Acid-Base Physiology The pH of the body is controlled by 3 systems: The chemical

Acid-Base Physiology The pH of the body is controlled by 3 systems: The chemical

Acid-Base Physiology The pH of the body is controlled by 3 systems: The chemical

Holmes, Stinson, On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Acid-Base Physiology The pH of the body is controlled by 3 systems: The chemical acid-base buffering by the body fluids that immediately combine with acids or base to prevent excessive changes in pH. The respiratory center which regulates the removal of volatile CO2 as a gas in the expired air from the plasma in addition to there as long as e also regulates bicarbonate (HCO3-) from the body fluids via the pulmonary circulation. This response occurs in minutes. The kidneys which can excrete either acid or alkaline urine, thereby adjusting the pH of the blood. This response takes place over hours or even days, but represent a more powerful regulatory system. Acid-base Distrubances in the pH The abnormal loss of acid (as in vomiting gastric HCl) or addition of a weak base can lead to the condition of Metabolic Alkalosis: increasing pH above 7.4. In contrast, abnormal removal of HCO3- or another alkali or addition of acids other than CO2 or H2CO3 (as can happen in renal failure) can lead to Metabolic Acidosis: decreasing pH below 7.4. Since the pH of a CO2/HCO3- solution depends upon the ratio of these 2 buffer pairs, in addition to because the lungs control CO2, but the kidney controls HCO3, the overall description of their interaction might be described as pH = k + KIDNEY / LUNG (Not a real reaction equation, but rather a descriptive relationship between the regulating components of pH in the body)

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Respiratory Acidosis is the inability of the lungs to eliminate CO2 efficiently; so the equilibrium shifts toward increased H+ in addition to HCO3-; there as long as e, pH decreases. Respiratory Alkalosis is excessive loss of CO2 through ventilation driving the equilibrium to the left away from H+ there as long as e, pH increases. Respiratory Alkalosis: CO2 + H2O H+ + HCO3- Respiratory Acidosis: CO2 + H2O H+ + HCO3- Normally, 1.2 M/L of CO2 is dissolved in plasma, which is a pCO2 of 40 mmHg. In biological systems, the total buffering of pH in addition to the effects of acid-base disturbances is due to a complex interaction of many buffering systems, open in addition to closed, with differing buffering capacities. all HB (n+1) H+ + all B (n) Predictions of the effects of these disturbances is done using a “Davenport Diagram.” Combining chemical buffers with CO2/HCO3 such that CO2 + H2O HCO3- + H+ + B(n) HB(n+1) Now, the final pH depends on two buffering pathways that affect the [H+] with two different equilibria equations. Davenport diagram: the blue curve is the pCO2 isobar represents the relationship between pH in addition to HCO3 at a pCO2 of 40 mmHg. Orange line is in respiratory alkalosis (pCO2 = 20). The green line is respiratory acidosis. These occur due to changing pCO2 via altered respiratory function

In the right panel. The red lines represent the influence of non CO2/HCO3- buffering systems. Point A1 would occur if these did not exist. Point A if these exist at 25 mM/pH (normal as long as whole blood) , in addition to A2 if these buffering systems were infinite. Note that this red line to point A is shown in panel A in addition to describes the changing buffer capacity of the non CO2/HCO3- systems during each respiratory disturbance. The Davenport Diagram is a nomogram to predict the different “disturbances” in acid base balance, based on the blood pH in addition to the amount of HCO3- in solution. Acidosis will shift the balance to the left, in addition to alkalosis will shift it to the right. Since respiratory disturbances will shift the amount of HCO3- in solution the opposite of CO2, then respiratory acidosis will be in the top left, in addition to respiratory alkalosis in the lower right corner of the nomogram. Partial pressures of CO2 Respiratory responses occur along this axis as the pH will be inversely related to the lungs ability to eliminate CO2

