Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker Aspen at Elba 23 May 2002 Core notions as long as the LIG

Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker Aspen at Elba 23 May 2002 Core notions as long as the LIG www.phwiki.com

Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker Aspen at Elba 23 May 2002 Core notions as long as the LIG

Leighton, Carolyn, Founder/Chairwoman/CEO has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker Aspen at Elba 23 May 2002 Core notions as long as the LIGO Lab future Evolution intrinsic to LIGO mission: to enable the development of gravitational wave astronomy Next step in detector design: Should be of astrophysical significance if it observes GW signals or if it does not Should be at the limits of reasonable extrapolations of detector physics in addition to technologies Should lead to a realizable, practical instrument Much ef as long as t is inextricably entwined with LSC research LIGO Lab in addition to other LSC members in close-knit teams R&D in addition to designs discussed here are from the Community – including the Lab Choosing an upgrade path Wish to maximize astrophysics to be gained in the coming decade Must fully exploit initial LIGO Any change in instrument leads to lost observing time at an Observatory Studies based on LIGO I installation in addition to commissioning indicate 1-1.5 years between decommissioning one instrument in addition to starting observation with the next Want to make one significant change, not many small changes Technical opportunities in addition to challenges Can profit from evolution of detector technologies since the freezing of the initial LIGO design ‘Fundamental’ limits: quantum noise, thermal noise, Newtonian background provide point of diminishing returns ( as long as now!)

