Abdomen & GI system RT 91- Pathology Spring 2013 Regions & Quadrants of Abdo

Abdomen & GI system RT 91- Pathology Spring 2013  Regions & Quadrants of Abdo www.phwiki.com

Abdomen & GI system RT 91- Pathology Spring 2013 Regions & Quadrants of Abdo

Holifield, Lisa, News Director/Afternoon News Anchor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Abdomen & GI system RT 91- Pathology Spring 2013 Regions & Quadrants of Abdomen Contents of Abdominal Cavity Digestive system Stomach in addition to Intestines Hepatobiliary System Liver, gallbladder, & pancreas Urinary system Kidneys, ureters in addition to bladder Circulatory system spleen

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Gastrointestinal System Alimentary tract- serves to digest & absorb food Consists of Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach SM & LG bowel Rectum Small Bowel 21 FT long Duodenum Duodenal c-loop ends at ligament of Treitz Jejunum Connects to ileum Ileum Terminates at ileocecal junction Large Intestine 6 FT long Extends from ileocecal junction Ascending colon (hepatic flexure) Transverse colon (splenic flexure) Descending colon Sigmoid Rectum Anus Hepatic flexure Splenic flexure Sigmoid

Congenital in addition to Hereditary Anomalies Esophageal Atresia Looping of the feeding tube 2. Atypically short esophagus & terminates in blind pouch 2. Air in stomach Esophageal Atresia Congenital anomaly Esophagus fails to develop past some point Symptoms come soon after birth Salivation, gagging, choking, dyspnea, cyanosis

Tracheoesophageal Fistula Tracheoesophageal Fistula Duodenal Atresia On x-ray a “double-bubble” sign is demonstrated gas in stomach is one bubble Gas in proximal duodenum is the second bubble

Duodenal Atresia Congenital anomaly Lumen of duodenum does not exist Resulting in a complete bowel obstruction Colonic Atresia Colonic Atresia Congenital failure of development of the distal rectum & anus Frequent complication includes fistula as long as mation to the genitourinary system Must be repaired surgically

Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric canal leading out of the stomach is greatly narrowed Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis Congenital anomaly of the stomach Pyloric canal leading out of the stomach is greatly narrowed because of hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter Most common indication as long as surgery in infants Malrotation Small bowel on right in addition to colon on left Cecum is not located in the RLQ Malrotation Intestines are not in their normal position Usually asymptomatic Can lead to bowel volvulus or incarceration of bowel Surgery is required with a resection of bowel involved Cecum on left

Hirschsprung’s Disease Megacolon Dilated sigmoid colon with massive amounts of feces Narrowed segment just below the dilatation Feces Narrowing Dilated Sigmoid Hirschsprung’s Disease AKA Congenital Megacolon Absence of neurons in the bowel wall This absence prevents normal relaxation of the colon & subsequent peristalsis Results in gross dilatation Meckel’s Diverticulum Congenital diverticulum of the distal ileum Is remnant of a duct connecting the SB to the umbilicus in the fetus

Holifield, Lisa WAPI-AM News Director/Afternoon News Anchor www.phwiki.com

Celiac Sprue X-rays show segmentation of the barium column, flocculation (resembling tufts of cotton) & edematous mucosal changes Celiac Sprue Hereditary disorder with increased sensitivity to gluten Interferes with normal digesting in addition to absorption of food Inflammatory Disease

Esophageal Strictures X-rays show peristalsis is transitory Contour appears ragged Esophageal Strictures Caused by ingestion of caustic materials Household cleaners Detergents Sulfuric acid Sodium hydroxide Burns the esophagus causing edema, swelling, & possible per as long as ation Requires repeated dilatation GERD Incompetent cardiac sphincter allowing backward flow of gastric acid in addition to food into esophagus Heartburn Reflux may not be evident with barium swallow but strictures & ulcers may be present

US imaging of Abdomen & GI Not useful in imaging of the GI system Extensively used to image the retroperitoneum because of the flexibility of angling the transducer With this modality it is possible to image behind the bowel & assess as long as abnormalities Nuclear Medicine imaging as long as Abdomen & GI Useful is detecting: GI bleeds Gastric emptying time Presence of H. Pylori Infection from gastric ulcers PET has been known to demonstrate 20% of esophageal cancer undetected by CT Endoscopic Procedures Fiberoptic tube device to look inside hollow organs or cavities Upper endoscopy can see esophagus, stomach, duodenum & proximal jejunum Colonoscopy to the terminal ileum Small bowel is still out of reach Capsule endoscopy is a camera pill that is swallowed in addition to takes pictures of the GI tract Drawbacks include inability to biopsy area in addition to locate pathology Insurance reimbursement Also used as long as several therapeutic applications Biopsies Stent placement Polyp removal Stone removal

Holifield, Lisa News Director/Afternoon News Anchor

Holifield, Lisa is from United States and they belong to WAPI-AM and they are from  Birmingham, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Holifield, Lisa deal with the subjects like International News; Local News; National News; Regional News

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