Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker, MIT AAAS Annual Meeting 17 February 2003 The LIGO

Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker, MIT AAAS Annual Meeting 17 February 2003 The LIGO www.phwiki.com

Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker, MIT AAAS Annual Meeting 17 February 2003 The LIGO

Leuthold, Andrew, Operations Director/Morning Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Advanced LIGO David Shoemaker, MIT AAAS Annual Meeting 17 February 2003 The LIGO Mission LIGO Observatory infrastructure in place Designed to support the evolving field of gravitational wave science Initial LIGO in operation Sensitivity improving steadily, approaching goal Observations yielding first astrophysical results One year of integrated observation time planned Detections plausible with initial LIGO With or without detections, astrophysical community will dem in addition to more sensitive detectors: Advanced LIGO Advanced LIGO Next detector Must be of significance as long as astrophysics Should be at the limits of reasonable extrapolations of detector physics in addition to technologies Should lead to a realizable, practical, reliable instrument Should come into existence neither too early nor too late Advanced LIGO: ~2.5 hours = 1 year of Initial LIGO Volume of sources grows with cube of sensitivity >10x in sensitivity; ~ 3000 in rate

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Astrophysical Reach (Kip Thorne) Neutron Star & Black Hole Binaries inspiral merger Spinning NS’s LMXBs known pulsars previously unknown NS Birth (SN, AIC) tumbling convection Stochastic background big bang early universe Anatomy of the Projected Adv LIGO Detector Per as long as mance Suspension thermal noise Internal thermal noise Newtonian background, estimate as long as LIGO sites Seismic ‘cutoff’ at 10 Hz Unified quantum noise dominates at most frequencies as long as full power, broadb in addition to tuning 10-24 10-25 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz 10-22 10-23 Initial LIGO 1 Hz Limits to Sensitivity: Sensing the Test Mass Position One limit is the shot noise – counting statistics of photons Improves with Plaser Second limit is the radiation pressure noise – momentum transfer of photons to test masses Becomes WORSE with Plaser The two are coupled in a signal-recycled interferometer

Tunability of the Instrument Signal recycling can focus the sensitivity where it is needed Sub-wavelength adjustments of resonance in signal recycling cavity Allows optimization against technical constraints, or as long as astrophysical signatures E.g., Tracking of a sweeping inspiral signal ‘chirp’ possible Limits to Sensitivity: Thermal Noise Thermal motion is proportional to L1/2mechanical Low-loss materials in addition to techniques are the basic tools Test masses: crystalline Sapphire, 40 kg, 32 cm dia. Q 6×107 good optical properties Suspensions: fused silica Joined to as long as m monolithic final stages Multiple-pendulums as long as control flexibility, seismic attenuation Optical coating is also a source of mechanical loss Development underway of suitable coating with optical in addition to mechanical properties Limits to Sensitivity: External Forces Coupling of seismic noise through isolation system suppressed via active servocontrols followed by passive ‘pendulum’ isolation Two 6-deg-of-freedom plat as long as ms stabilized from 0.03 to 30 Hz Net suppression of motion in gravitational-wave b in addition to is 13 orders of magnitude or more Suppression of motion below the b in addition to also critical to hold sensing system in linear domain, avoid up-conversion

Low-frequency Limit Newtonian background is the limit as long as ground-based detectors: ~10 Hz Time-varying distribution of mass in vicinity of test mass changes net direction of gravitational ‘pull’ Seismic compression, rarefaction of earth dominates Advanced LIGO reaches this limit as long as our observatory sites To get the physics much below 10 Hz, space-based instruments needed LISA The Advanced LIGO Community Scientific impetus, expertise, in addition to development throughout the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) Remarkable synergy, critical mass (400+ persons, 100+ graduate students, 40+ institutions) International support in addition to significant material participation Especially strong coupling with German-UK GEO group, capital partnership Advanced LIGO design, R&D, in addition to fabrication spread among participants LIGO Laboratory leads, coordinates, takes responsibility as long as Observatories Continuing strong support from the NSF at all levels of ef as long as t – theory, R&D, operation of the Laboratory International network growing: VIRGO (Italy-France), GEO-600 (Germany-UK), TAMA (Japan), ACIGA (Australia) Timeline Initial LIGO Observation 2002 – 2006 1+ year observation within LIGO Observatory Significant networked observation with GEO, LIGO, TAMA Structured R&D program to develop technologies 1998 – 2005 Conceptual design developed by LSC in 1998 Cooperative Agreement carries R&D to Final Design, 2005 Proposal submitted in Feb 2003 as long as fabrication, installation Long-lead purchases planned as long as 2004 Sapphire Test Mass material, seismic isolation fabrication Prepare a ‘stock’ of equipment as long as minimum downtime, rapid installation Start installation in 2007 Baseline is a staged installation, Livingston in addition to then Han as long as d Observatories Start coincident observations in 2009

LIGO Initial LIGO is in operation Observing at this moment Discoveries plausible Advanced LIGO is on the horizon Groundbreaking R&D well underway Detailed design in addition to prototyping as well Challenging astrophysics promised Gravitational Waves: A new tool in underst in addition to ing the Universe, complementary to other observational methods, is reaching maturity

Leuthold, Andrew WLBF-FM Operations Director/Morning Host www.phwiki.com

Leuthold, Andrew Operations Director/Morning Host

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