Application of Nuclear Chemistry Energy of the Nucleus (cont) A neutron bombarding a heavy nucleus begins fission

Application of Nuclear Chemistry Energy of the Nucleus (cont) A neutron bombarding a heavy nucleus begins fission www.phwiki.com

Application of Nuclear Chemistry Energy of the Nucleus (cont) A neutron bombarding a heavy nucleus begins fission

Cain, Butler, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 9 Nuclear Radiation 9.7 Energy of the Nucleus Energy of the Nucleus Mass-to-Energy Conversion Mass can be converted to energy during nuclear reactions. E = mc2. Binding Energy The mass of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of its constituent nucleons. This mass defect was converted to the “binding energy” that holds the nucleons together. Application of Nuclear Chemistry Such as the study of the chemical effects resulting from the absorption of radiation within living animals, plants, in addition to other materials. The radiation chemistry controls much of radiation biology as radiation has an effect on living things at the molecular scale, to explain it another way the radiation alters the biochemicals within an organism, the alteration of the biomolecules then changes the chemistry which occurs within the organism, this change in biochemistry then can lead to a biological outcome. As a result nuclear chemistry greatly assists the underst in addition to ing of medical treatments (such as cancer radiotherapy) in addition to has enabled these treatments to improve.

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Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging in addition to diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used as long as curative or adjuvant cancer treatment. It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible in addition to the aim is as long as local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit but is not curative). Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has a few applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, prevention of keloid scar growth, in addition to prevention of heterotopic ossification. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers. Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator iodine-131 radioactive Dye injected into a Human body Alternative energy sources using nuclear energy, such as nuclear power plants in addition to reactors. Energy of the Nucleus (cont) Fission Following splitting (fission) of the uranium-235 nucleus, the masses of the products are less than the masses of the reactants. The “missing mass” is released as energy. The Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was the code name as long as the ef as long as t to develop a fission-based atomic bomb during World War II.

A neutron bombarding a heavy nucleus begins fission Fission event is within an atom bomb is initiated by a neutron (gray) bombarding a heavy nucleus such as uranium. The nucleus breaks Into smaller pieces, releasing a lot of energy 4 Major Research Teams involved in the Manhattan Project The existing Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, charged with the creation of a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction. A new laboratory near Knoxville, Tennessee (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory), charged with the enrichment of U-235 A new laboratory in Han as long as d, Washington, charged with the production, isolation in addition to purification of Pu-239 A new laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, directed by J. Robert Oppenheimer, charged with the design in addition to construction of the atomic bomb. The now-familiar mushroom cloud of the Trinity test Credit: Corbis

“Little Boy” dropped on Hiroshima, Japan August 6th, 1945 “Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki, Japan August 9th, 1945 Hiroshima be as long as e (top) in addition to after (bottom) Nagasaki be as long as e (top) in addition to after (bottom)

Cain, Butler WUAL-FM News Director www.phwiki.com

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