Antibiotic sensitivity Site of sampling Bacterial classification Bacterial classification Bacterial classification

Antibiotic sensitivity Site of sampling Bacterial classification Bacterial classification Bacterial classification www.phwiki.com

Antibiotic sensitivity Site of sampling Bacterial classification Bacterial classification Bacterial classification

Scott, Eugene, General Assignment Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal BACTERIAL CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL DISEASE Disease causing agent Bacterial, fungal, viral or other Treatment Antibiotic sensitivity Source of infection Food, air or contact Epidemiology Cholera, Diphtheria Prevention E. coli O157:H7 outbreak, Shigella, Listeria Antibiotic sensitivity Site of sampling Sterile sites Blood Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Body fluids (Peritoneal in addition to pleural) Non-sterile (normal flora) Respiratory tract Ear, eye in addition to mouth Skin (wound in addition to abscess) Urine (mid-stream) Feces

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Bacterial classification Wall structure Gram + Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Bacillus Gram – Enteric, respiratory in addition to others Acid-fast Mycobacterium Wall-less Mycoplasma Unusual Obligate intracellular Rickettsia, Chlamydia G+ G- AF WL IC Bacteria Bacterial classification Cell morphology Shapes Rod Cocci Spiral Associations Individual Diplo- Staphylo- Strepto- G+ G- AF WL IC Bacteria Rod Cocci Rod Cocci Spiral Bacterial classification Growth characteristics Oxygen requirement Aerobic Anaerobic Microaerophilic, aerotolerant Facultative Spore as long as mation Intracellular/extracellular Fastidious/non-fastidious G+ G- AF WL IC Bacteria Rod Cocci Rod Cocci Spiral + spore – + +/- -O2

Classification & Diagnosis Type of colonies Appearance Color, shape, size in addition to smoothness On differential media Blood, MacConkey, EMB On selective media MacConkey, Thayer-Martin Classification & Diagnosis Metabolism Utilization of specific substrates Lactose (Sal/Shi/Yer/)- Citrate (E. coli-/Klebsiella+) Production of certain end products Fermentation end products Acid (acetate, propionic acid, butyric acid etc.) Acetoin Alcohol Amine H2S Classification & Diagnosis Specialized tests Immunological O-, H- & K-Ag (serotype) Precipitation, agglutination Specialized enzymes Catalase– Staph+. vs. Strep-. Coagulase–S. aureus+ vs. S. epidermidis- Oxidase–Neisseria gonorrhoea+ Urease–Proteus+, Helicobacter+ Antibiogram pattern Phage typing Fatty acid profile

Immunological detection Conventional diagnosis methods Conventional method Depend on ability to culture Treponema pallidum Slow, esp. as long as fastidious species Mycobacterium spp. Not always definitive

Molecular diagnosis Ribotyping Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) DNA hybridization PCR, RT-PCR in addition to RAPD Nucleic acid sequence analysis Phage-GFP (TB) RFLP GGATCC CCTAGG DNA hybridization

In situ Hybridization Rate of increase 2n PCR RT-PCR RAPD of P. aeruginosa

Molecular diagnosis Reduce reliance on culture Faster More sensitive More definitive More discriminating Techniques adaptable to all pathogens Technically dem in addition to ing Relatively expensive Can be too sensitive Provides no in as long as mation if results are negative Bioterrorism Pathogen detection Fast in addition to accurate Mobile Inexpensive Source investigation Differentiating Staphylococci from Streptococci Gram stain in addition to morphology Both Gram + Staphylococci: bunched cocci Streptococci: chained cocci (S. pneumoniae as long as m diplococcus) Enzyme tests Staphylococci: catalase + Streptococci: catalase – Growth Staph.: large colonies (non-fastidious), some hemolytic Strep.: small colonies (fastidious), many hemolytic (a or b)

Staphylococci S. aureus: coagulase + S. epidermidis: coagulase – Streptococci Differentiating the Gram- bacteria Cocci Neisseria Rods Type of disease they cause Enteric Gram- rods API test Curved Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter Spiral Gram- organisms Spirochetes

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Gram negative Straight rods Curved rods Lactose+ Lactose- Citrate+ Citrate- H2S+ H2S- Klebsiella E. coli Salmonella Shigella Campy blood agar 42oC+ 25oC- Campylobacter TCBS agar Yellow Oxidase+ Vibrio Bacteria Gram+ Gram- Acid Fast Intra Cellular Wall Less Cocci Rod Cocci Rod Spiral Staph. Strep. Non-spore Spore Straight Curve +O2 -O2 +/-O2 Other S. a. S. e. S. s. A B Pn Vir Fil Rod A.i. C.d. L. m. M.t. M.l. N.c. +O2 -O2 B.a. B.c. C.b. C.t. C.p. C.d. Treponema Borrelia Leptospira Neisseria Moraxella P.a. Enteric Bact. Resp. Zoo GU Bordetella. H. influenzae Legionella Yersinia Pasteurella Brucella Francisella Streptobacillus H. ducreyi Gardnerella Calymmatobacterium Rickettsia Coxiella Erlichia Chlamydia Mycoplasma Vibrio Campylobacter Helicobacter

Scott, Eugene General Assignment Reporter

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