = 0.4 x 1018 seconds = 1.3 x 1010 years More Evidence as long as the Big Bang The cosmic microwave background radiation In 1965, two engineers at AT&T’s Bell Labs in New Jersey were puzzled by a constant “noise” in a microwave antenna they were calibrating The cosmic microwave background – the radiation left over from the Big Bang – was detected by Penzias & Wilson in 1965

A Serendipitous Discovery in addition to a Nobel Prize The noise could not be explained by terrestrial or extraterrestrial sources. It seemed to be everywhere Penzias in addition to Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics as long as their discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation A uni as long as m, faint signal from all over the sky The CMB In 1989, NASA launched the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite to study the spectrum of the CMB COBE showed that the CMB has a perfect thermal spectrum at a temperature of 2.726 K Cold! No natural object in the Universe can be colder than this (why not) Spectrum of a 2.726 K degree blackbody COBE data points The existence of the CMB shows that the universe was hot in addition to dense in the distant past Wilkinson MICROWAVE Anisotropy Probe The microwave light that we detect has been stretched out as the universe has exp in addition to ed, so light that was once very short wavelength is now reaching us as microwaves.

The expansion of universe has stretched the wavelength of thermal radiation from the early universe to ~1000 times longer wavelength: visible/IR light has become microwave light Background has perfect thermal radiation spectrum at temperature 2.73 Kelvin COLD! Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe The microwave light captured in this picture is from 380,000 years after the Big Bang, over 13 billion years ago WMAP, a later NASA mission, shows us the beginning of cosmic structure in the Universe. Structure began as tiny temperature differences from place to place. The temperature differences WMAP sees vary by only millionths of a degree. A baby picture of the Universe Imagine a temperature map of the Earth in June 1992 WMAP makes a similar map of the sky

What are we seeing in the baby picture The microwave radiation comes from the time when the temperature of the Universe became low enough as long as atoms to as long as m (about 3000K) Matter became transparent, allowing light to travel great distances It is like seeing the bottom layer of clouds on an overcast day. Background radiation from Big Bang has been freely streaming across universe since atoms as long as med at temperature ~ 3,000 K: visible/IR Background Radiation More evidence as long as the Big Bang: The Helium Fraction The amount of helium compared to hydrogen as long as med as hot, primordial energy cools in addition to as long as ms into matter can be predicted by physical laws The fraction of helium in the Universe can be measured with observations The observed abundances of elements support the predictions of the Big Bang theory

In the hot early universe, protons in addition to neutrons combined to make long-lasting helium nuclei when universe was ~ 3 minutes old Nuclear physics shows us how to predict the amounts of hydrogen in addition to helium that will be produced Big Bang theory prediction: 75% H, 25% He (by mass) Matches observations of nearly primordial gases Abundances of other light elements agree with Big Bang model having 4.4% normal matter The abundances depend on the density of the Universe when nuclei first as long as med Deuterium Helium-4 Helium-3 Lithium-7

Hayes, Sherron WJBB-FM News Director www.phwiki.com

Conclusion: The “Big Bang” Expansion implies a beginning, assuming that the universe has been exp in addition to ing since it came into being Scientists call the beginning of our universe the Big Bang. The term was coined by British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle in the 1940s (on a BBC broadcast!) The Big Bang represents a hot, dense primordial state of high energy (but not an explosion) Summary – Strong evidence supports the Big Bang Theory The Universe is exp in addition to ing ( in addition to cooling) from an initial, dense state Radiation left over from the Big Bang is now detected in the as long as m of microwaves—the cosmic microwave background—which we can observe with a radio telescope Observations of helium in addition to other light elements agree with the predictions as long as fusion in the Big Bang theory The Future The universe is exp in addition to ing, but the expansion should slow due to the gravitational attraction of all the matter in the Universe Will it continue to exp in addition to OR will the expansion slow down in addition to reverse due to gravity Does the expansion exceed the “escape velocity” of the universe

Will the Universe Keep Exp in addition to ing Or Re-Collapse it depends on the density of the Universe The critical density in the current epoch is 10-29 g/cm3, about one hydrogen atom per cubic meter About 25 times more than the observed mass of stars in addition to gas But what about dark matter there isn’t quite enough to re-collapse the Universe But the universe isn’t even slowing down . Coping with a misconception If the Universe is exp in addition to ing, what it is exp in addition to ing into NOTHING!!!! All of space came into being at the moment of the Big Bang. Space itself is exp in addition to ing Balloon Model What aspects of the universe were unexplained with the first Big Bang theory Where does structure come from Why is the overall distribution of matter so uni as long as m Why is the density of the universe so close to the critical density The Big Bang theory isn’t complete yet

The History of the Universe in 200 Words or Less Quantum fluctuation. Inflation. Expansion. Strong nuclear interaction. Particle-antiparticle annihilation. Deuterium in addition to helium production. Density perturbations. Recombination. Blackbody radiation. Local contraction. Cluster as long as mation. Reionization Violent relaxation. Virialization. Biased galaxy as long as mation Turbulent fragmentation. Contraction. Ionization. Compression. Opaque hydrogen. Massive star as long as mation. Deuterium ignition. Hydrogen fusion. Hydrogen depletion. Core contraction. Envelope expansion. Helium fusion. Carbon, oxygen, in addition to silicon fusion. Iron production. Implosion. Supernova explosion. Metals injection. Star as long as mation. Supernova explosions. Star as long as mation. Condensation. Planetesimal accretion. Planetary differentiation. Crust solidification. Volatile gas expulsion. Water condensation. Water dissociation. Ozone production. Ultraviolet absorption. Photosynthetic unicellular organisms. Oxidation. Mutation. Natural selection in addition to evolution. Respiration. Cell differentiation. Sexual reproduction. Fossilization. L in addition to exploration. Dinosaur extinction. Mammal expansion. Glaciation. Homo sapiens manifestation. Animal domestication. Food surplus production. Civilization! Innovation. Exploration. Religion. Warring nations. Empire creation in addition to destruction. Exploration. Colonization. Taxation without representation. Revolution. Constitution. Election. Expansion. Industrialization. Rebellion. Emancipation Proclamation. Invention. Mass production. Urbanization. Immigration. World conflagration. League of Nations. Suffrage extension. Depression. World conflagration. Fission explosions. United Nations. Space exploration. Assassinations. Lunar excursions. Resignation. Computerization. World Trade Organization. Terrorism. Internet expansion. Reunification. Dissolution. World-Wide Web creation. Composition. Extrapolation Copyright 1996-1997 by Eric Schulman . Last units: 81, 82, 83, 84 Complete Nov. 21 NQ by TONIGHT FINAL NQ AVAILABLE WEDS MORNING, ONLINE LAST(!) homework due Thursday Projects due THURSDAY

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