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Present, Advanced, Future limits to sensitivity Advanced LIGO Seismic noise 4010 Hz Thermal noise 1/15 Shot noise 1/10, tunable Initial Advanced: factor <1000 in rate Facility limits Gravity gradients Residual gas (scattered light) Beyond Adv LIGO Seismic noise: Newtonian background suppression Thermal noise: cooling of test masses Quantum noise: quantum non-demolition Top level per as long as mance & parameters Anatomy of the projected detector per as long as mance Seismic ‘cutoff’ at 10 Hz Suspension thermal noise Internal thermal noise Unified quantum noise dominates at most frequencies ‘technical’ noise (e.g., laser frequency) levels held, in general, well below these ‘fundamental’ noises Design overview 200 W LASER, MODULATION SYSTEM 40 KG SAPPHIRE TEST MASSES ACTIVE ISOLATION QUAD SILICA SUSPENSION Advanced LIGO Development Team Interferometer Sensing & Control 40m Lab as long as Precision Controls Testing: Infrastructure has been completed (i.e. PSL, vacuum controls & envelope, Data Acquisition system, etc.) Begun procurement of CDS in addition to ISC equipment Working on the installation of the 12m input MC optics in addition to suspensions, in addition to suspension controllers by 3Q02 Signal in addition to power recycling Considering DC (fringe offset) readout GEO 10m “proof of concept” experiment: Preparation proceeding well Results as long as 40m Program in early 2003 (lock acquisition experience, sensing matrix selection, etc.) Seismic Isolation Choice of 10 Hz as long as ‘seismic wall’ Allows Newtownian background to dominate Low Frequency regime may pursue suppression Achieved via high-gain servo techniques, passive multiple-pendulum isolation Isolation design has 3 stages: External pre-isolator: reduces RMS, 0.1 10 Hz Two in-vacuum 6 DOF stages, ~5 Hz natural resonant frequency, ~50 Hz unity gain Hierarchy of sensors (position, Streckeisen seismometers, L4-C geophones) Second-generation prototype in assembly in addition to test at Stan as long as d Seismic Isolation: Pre-Isolator External pre-isolator development has been accelerated as long as possible deployment in initial LIGO to address excess noise at LLO Feedback in addition to feed- as long as ward to reduce RMS Hydraulic, electro-magnetic variants Prototype to be tested in LASTI mid-2002 Initial LIGO passive SEI stack built in the LASTI BSC Plan to install pre-isolator at LLO 1Q/2003 Suspensions Adaptation of GEO/Glasgow fused-silica suspension Quad to extend operation to ~10 Hz Suspension fibers in development Development of ribbons at Glasgow Modeling of variable-diameter circular fibers at Caltech – allows separate tailoring of bending stiffness (top in addition to bottom) vs. stretch frequency Choosing vertical ‘bounce’ frequency – 12 Hz Can observe below (to Newtonian limit) Investigating 12 line removal techniques to observe to within a linewidth of bounce frequency Attachment of fibers to sapphire test masses Hydroxy-catalysis bonding of dissimilar materials Silica-sapphire tested, looks workable LASTI Laboratory LIGO-st in addition to ard vacuum system, 16-m ‘L’ Enables full-scale tests of Seismic Isolation in addition to Test Mass Suspension Allows system testing, interfaces, installation practice. Characterization of non-stationary noise, thermal noise. Pre-stabilized laser in commissioning, 1m in-vacuum test cavity Pursuing wider-b in addition to width ‘fast’ loop configuration Will also be used as long as Adv LIGO intensity stabilization work Pre-isolator work as long as initial LIGO has taken upper h in addition to Initial LIGO isolation system installed Advanced LIGO seismic isolation to arrive in 2003, suspensions to follow Sapphire Core Optics Developing in as long as mation as long as Sapphire/Fused silica choice Mechanical Q (Stan as long as d, U. Glasgow) Q of 2 x 108 confirmed as long as a variety of sapphire substrate shapes Thermoelastic damping parameters Measured room temperature values of thermal expansion in addition to conductivity by 2 or 3 (or four!) methods with agreement Optical Homogeneity (Caltech, CSIRO) New measurements along ‘a’ crystal axis are getting close to acceptable as long as Adv LIGO (13 nm RMS over 80mm path) Some of this may be a surface effect, under investigation Homogeneity measurements Measurement data: m-axis in addition to a-axis Sapphire Core Optics Ef as long as t to reduce bulk absorption (Stan as long as d, Southern University, CS, SIOM, Caltech) LIGO requirement is <10 ppm/cm Recent annealing ef as long as ts are encouraging Stan as long as d is pursuing heat treatments with as long as ming gas using cleaner alumina tube ovens; with this process they saw reductions from 45ppm/cm down to 20ppm/cm Higher temperature furnace commissioned at Stan as long as d Demonstration of super polish of sapphire by CSIRO (150mm diameter, m-axis) Effectively met requirements Optical Homogeneity compensation Ion beam etching, by CSIRO 10 nm deep, 10 mm dia, 90 sec Microroughness improved by process! Also pusuing ‘pencil eraser’ approach with Goodrich, good results Coatings Mechanical losses of optical coatings leading to high thermal noise – starting to underst in addition to where losses are SMA/Lyon (France) pursuing a series of research coating runs to underst in addition to mechanical loss multi-layer coating interfaces are not significant sources of loss most significant source of loss is probably within the Ta2O5 (high index) coating material; investigating alternative now investigating, with SMA/Lyon, the mechanical loss of different optical coating materials Optical absorption in coating leading to heating & de as long as mation in substrate, surface Can trade against amount, complexity of thermal compensation; initial experimental verification near completion MLD (Oregon) pursuing a series of research coating runs targeting optical losses Sub-ppm losses (~0.5 ppm) observed in coatings from both MLD in addition to from SMA Lyon Light source: Laser, Mode Cleaner Input Optics Modulator with RTA shows no evidence of thermal lensing at 50W RTA-based EOMs are currently being fabricated Demonstrated 45 dB attenuation in addition to 98% TEM00 mode recovery with a thermally compensated Faraday Isolator design (-dn/dT materials) Pre-Stabilized Laser (PSL) Three groups pursuing alternate design approaches to a 100W demonstration Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) [Stan as long as d] Stable-unstable slab oscillator [Adelaide] Rod systems [Hannover] Concept down select Aug 2002 High Power Testing: Gingin Facility ACIGA progressing well with high power test facility at Gingin Test high power components (isolators, modulators, scaled thermal compensation system, etc.) in a systems test Explore high power effects on control – length, alignment impulse upon locking Investigate the cold start optical coupling problem (e.g, pre-heat) Compare experimental results with simulation (Melody, E2E) Status: LIGO Lab delivering two characterized sapphire test masses in addition to a prototype thermal compensation system The facility in addition to a test plan are being prepared Development Plan R&D, distributed throughout LSC, well underway No ‘showstoppers’ found yet! Integrated Systems Tests of all new aspects of design Seismic Isolation Test at Stan as long as d ETF, LASTI; Pre-Stabilized Laser (PSL), Input Mode Cleaner, Suspensions at LASTI High power testing at ACIGA Gingin facility Configurations, Servo Control Electronics Testing at the GEO Glasgow 10m lab, in addition to in the LIGO 40m Lab Major Research Equipment (MREFC) funding proposal, Fall ‘02 Could be in as long as ce by early ‘05 Fabrication, installation, commissioning of installable hardware May upgrade one observatory, then second system upon proof of success; or all at once – depending upon observations, network at that time, in addition to technical readiness Schedule: Installation A variety of options, driven by availability of major funding, any observations in the interim, status of other observatories, technical progress Start with all systems tested, fabricated – commissioning might go faster than anticipated Upper (Feb ’11) in addition to lower (Nov ’07) bounds on when observing Advanced LIGO A significant step as long as ward Exciting astrophysical sensitivity Challenging but not unrealistic technical goals Advances the art in materials, mechanics, optics, lasers, servocontrols A tight in addition to rich collaboration NSF-funded research International contributors Program planned to mesh with fabrication of interferometer components leading to installation of new detectors starting in 2006 or 2007 Lessons learned from initial LIGO Thorough testing at LSC facilities to minimize impact on LIGO observation Coordination with other networked detectors to ensure continuous global observation Leighton, Carolyn WITI Savvy Founder/Chairwoman/CEO www.phwiki.com

Leighton, Carolyn Founder/Chairwoman/CEO

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