After the acute changes in buffering pH with chemical acid-base buffering systems, the LUNGS represent the second line of regulation of pH. Increased pCO2 will lead to a decrease in pH. The lungs ability to release CO2 from the blood allows it to regulate pH, as increased ventilation will vent CO2, increase pH by adjusting the [H+]. CO2 + H2O H+ + HCO3- CO2 is constantly as long as med in the cells as the by-product of metabolic processes. There as long as e there is a constant need to get rid of it. If the metabolic as long as mation of CO2 increases, the pCO2 increases, in addition to the ventilation rate must increase to accommodate this change to try in addition to bring the extracellular fluid into equilibrium. Also, the [H+] can affect the ventilation rate, since ventilation rate is directly stimulated by the pO2 because the pH directly affects the solubility of blood as long as O2. Increased pH decreases O2 in addition to reflexively increases ventilation rate to increase O2 intake, thereby venting out CO2. Negative feedback loop of H+ in addition to alveolar ventilation

The respiratory buffering system is a buffering system with limited gain; ie, it can’t completely compensate as long as changes in pH (only 50-75% compensation), but the relative speed at which it can make significant changes in pH makes it efficient, in addition to helps buffer pH changes until the renal excretion of acids in addition to bases comes into play. Abnormalities in respiratory function reduce the efficiency of this buffering system (such as emphysema or a smokers lung) , in addition to drive the body toward a constant state of respiratory acidosis. Cigarettes smoke also has a high concentration of CO2, making things even worse. Thus, in these conditions the body becomes heavily dependent on the ability of the kidney to compensate as long as the inability of the lungs to buffer excess H+. RENAL CONTROL OF ACID-BASE BALANCE The kidneys control acid-base balance by excreting either an acidic or basic urine. The kidney filters large volumes of HCO3- in addition to the extent to which they are either excreted or reabsorbed determines the removal of “base” from the blood. The kidney secretes large numbers of H+ into the tubule lumen, thus removing H+ from the blood. The “gain” of the adjustment of pH by the kidney in addition to the acid base balance it regulates is nearly infinite, which means that while it works relatively slowly, it can COMPLETELY correct as long as abnormalities in pH. The “metabolic” or renal regulation of the balance of H+ or HCO3- excreted will determine if there is a net loss of H+ or HCO3-, in addition to will determine the pH of the urine. CO2 + H2O H+ + HCO3- Filtered Secreted Urine (excreted) Nephron Reabsorbed Note: the renal regulation of the equilibrium between H+ in addition to CO2 takes place on the “right” side of the equation

Overall, the kidneys must excrete H+ in addition to prevent the loss of HCO3-. Filtered HCO3- must react with secreted H+ in order to be reabsorbed as H2CO3 The nephrons must secrete a total of 4,320 mEq of H+/day in order to complex with HCO3- to reabsorb (almost all of) it. In addition, an additional 80 mEq/day of H+ is secreted to facilitate the excretion of non-volatile acids (products of protein metabolism that can not be expired via the lung). Thus, the kidney must secrete a total of 4,400 mEq/day of H+ into the tubular fluid. The kidneys regulate extracellular fluid pH by secreting H+, reabsorbing HCO3-, in addition to producing new HCO3- During alkalosis, excess HCO3- is not bound by H+, in addition to is excreted, effectively increasing H+ in the circulation in addition to reversing the alkalosis. In acidosis, the kidneys reabsorb all the HCO3- in addition to produce additional HCO3-, which is all added back to the circulation to reverse the acidosis. H+ is secreted in addition to HCO3- reabsorbed in all segments of the kidney except as long as the thin limbs of the loop of Henle. (however, HCO3- is not readily permeable through the luminal membrane).

