Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration www.phwiki.com

Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration

Watters, Judy, Morning Host;Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Aerobic respiration Mitochondrial structure in addition to function Visible under light microscope Universal in aerobic eukaryotes Have own DNA in addition to ribosomes Number in addition to shape vary widely in different cell types Number: more in cells with higher E requirements Shape: can undergo fission in addition to fusion to yield typical ‘cylinder’ shape or more complex tubular networks Aerobic respiration Mitochondrial structure in addition to function Membranes Outer: permeable to many things Porins, large central pore Inner: highly impermeable Rich in cardiolipin (also present in bacterial membanes) Channels as long as pyruvate, ATP, etc Aerobic respiration Mitochondrial structure in addition to function Membranes Outer: permeable to many things Porins, large central pore Inner: highly impermeable Rich in cardiolipin (also present in bacterial membanes) Channels as long as pyruvate, ATP, etc Cristae Complex invaginations of the inner membrane Functionally distinct Joined to inner membrane via narrow channels

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Aerobic respiration Mitochondrial structure in addition to function Intermembrane space Between inner in addition to outer membranes Also within the cristae Acidified ( high [H+] ) by action of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) H+ are pumped from matrix into this compartment ATP synthase lets them back into the matrix Aerobic respiration Mitochondrial structure in addition to function Matrix Compartment within the inner membrane Very high protein concentration ~500mg/ml Contains: ribosomes in addition to DNA Enzymes of TCA cycle, enzymes as long as fatty acid degradation Glycolysis 6C glucose -> -> -> 2x3C pyruvate + 2NADH

Glycolysis 6C glucose -> 3C pyruvate + 2NADH NADH enters the mitochondria by one of two mechanisms: 1. aspartate-malate shuttle NADH -> NADH 2. glycerol phosphate shuttle NADH -> FADH2 Pyruvate to TCA The Aspartate – Malate Shuttle TCA cycle 3C -> 2C + CO2 + NADH CoA derived from pantothenic acid Condensation: 2C + 4C -> 6C Isomerization

TCA cycle 3C -> 2C + CO2 + NADH CoA derived from pantothenic acid Condensation: 2C + 4C -> 6C Isomerization 6C -> 5C + CO2 +NADH 5C -> 4C + CO2 +NADH 4C + GTP 4C + FADH2 TCA cycle 3C -> 2C + CO2 + NADH CoA derived from pantothenic acid Condensation: 2C + 4C (OA) -> 6C Isomerization 6C -> 5C + CO2 +NADH 5C -> 4C + CO2 +NADH 4C + GTP 4C + FADH2 Hydration 4C (OA) + NADH TCA cycle 2Pyruvate + 8NAD+ + 2FAD + 2GDP + 2Pi -> 6CO2 + 8NADH + 2FADH2 + 2GTP Adding in products of glycolysis, 2NADH + 2ATP Total yield of glycolysis in addition to TCA cycle: 8NADH + 4FADH2 + 4ATP

Fatty acid catabolism Enzymes localized to mitochondrial matrix Fatty acids cross inner membrane in addition to become linked to HS-CoA Each turn of cycle generates FADH2 + NADH2 + Acetyl-CoA Amino acid catabolism Enzymes in matrix AA’s cross inner membrane via specific transporters Enter TCA at various points General outline of oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidation-reduction potentials Reducing agents give up electron share The lower the affinity as long as electrons, the stronger the reducing agent NADH is strong, H2O is weak Oxidizing agents receive electron share The higher the affinity as long as electrons, the stronger the oxidizing agent O2 is strong, NAD+ is weak Couples NAD+ – NADH couple (weak oxidizer, strong reducer) O2 – H2O couple (strong oxidizer, weak reducer) Oxidation-reduction potentials Eo’ measures affinity as long as electrons Negative Eo’ indicates a stronger reducing agent Positive Eo’ indicates a stronger oxidizing agent In Electron Transport Chain: e- are passed from stronger reducing agents to as long as m weaker reducing agents Pass from more negative to more positive Eo’ H2O is the weakest reducing agent (of interest here) NADH -> H2O G0’ = -53kcal/mol 7ATP(max), ~3ATP(real) Electron Transport Chain Electron carriers Flavoproteins FAD/FMN (riboflavin) NADH DH (complex I) Succinate DH (complex II, TCA cycle)

Electron Transport Chain Electron carriers Flavoproteins FAD/FMN (riboflavin) NADH DH (complex I) Succinate DH (complex II, TCA cycle) Cytochromes Heme (Fe) groups Electron Transport Chain Electron carriers Flavoproteins FAD/FMN (riboflavin) NADH DH (complex I) Succinate DH (complex II, TCA cycle) Cytochromes Heme (Fe) groups Cu atoms Cu2+ <-> Cu1+ Ubiquinone Free radical intermediate Lipid soluble Dissolved within inner mitochondrial membrane Fe-S centers Electron Transport Chain Electron carriers Flavoproteins FAD/FMN (riboflavin) NADH DH (complex I) Succinate DH (complex II, TCA cycle) Cytochromes (b, c1, c, a) Heme (Fe) groups Cu atoms Cu2+ <-> Cu1+ Ubiquinone (Q or UQ) Free radical intermediate Lipid soluble Dissolved within inner mitochondrial membrane Fe-S centers

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Electron Transport Chain Complex I passes e- from NADH to UQ in addition to pumps 4H+ out of matrix Complex II passes e- from FADH2 to UQ UQ shuttles e- to Complex III Electron Transport Chain Complex III passes e- to Cytochrome c in addition to pumps 4H+ out of matrix Cytochrome c passes e- to Complex IV Complex IV passes e- to O2 as long as ming H2O in addition to pumps 2H+ out 1 pH unit diff ATP synthesis: The ATP Synthase enzyme F1 head/sphere (ATPase) catalyzes ADP + Pi <-> ATP F0 base embedded in inner membrane (H+ pass through this) F0 + F1 = ATP synthase The two pieces are connected via two additional proteins Central rod-like gamma subunit Peripheral complex that holds F1 in a fixed position Location Bacteria = plasma mem Mitochondria = inner mem Chloroplast = thylakoid 1 pH unit diff Intermembrane space matrix H+ ATP

The ATP Synthase mechanism Binding Change Mechanism E of H+ movement is used to as long as ce release of ATP from enzyme Enz-ADP + Enz-Pi -> Enz-ATP G0’ ~ 0 Each F1 active site progresses through three distinct con as long as mations Open (O), Loose (L), Tight (T) Con as long as mations differ in affinity as long as substrates in addition to products Central gamma () subunit rotates causing con as long as mation changes 1 pH unit diff Rotational catalysis by ATP synthase If true, should be able to run it backwards (ATP -> ADP + Pi) in addition to watch gamma spin like a propeller blade 1 pH unit diff

Other fxns of electrochemical gradient E also used as long as : Import of ADP + Pi (+H+) in addition to export of ATP Import of pyruvate (+H+) Uncoupling sugar oxidation from ATP synthesis Uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) UCP1/thermogenin, shuttles H+ back to matrix (endothermy) Brown adipose tissue Present in newborns (lost with age) in addition to hibernating animals Generates heat 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) Ionophore that can dissolve in inner membrane in addition to shuttle H+ across 1930’s stan as long as d diet pill trials: overdose causes a fatal fever 1 pH unit diff

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