Abnormal Psychology, Twelfth Edition Chapter Outline Science in addition to Scientific Methods Case Study Correlational Method
Walker, Stephanie, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 4 Research Methods in the Study of PsychopathologyAbnormal Psychology, Twelfth Edition by Ann M. Kring,Sheri L. Johnson, Gerald C. Davison,& John M. Neale Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter OutlineChapter 4: Research Methods in the Study of Psychopathology I. Science in addition to Scientific Methods II. Approaches to Research on Psychopathology III. Integrating the Findings of Multiple Studies© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Science in addition to Scientific MethodsScience = to knowThe systematic pursuit of knowledge through observationScientists gather data to test theoriesTheorySet of propositions developed to explain what is observedA good theory is falsifiableAllows as long as disconfirmationHypothesesSpecific predictions about what will occur if a theory is correct© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Table 4.1: Approaches to Research on Psychopathology© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Case StudyDetailed biographical description of an individualFamily history Medical statusEducational in addition to work backgroundIn as long as mation about peer in addition to romantic relationshipsPersonality in addition to adjustment issuesCurrent difficulties in addition to prior experiences in therapy Usefulness Rich description, especially helpful as long as rare disordersDisprove hypothesisGenerate hypothesesLimitationsParadigm may influence observationsCannot rule out alternative explanationsCannot prove hypothesis© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Correlational MethodDo variable X in addition to variable Y vary together Are they related in a systematic wayDo people who experience more stress have more headaches Variables measured but not manipulatedCannot determine cause or effect© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Figure 4.1: Correlational vs. Experimental Studies© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Measuring CorrelationCorrelation Coefficient (r.)Varies from -1.0 to +1.0e.g., -1.0, -0.65, -0.33, 0, +0.22, +0.70, +1.00StrengthThe higher the absolute value, the stronger the relationship(-0.9 > +0.6; +0.9 > -.08)DirectionPositiveHigher scores on Variable X associated with higher scores on Variable Y NegativeHigher scores on Variable X associated with lower scores on Variable Y© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Figure 4.3: Scatter Diagrams© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Statistical in addition to Clinical SignificanceStatistical significanceProbability .05Can be influenced by number of participantsLarger samples increase likelihood of significanceClinical significanceIs the association meaningful as well as statistically significant© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Problems of CausalityCorrelation does not imply causalityDirectionality problemVariable X may cause Variable Y Variable Y may cause Variable XThird-variable problemVariable Z causes both Variable X in addition to Variable Y© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional DesignsLongitudinalStudies participants over timeExamines whether causes are present be as long as e disorder develops High-Risk MethodInclude only those who are at greatest likelihood of developing a disorderReduces the cost of longitudinal researchCross-sectionalCauses in addition to effects measured at the same timeConfoundsThird variable may produce changes in two correlated variables© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Epidemiological ResearchEpidemiologyStudy of the distribution of disorders in a population in addition to possible correlatesThree features of a disorderPrevalenceIncidenceRisk FactorsThe National Comorbidity SurveyReplicationLarge-scale national surveyUsed structured interviews to collect in as long as mation on the prevalence of several diagnoses (Kessler et al., 2005).© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Table 4.4: Lifetime Prevalence Rates of Selected Disorders© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Correlational Research: Behavioral GeneticsMethods to determine genetic predisposition (concordance) to psychopathologyFamily MethodTwin MethodAdoptees Method© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Correlational Research: Behavioral GeneticsFamily studiesFirst-degree relatives (parents, children, siblings)50% shared genesSecond-degree relatives (aunts, uncles, gr in addition to parents)25% shared genesIndex cases/Prob in addition to sSample of individuals with psychopathologyTwin studiesMonozygotic (MZ) or identical twins100% shared genesDizygotic (DZ) or fraternal twins50% shared genesConcordance Co-occurrence or similarity of diagnosisAdoption studiesStudy of adoptees who have biological parents with psychopathologyCross-fosteringStudy of adoptees who have adoptive parents with psychopathology© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Correlational Research: Molecular GeneticsAssociation studiesExamine the relationship between a specific allele in addition to a trait or behavior in the populationGenome-wide association studies (GWAS)Examines the entire genome of a large group of people to identify variations between people© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
The ExperimentProvides in as long as mation about causal relationshipsInvolves:R in addition to om assignmentIndependent variable (manipulated variable)Dependent variable (measured variable)Can evaluate treatment effectivenessExperimental EffectDifferences between groups© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Basic Features of Experimental DesignThe investigator manipulates an independent variable.Participants are assigned to the conditions by r in addition to om assignment.Researcher measures a dependent variable that is expected to vary with conditions of the independent variable.Experimental effectDifferences between conditions on the dependent variable© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Figure 4.4: Health Center Visits Be as long as e/During Experiment© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
The ExperimentInternal validityExtent to which experimental effect is due to independent variableControl GroupParticipants who do not receive treatmentSt in addition to ard against which treatment effectiveness is judgedExternal validityExtent to which results generalize beyond the studyWould results apply to others besides the study participants © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Experimental Research: Treatment OutcomesResearch designed to answer the question: Does treatment workEmpirically supported treatmentsTreatment ManualsControl Groups PlaceboDouble-blind procedureSample CompositionExclusion of diverse populationsEfficacy in addition to EffectivenessNeed as long as dissemination © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Figure 4.5: Treatment Outcomes© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Table 4.5: Examples of Empirically Supported Treatments as long as Adult Disorders© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Table 4.7: Percentage of People Seeking Treatment by Country© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Analogue ExperimentExperiments not always possible in psychopathologyEthical or practical constraintsExamine related or similar behavior in the labInduce temporary symptomsRecruit participants with similarities to diagnosable disordersCollege students who tend to be anxious or depressedAnimal research© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Single-Case Experimental ResearchExamine how individual participants respond to changes in the independent variable.Reversal (ABAB) DesignThe reversal technique not always possible Initial state may not be recoverable© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Integrating Findings from Multiple StudiesMeta-analysisIdentify relevant studiesCompute effect sizeTrans as long as ms results to a common scaleSmith et al. (1980)Meta-analyzed 475 outcome studiesInvolved 25,000 subjectsResults: Psychotherapy is effective© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Table 4.8: Meta-analysis: One-year Prevalence Rates as long as Mental Illness across 21 European studies© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
COPYRIGHT Copyright 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any as long as m or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any in as long as mation storage in addition to retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner.© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
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