Altered Cellular in addition to Tissue Biology Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Cellular Injury

Altered Cellular in addition to Tissue Biology Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Cellular Injury www.phwiki.com

Altered Cellular in addition to Tissue Biology Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Cellular Adaptation Cellular Injury

Smart, Richard, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Altered Cellular in addition to Tissue Biology Chapter 2 Cellular Adaptation Physiologic vs. pathogenic Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Metaplasia Dysplasia Cellular Adaptation

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Cellular Adaptation Cellular Injury Reversible Irreversible Cellular Injury Mechanisms Hypoxic injury Ischemia – cut off of blood flow circulation Anoxia – insufficient oxygen can be due to lowered Hb, respiration effects, respiratory poisons Cellular responses Decrease in ATP, causing failure of sodium-potassium pump in addition to sodium-calcium exchange Cellular swelling Reperfusion injury

Cellular Injury Mechanisms Free radicals in addition to reactive oxygen species Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron Lipid peroxidation Alteration of proteins Alteration of DNA Mechanisms as long as the inactivation of free radicals Cellular Injury Mechanisms Chemical injury Lead – CNS toxin – interferes with neurotransmitters causing hyperactivity. Lead paints in addition to children – anemia & lead toxicity Carbon monoxide – binds irreversibly to Hb Ethanol – cellular toxin kills cells – liver toxin- interrupts protein transport – pickles cells can cause fetal alcohol syndrome Mercury – neurotoxin can cause bone de as long as mities Social or street drugs Unintentional in addition to Intentional Injuries Blunt as long as ce injuries Application of mechanical energy to the body resulting in the tearing, shearing, or crushing of tissues Contusion vs. hematoma – bleeding in skin & underlying layers Abrasion – removal of superficial skin layers Laceration rip, year or puncture of skin & layers Fractures – broken bones

Contusions in addition to Hematomas Unintentional in addition to Intentional Injuries Sharp as long as ce injuries Incised wounds Stab wounds Puncture wounds Chopping wounds Unintentional in addition to Intentional Injuries

Unintentional in addition to Intentional Injuries Gunshot wounds Entrance wounds Contact range entrance wound Intermediate range entrance wound Tattooing in addition to stippling Indeterminate range entrance wound Exit wounds Shored exit wound Gunshot Wounds Unintentional in addition to Intentional Injuries Asphyxial injuries Caused by a failure of cells to receive or use oxygen Suffocation Strangulation Hanging, ligature, in addition to manual strangulation Chemical asphyxiants- carbon monoxide, cyanide Drowning

Infectious Injury Pathogenicity of a microorganism – gram neg or positive will determine which antibiotics will work best – anti viral agents as long as viral infections Virulence of a microorganism – some strains are more dangerous than others Disease-producing potential Invasion in addition to destruction Toxin production Production of hypersensitivity reactions Immunologic in addition to Inflammatory Injury Phagocytic cells – immune cells that engulf in addition to destroy invading microbes in addition to toxins Immune in addition to inflammatory substances Histamine (chemical released by injured or infected cells that cause local vasodilation), antibodies (endogenous proteins that combat in addition to identify invading cells in addition to toxins), lymphokines (chemical produced by imune cells), complement, in addition to enzymes Membrane alterations – leakage of cell contents due to the presence of antibodies in addition to histamines Injurious Genetic Factors Nuclear alterations – mutations in addition to damage to DNA Alterations in the plasma membrane structure, shape, receptors, or transport mechanisms Examples of genetic diseases Sickle cell anemia (substitution of one amino acid in Hb structure) in addition to muscular dystrophy (muscle tissue does not function properly

Injurious Nutritional Imbalances Essential nutrients are required as long as cells to function normally inadequate proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals Deficient intake – starvation in addition to improper diets – protein deficiency “kwashiokor” most common, Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to pernicious anemia Excessive intake – obesity Temperature Extremes Hypothermic injury Slows cellular metabolic processes Ice crystal as long as mation in addition to frostbite Hyperthermic injury Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heatstroke Protein denaturation Atmospheric Pressure Changes Sudden increases or decreases in atmospheric pressure Blast injury Nitrogen Narcosis or rapture of the deep Nitrogen gas has a narcotic effect (laughing gas) Decompression sickness or caisson disease “The bends”

Ionizing Radiation Any as long as m of radiation capable of removing orbital electrons from atoms X-rays, gamma rays, alpha in addition to beta particles Amount of exposure measured in RADS. People who work with X-rays must wear badge that measures dosees of exposure over time Mechanism of damage – ionization of chemicals in addition to breakage of chemical bonds Effects of ionizing radiation Ionizing Radiation Cellular Injury Illumination injury Eyestrain, obscured vision, in addition to cataract as long as mation Caused by light modulation Mechanical stresses Physical impact or irritation Noise – sound can cause tisse in addition to organ trauma Acoustic trauma in addition to noise-induced hearing loss – tinnitus very common among per as long as ming rock b in addition to members

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Manifestations of Cellular Injury Cellular accumulations (infiltrations) Water Lipids in addition to carbohydrates Glycogen Proteins Hydropic Degeneration Manifestations of Cellular Injury Cellular accumulations (infiltrations) Pigments Melanin, hemoproteins, bilirubin (aging brown spots) Calcium – can cause hardening of cells in addition to altered membrane permeability Urate example is gout where urate crystals as long as m in joints in addition to is very painful

Calcium Infiltration Cellular Death Necrosis – local cell death by autodigestion Sum of cellular changes after local cell death in addition to the process of cellular autodigestion Processes Karyolysis Nuclear dissolution in addition to chromatin lysis Pyknosis Shrinking & Clumping of the nucleus Karyorrhexis Fragmentation of the nucleus Cellular Death

Aging Cellular aging all cells can replicate 40 – 60 times max in addition to may be why clones do not live as long as parents Tissue in addition to systemic aging immune function goes down with age in addition to free radicals damage cells speeding aging Frailty – wastin syndrome of aging due to decreased protein synthesis in addition to reduced muscle mass in addition to lowered bone density Somatic Death Death of an entire person Somatic death with no respiration or circulation Postmortem changes Algor mortis drop in body temp such that in 24 hrs same as room temp Livor mortis blood settles on lowest tissues due to gravity causing discoloration Rigor mortis – 6 – 12 hours post somatic death stiffening of body due to muscle protein breakdown Postmortem autolysis bloating in addition to swelling of body due to autolysis

Smart, Richard Contributing Writer

Smart, Richard is from United States and they belong to Practical Winery & Vineyard and they are from  San Rafael, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Smart, Richard deal with the subjects like Beverages; Wine

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