H+ is secreted via a Na-H counter-transport process, coupled to the active movement of Na into the cell via the basalateral Na-K ATPase. HCO3- reabsorption is facilitated by the enhanced conversion of CO2 to H2CO3 (normally slow) via the enzyme carbonic anhydrase PROXIMAL H+ Reabsorbed as Complexed Secreted filtered CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- Once CO2 enters the cell, it can be quickly driven in the reverse reaction to as long as m carbonic acid (normally very slow) due to the intracellular enzyme carbonic anhydrase) in addition to this pushes the reaction to as long as m HCO3- in addition to H+ to be taken back into the Inside the cell; Carbonic anhydrase CO2 + H2O —> H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- Secreted back Into the lumen Reabsorbed into the circulation Note; this process is all driven by the active transcellular movement of Na+ The as long as mation of H+ inside the cell provides a gradient as long as the secretion of more H+ into the lumen to complex with in addition to reabsorb more HCO3- In the intercallated cells of the distal tubule, a H/Cl co-transport is involved with H+ secretion. DISTAL H+ This distal pathway accounts as long as only 5% of secreted H+ but the H+ gradient it can as long as m is 900X so it is a major site as long as creating an acidic urine pH 4.5

In general (under “normal” conditions), the amount of HCO3- filtered in addition to the amount of H+ secreted are similar (they are said to “titrate” each other), though there is a slight excess of H+ secreted in addition to excreted. This is not as H+, but rather complexing with other buffers such as phosphate or NH3 to be excreted. In metabolic alkalosis, the filtered HCO3- exceeds the secreted H+, in addition to there as long as e the HCO3- is excreted in the urine (making it more alkaline). This loss of excess base will slowly correct the metabolic alkalosis. In metabolic acidosis, the excess secreted H+ results in total reabsorption of HCO3-, in addition to the excess H+ is excreted in the urine (making it more acidic). This loss of excess acid will slowly correct the acidosis. The urine can only accommodate a small % of free H+ in solution, so much of the H+ to be excreted must complex with other buffering bases to facilitate its excretion. The major such buffers are phosphates in addition to NH3, but other lesser buffers including urate in addition to citrate also combine with H+ to get it out into the urine. The buffering of H+ by phosphate in addition to urea in the tubular fluid also contribute to the generation of new HCO3-. The process of driving CO2 to secrete a H+ produces HCO3 de-novo Phosphate buffering in addition to secretion of H+

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AMMONIUM GENERATES HCO3- Ammonium (NH4+) is produced from the cellular metabolism of glutamine in all nephron segments. Ammonium is secreted into the lumen, in addition to 2 HCO3- ions are as long as med in addition to reabsorbed NH3 buffers secreted H+ in the collecting duct Secreted H+ combines with NH3 which freely diffuses into the lumen from cells to complex with H+ in the lumen to as long as m NH4+ which is trapped in the lumen in addition to excreted. Again, the loss of a H+ from the cell creates de-novo synthesis of a HCO3- molecule to be reabsorbed. Note that “metabolic acidosis in addition to alkalosis move I an axis related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb HCO3-. Acidosis occurs when plasma HCO3- is low, while alkalosis occurs when it is high in addition to there the ratio to H+ in the nephron is also high.

Metabolic Acidosis occurs when the kidneys fail to excrete acids as long as med in the body, or there is excess ingestion of acids, or the loss of bases from the body. Renal Tubular Acidosis: due to a defect in H+ secretion or HCO3- reabsroption. Diarrhea: Excess HCO3- loss into the feces without time to reabsorb (most common cause). Diabetes mellitus: In the absence of normal glucose metabolism the cells metabolize fats in addition to as long as m acetoacetic acid, reducing pH, in addition to inducing renal acid wasting. Chronic renal failure: decreased renal function results in acid build-up in the circulation in addition to reduced HCO3- reabsorption. Acid ingestion: toxins such as aspirin or methyl alcohol result in excess acid as long as mation. Metabolic Alkalosis: occurs when there is excess retention of HCO3- or excess loss of H+ from the body. Diuretic therapy: many diuretics increase tubular flow, resulting in increased Na load, increased Na reabsorption in addition to there as long as e increased HCO3- reabsorption. Excess Aldosterone: which promotes excess Na reabsorption in addition to stimulates H+ secretion. Vomiting: loss of the acidic contents of the stomach creates a depletion of H+ which is compensated as long as by removing more H+ from the circulation. Ingestion of alkaline drugs such as Na HCO3- used as long as upset stomachs in addition to ulcers. Analysis of simple acid base disorders in addition to how they are compensated as long as by the body.

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