An Introduction To The Health Effects of Radiation A Small Dose of ™ Radiation T

An Introduction To The Health Effects of Radiation A Small Dose of ™ Radiation T www.phwiki.com

An Introduction To The Health Effects of Radiation A Small Dose of ™ Radiation T

Vasudeva, Anil, Founder & Principal Analyst has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal An Introduction To The Health Effects of Radiation A Small Dose of ™ Radiation The control of fire as long as warmth in addition to cooking. Ancient Awareness 1895 – Wilhem Conrad Roentgen discovered X-rays in addition to in 1901 he received the first Nobel Prize as long as physics. 1903 – Marie Curie in addition to Pierre Curie, along with Henri Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics as long as their contributions to underst in addition to ing radioactivity, including the properties of uranium. 1942 – Enrico Fermi in addition to others started the first sustained nuclear chain reaction in a laboratory beneath the University of Chicago football stadium. 1945 – Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan. Historical Awareness

Strayer University-San Antonio TX www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

Case Study – Sunburn Solar radiation wavelength Visible light – 400 to 760 nm Ultraviolet radiation (UV) – >400 nm (sunburn) Infrared radiation – <760 nm (heat) UV radiation Stimulates melanin (dark pigment) that absorbs UV protecting cells Health Effects 2 to 3 million non-malignant skin cancers 130,000 malignant melanomas Sunburn – acute cell injury causing inflammatory response (erythema) Accelerates aging process Radium Girls "Not to worry," their bosses told them. "If you swallow any radium, it'll make your cheeks rosy.“ The women at Radium Dial sometimes painted their teeth in addition to faces in addition to then turned off the lights as long as a laugh. From: 'Radium Girls' By Martha Irvine, Associated Press, Buffalo News, 1998 Case Study - Radium 1898 – Discovered by Marie Curie 1900-1930 – Radium Therapy - used to treat arthritis, stomach ailments in addition to cancer Accepted by American Medical Association WWI – Use of radium on watch dials 1920s – U.S. Radium corporation employed young women to paint watch dials Late 1920s – Radium girls sue, win in addition to receive compensation Opium War of 1839-42 Great Britain has a monopoly on the sale of opium which it as long as ces on China. Eventually getting control of Hong Kong. Consider our societies current “wars on drugs”. Historical Events Life & Radiation All life is dependent on small doses of electromagnetic radiation. For example, photosynthesis in addition to vision use the suns radiation. Radiation Nonionizing Ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwaves, radio & TV, power transmission Ionizing Radiation capable as long as producing ions when interacting with matter – x-rays, alpha, beta, gamma, cosmic rays Electromagnetic Spectrum Nonionizing Radiation Sources Ultraviolet light Visible light Infrared radiation Microwaves Radio & TV Power transmission Nonionizing Examples Ultraviolet – Black light – induce fluorescence in some materials Vision – very small portion that animals use to process visual in as long as mation Heat – infrared – a little beyond the red spectrum Radio waves – beyond infrared Micro waves Electrical power transmission – 60 cycles per second with a wave length of 1 to 2 million meters. Ultraviolet - Sources Sun light Most harmful UV is absorbed by the atmosphere – depends on altitude Fluorescent lamps Electric arc welding Can damage the eye (cornea) Germicidal lamps Eye damage from sun light Skin cancer Ultraviolet - Effects High ultraviolet – kills bacterial in addition to other infectious agents High dose causes - sun burn – increased risk of skin cancer Pigmentation that results in suntan Suntan lotions contain chemicals that absorb UV radiation Reaction in the skin to produce Vitamin D that prevents rickets Strongly absorbed by air – thus the danger of hole in the atmosphere Visible Energy Energy between 400 in addition to 750 nm High energy – bright light produces of number of adaptive responses St in addition to ards are set as long as the intensity of light in the work place (measured in c in addition to les or lumens) Infrared Radiation Energy between 750 nm to 0.3 cm The energy of heat – Heat is the transfer of energy Can damage – cornea, iris, retina in addition to lens of the eye (glass workers – “glass blower’s cataract”) Microwaves & Radio Waves Energy between 0.1 cm to 1 kilometer Varity of industrial in addition to home uses as long as heating in addition to in as long as mation transfer (radio, TV, mobile phones) Produced by molecular vibration in solid bodies or crystals Health effects – heating, cataracts Long-term effects being studied Electrical Power St in addition to ard in homes in addition to businesses Highest level of exposure from electric-power generation in addition to distribution system (high voltage power lines) Medical system – Magnetic imaging Acute health effects – shock Long-term health effects appear to be few but may some data do suggest adverse effects Ionizing Radiation Ionization Defined Radiation capable as long as producing ions when interacting with matter – in other words enough energy to remove an electron from an atom. Sources – x-rays, radioactive material produce alpha, beta, in addition to gamma radiation, cosmic rays from the sun in addition to space. Ionizing Radiation Radioactive Material Either natural or created in nuclear reactor or accelerator Radioactive material is unstable in addition to emits energy in order to return to a more stable state (particles or gamma-rays) Half-life – time as long as radioactive material to decay by one-half Alpha Particles Two neutrons in addition to two protons Charge of +2 Emitted from nucleus of radioactive atoms Transfer energy in very short distances (10 cm in air) Shielded by paper or layer of skin Primary hazard from internal exposure Alpha emitters can accumulate in tissue (bone, kidney, liver, lung, spleen) causing local damage Beta Particles Small electrically charged particles similar to electrons Charge of -1 Ejected from nuclei of radioactive atoms Emitted with various kinetic energies Shielded by wood, body penetration 0.2 to 1.3 cm depending on energy Can cause skin burns or be an internal hazard of ingested Gamma-rays Electromagnetic photons or radiation (identical to x-rays except as long as source) Emitted from nucleus of radioactive atoms – spontaneous emission Emitted with kinetic energy related to radioactive source Highly penetrating – extensive shielding required Serious external radiation hazard Vasudeva, Anil IMEX Research Founder & Principal Analyst www.phwiki.com

X-rays Overlap with gamma-rays Electromagnetic photons or radiation Produced from orbiting electrons or free electrons – usually machine produced Produced when electrons strike a target material inside in addition to x-ray tube Emitted with various energies & wavelengths Highly penetrating – extensive shielding required External radiation hazard Discovered in 1895 by Roentgen Ionizing Radiation Health Effects We evolved with a certain level of naturally occurring ionizing radiation from cosmic radiation, radioactive materials in the earth. We have mechanisms to repair damage. Radiation Units Exposure – X (coul/kg) (Related to energy) Absorbed Dose – Gray (Gy) (amount of energy absorbed) Equivalent Dose – Sievert (Sv) (makes different sources of radiation equivalent)

St in addition to ards US National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) International Council on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Occupational Exposure Guidelines 100 mSv over 5 years (average 20 mSv/year) with a maximum of 50 mSv in any one year General public – back ground about 3 mSv/year – Guideline 1 mSv/year Dose Response Tissue Examples of tissue Sensitivity Dose Response Issues

Authorship In as long as mation For Additional In as long as mation Contact Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT E-mail: smdose@asmalldoseof.org Web: www.asmalldoseof.org This presentation is supplement to “A Small Dose of Toxicology”

Vasudeva, Anil Founder & Principal Analyst

Vasudeva, Anil is from United States and they belong to IMEX Research and they are from  San Jose, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Vasudeva, Anil deal with the subjects like Computer Infrastructure; Computer Storage; End-Users; Information Technology Industry; Network Computing

Journal Ratings by Strayer University-San Antonio

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Strayer University-San Antonio and short form of this particular Institution is TX and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.