Architectural Design Objectives Topics covered Software architecture Architectural design
Corbitt, Bryant, Midday On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Architectural Design Objectives To introduce architectural design in addition to to discuss its importance To explain the architectural design decisions that have to be made To introduce three complementary architectural styles covering organisation, decomposition in addition to control To discuss reference architectures are used to communicate in addition to compare architectures Topics covered Architectural design decisions System organisation Decomposition styles Control styles Reference architectures
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Software architecture The design process as long as identifying the sub-systems making up a system in addition to the framework as long as sub-system control in addition to communication is architectural design. The output of this design process is a description of the software architecture. Architectural design An early stage of the system design process. Represents the link between specification in addition to design processes. Often carried out in parallel with some specification activities. It involves identifying major system components in addition to their communications. Advantages of explicit architecture Stakeholder communication Architecture may be used as a focus of discussion by system stakeholders. System analysis Means that analysis of whether the system can meet its non-functional requirements is possible. Large-scale reuse The architecture may be reusable across a range of systems.
Architecture in addition to system characteristics Per as long as mance Localise critical operations in addition to minimise communications. Use large rather than fine-grain components. Security Use a layered architecture with critical assets in the inner layers. Safety Localise safety-critical features in a small number of sub-systems. Availability Include redundant components in addition to mechanisms as long as fault tolerance. Maintainability Use fine-grain, replaceable components. Architectural conflicts Using large-grain components improves per as long as mance but reduces maintainability. Introducing redundant data improves availability but makes security more difficult. Localising safety-related features usually means more communication so degraded per as long as mance. System structuring Concerned with decomposing the system into interacting sub-systems. The architectural design is normally expressed as a block diagram presenting an overview of the system structure. More specific models showing how sub-systems share data, are distributed in addition to interface with each other may also be developed.
Packing robot control system Box in addition to line diagrams Very abstract – they do not show the nature of component relationships nor the externally visible properties of the sub-systems. However, useful as long as communication with stakeholders in addition to as long as project planning. Architectural design decisions Architectural design is a creative process so the process differs depending on the type of system being developed. However, a number of common decisions span all design processes.
Architectural design decisions Is there a generic application architecture that can be used How will the system be distributed What architectural styles are appropriate What approach will be used to structure the system How will the system be decomposed into modules What control strategy should be used How will the architectural design be evaluated How should the architecture be documented Architecture reuse Systems in the same domain often have similar architectures that reflect domain concepts. Application product lines are built around a core architecture with variants that satisfy particular customer requirements. Application architectures are covered in Chapter 13 in addition to product lines in Chapter 18. Architectural styles The architectural model of a system may con as long as m to a generic architectural model or style. An awareness of these styles can simplify the problem of defining system architectures. However, most large systems are heterogeneous in addition to do not follow a single architectural style.
Architectural models Used to document an architectural design. Static structural model that shows the major system components. Dynamic process model that shows the process structure of the system. Interface model that defines sub-system interfaces. Relationships model such as a data-flow model that shows sub-system relationships. Distribution model that shows how sub-systems are distributed across computers. System organisation Reflects the basic strategy that is used to structure a system. Three organisational styles are widely used: A shared data repository style; A shared services in addition to servers style; An abstract machine or layered style. The repository model Sub-systems must exchange data. This may be done in two ways: Shared data is held in a central database or repository in addition to may be accessed by all sub-systems; Each sub-system maintains its own database in addition to passes data explicitly to other sub-systems. When large amounts of data are to be shared, the repository model of sharing is most commonly used.
CASE toolset architecture Repository model characteristics Advantages Efficient way to share large amounts of data; Sub-systems need not be concerned with how data is produced Centralised management e.g. backup, security, etc. Sharing model is published as the repository schema. Disadvantages Sub-systems must agree on a repository data model. Inevitably a compromise; Data evolution is difficult in addition to expensive; No scope as long as specific management policies; Difficult to distribute efficiently. Client-server model Distributed system model which shows how data in addition to processing is distributed across a range of components. Set of st in addition to -alone servers which provide specific services such as printing, data management, etc. Set of clients which call on these services. Network which allows clients to access servers.
Film in addition to picture library Client-server characteristics Advantages Distribution of data is straight as long as ward; Makes effective use of networked systems. May require cheaper hardware; Easy to add new servers or upgrade existing servers. Disadvantages No shared data model so sub-systems use different data organisation. Data interchange may be inefficient; Redundant management in each server; No central register of names in addition to services – it may be hard to find out what servers in addition to services are available. Abstract machine (layered) model Used to model the interfacing of sub-systems. Organises the system into a set of layers (or abstract machines) each of which provide a set of services. Supports the incremental development of sub-systems in different layers. When a layer interface changes, only the adjacent layer is affected. However, often artificial to structure systems in this way.
Version management system Modular decomposition styles Styles of decomposing sub-systems into modules. No rigid distinction between system organisation in addition to modular decomposition. Sub-systems in addition to modules A sub-system is a system in its own right whose operation is independent of the services provided by other sub-systems. A module is a system component that provides services to other components but would not normally be considered as a separate system.
Modular decomposition Another structural level where sub-systems are decomposed into modules. Two modular decomposition models covered An object model where the system is decomposed into interacting object; A pipeline or data-flow model where the system is decomposed into functional modules which trans as long as m inputs to outputs. If possible, decisions about concurrency should be delayed until modules are implemented. Object models Structure the system into a set of loosely coupled objects with well-defined interfaces. Object-oriented decomposition is concerned with identifying object classes, their attributes in addition to operations. When implemented, objects are created from these classes in addition to some control model used to coordinate object operations. Invoice processing system
Architecture attributes Per as long as mance Localise operations to minimise sub-system communication Security Use a layered architecture with critical assets in inner layers Safety Isolate safety-critical components Availability Include redundant components in the architecture Maintainability Use fine-grain, self-contained components
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