An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Rea

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An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Rea

Kubistant, Tom, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal An Empirical Study to Examine Whether Monetary Incentives Improve 12th Grade Reading Per as long as mance Henry Braun Irwin Kirsch Kentaro Yamamoto Boston College ETS ETS Presented at the PDII Conference Princeton, NJ October 3, 2008 Overview What is NAEP Why this study What were the design criteria How were they operationalized Do monetary incentives make a difference If so, which ones, how much in addition to as long as whom How robust are the findings What are the implications The National Assessment of Educational Progress Large-scale national/state surveys of academic achievement begun in 1969 Tests students in grades 4, 8, 12 Subjects: Reading, Mathematics, Science, Geography, Civics, History, etc. NAEP (“The Nation’s Report Card) provides a snapshot of student achievement overall, by state in addition to by various subgroups

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12th Grade NAEP National sample only Lower participation rates than grades 4 in addition to 8 Concerns about levels of motivation/ef as long as t Undergoing expansion to state level Study Rationale Increasing reliance on low-stakes large-scale assessment surveys as long as education policy Issues relate to both national in addition to international LSASs In the U.S., NAEP is the only source of nationally comparable data on student achievement that can be used as long as state-level comparisons Under NCLB, 4th in addition to 8th grade NAEP play an exp in addition to ed role in monitoring state-level results Strong interest in exp in addition to ing role of 12th grade NAEP National Commission on 12th grade NAEP (2004) recommendations Redesign to report on student readiness Exp in addition to to state level Increase participation in addition to motivation Design Criteria Goal: To estimate the effects of different monetary incentives on student per as long as mance on 12th grade NAEP Internal validity External validity Adequate power

Literature Experiments Focus on mathematics O’Neil et al (NAEP items) Baumert et al (PISA items) Psychology Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation Behavioral Economics Monetary incentives can work Participants must be cognizant of incentives Study Features Focus on NAEP reading R in addition to omized trial as long as internal validity Prepared detailed implementation protocol Employed experienced administrative staff External validity (i.e., link directly to NAEP) Used released NAEP materials Followed NAEP administrative in addition to data processing procedures Carried out NAEP-like psychometric in addition to statistical analyses Heterogeneous school sample Large study as long as sufficient power to detect effects Study Design: Incentives Control: St in addition to ard NAEP instructions Incentive 1: St in addition to ard NAEP instructions + Promise of a $20 gift card at conclusion of session Incentive 2: St in addition to ard NAEP instructions + $5 Gift card + $15 as long as a correct answer to each of two questions to be chosen at r in addition to om at the conclusion of session

Study Design: Incentives (2) All students in both incentive conditions were asked to select Target or Barnes & Noble as long as the gift card in addition to to indicate their preference on a sign-up sheet Students in all three conditions actually received $35 gift cards at the end of the sessions Students were in as long as mally debriefed be as long as e leaving Study Design: Instrumentation Mapping to the NAEP Reading Framework (3 contexts) Reading as long as literary experience (35%) Reading as long as in as long as mation (45%) Reading to per as long as m a task (20%) Assembling test booklets 2 reading blocks + background questionnaire Each reading block consists of a passage in addition to a set of associated questions Each block is expected to take 25 minutes Blocks vary with respect to the total number of questions in addition to the proportions of multiple choice, short answer in addition to extended response questions Booklet Design

Survey Design: Background Questionnaire Items drawn from operational questionnaire Two sets of items Set I Demographics in addition to parental education Home environment School absences Set II Reading practices Future educational expectations Level of ef as long as t Study Design: Sample Selection Power analysis indicated need as long as a sample of 60 schools with 60 students per school (20 per condition in each school) Worked with NAEP state coordinators in addition to Westat to obtain a (final) convenience sample of 59 schools Student recruitment was carried out using st in addition to ard NAEP methods (but no special incentives) Number of participating students was lower than target Student Response Rates by State

Administration R in addition to om samples of 12th graders invited to participate In each school students r in addition to omly allocated to the three conditions Fall (not spring) administration Sessions in a school were simultaneous or consecutive to eliminate possibility of contamination Limited accommodations No make-up sessions Student Response Rates by Condition Data Preparation: Scoring in addition to Item Analysis Scoring was conducted by NCS/Pearson Preliminary item analysis held no surprises: Differences by condition in Proportions correct Percentage of omitted items Highest as long as extended CR items Percentage of off-task responses Generally very small ( 1%) Percentage of items not reached Particularly high as long as last CR item

Average Item Proportions Correct by Item TYPE in addition to Incentive Condition Data Preparation: Scaling, Conditioning in addition to Linking Scaling by subscale Fit item characteristic curves to data Compare to archival results Estimate three-group model Reasonable fit Conditioning Combine cognitive data with ancillary data from questionnaires Obtain posterior score distribution as long as each student Generate “plausible values” Linking Linear trans as long as mation to the NAEP scale Construct composite reporting scale Effect Sizes by Subscale, Item parameters Based on Study Data Only Effect Sizes by Subscale, Item parameters Based on Archival Data

Selected Results Effects of incentives range from 3 to 5 points on the NAEP scale overall Male-female differences relatively stable White-Black in addition to White-Hispanic differences grow somewhat larger under incentives Effects of incentives generally positive as long as subgroups Estimates reasonably robust Comparison of Effects by Incentive Condition

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Study Statistics by Incentive in addition to Gender 5 5 5 5 6 6 Study Statistics by Incentive in addition to Race/Ethnicity 6 2 3 20 28 24

Study Statistics by Condition, Gender, in addition to Race/Ethnicity

Summary Data clearly indicate that the design criteria as long as this study were met Monetary incentives improve NAEP reading per as long as mance Type of incentive makes a difference by reporting subgroup by quantile Caveats Fall rather than Spring administration Represented two of the three NAEP subscales Lower student participation rate than in operational NAEP Subgroup sample size Relationship of the sample to the NAEP population Implications 12th grade NAEP results should be interpreted cautiously Expansion of 12th grade NAEP ought to wait on policy action on incentives Measuring reading as NAEP does may be problematic in the current context In modifying NAEP cognitive instruments (e.g. as long as readiness), the administrative setting should be taken into account

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