Bachelor of Technology Mechanical Industrial Material UOG

Bachelor of Technology Mechanical Industrial Material UOG www.phwiki.com

Bachelor of Technology Mechanical Industrial Material UOG

Lo, Louise, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Bachelor of Technology MechanicalIndustrial MaterialUOGLecture 04By: Jahangir RanaMechanical Properties of metal

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Mechanical Properties of metal There are so many properties by which a metal can test. Some are as follow:Engineering stress & Engineering StrainShear Stress & Shear StrainModulus of Elasticity Yield Strength Ultimate tensile strength Percent ElongationPercent Reduction in areaHardnessFatigue Ductility ForgingAnd many more!!!!!!!!Stress () Stress is defined as as long as ce per unit area. It has the same units as pressure, in addition to in fact pressure is one special variety of stress. However, stress is a much more complex quantity than pressure because it varies both with direction in addition to with the surface it acts on. = Fn / A (1) where = normal stress ((Pa) N/m2, psi)Fn = normal component as long as ce (N, lbf)A = area (m2, in2)Strain () Strain is defined as the amount of de as long as mation an object experiences compared to its original size in addition to shape. For example, if a block 10 cm on a side is de as long as med so that it becomes 9 cm long, the strain is (10-9)/10 or 0.1 (sometimes expressed in percent, in this case 10 percent.) Note that strain is dimensionless.

Compression stressTension stressNormal stressShear stressTypes of stressStress that acts to shorten an object. Tension stressStress that acts to lengthen an object. Normal stressStress that acts perpendicular to a surface. Can be either compression or tensional. Compression stressStress that acts parallel to a surface. It can cause one object to slide over another. Stress parallel to the plane is usually denoted “shear stress” in addition to can be expressed as = Fp / A (2)where = shear stress ((Pa) N/m2, psi)Fp = parallel component as long as ce (N, lbf)A = area (m2, in2) It also tends to de as long as m originally rectangular objects into parallelograms. The most general definition is that shear acts to change the angles in an object. Shear stress

Shear stress Flexural stressTorsional stress

Shear Stress & Shear Strain Shear stressShear as long as ce applied on the area over which shear as long as ce is acted divided by the original area. It is donated by . = S/AShear strainThe shear strain is defined as the amount of the shear displacement ‘a’ divided by the height at which shear as long as ce is applied is called shear strain. = a/h

Stress Strain Curve Modulus of ElasticityIt is defined as when the metal is de as long as med elastically or stress is directly proportional to the strain. stress strain stress E strain ‘E’ is young’s modulus or modulus of elasticity. It is unit is pascal or PSICont Yield StrengthIt is strength at which metals or alloys shows the significant plastic de as long as mation.Ultimate tensile strengthThe maximum value of stress on stress strain diagram is called ultimate tensile strength.

Ductility & % Elongation Ductility It is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be de as long as med plastically without fracture. The property of metal which permits it to be reduced in cross sectional area without fracture. In a tensile test, ductile metals show considerable elongation eventually failing by necking, with consequent rapid increase in local stresses. % Elongation The amount of elongation that a tensile specimen undergoes during testing provide the value of ductility of metals. It is most commonly expressed % elongation. % Elongation % Reduction in area

HardnessIt is the property of a metal, which gives it the ability to resist being permanently, de as long as med (bent, broken, or have its shape changed), when a load is applied. The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to de as long as mation. It is a measure of a material’s resistance to localized plastic de as long as mation (e.g., a small dent or scratch).Hardness TestingIn quantitative hardness tests, a small indenter is as long as ced into the surface of a material to be tested, under controlled conditions of load in addition to rate of application. The depth or size of the resulting indentation is measured by an automated testing machine in addition to converted to a hardness number.The softer the material, the larger in addition to deeper the indentation, in addition to the lower the hardness index number.

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Advantages of Hardness TestingHardness tests are simple in addition to inexpensive. Ordinarily, no special specimen needs to be prepared, in addition to the testing apparatus is relatively inexpensive.Advantages of Hardness TestingThe test is non-destructive – the specimen is neither fractured nor excessively de as long as med. A small indentation is the only de as long as mation.Other mechanical properties may be estimated from hardness data. Rockwell Hardness TestsThe most common method used to measure hardness.Several different scales may be utilized from possible combinations of various indenters in addition to different loads, which permit the testing of virtually all metal alloys (as well as some polymers).

Rockwell Hardness Testing MachinesRockwell Hardness TestsIndenters include spherical in addition to steel balls having various diameters, in addition to also a conical diamond (Brale) indenter as long as testing the hardest materials. Rockwell Hardness TestsWith this system, a hardness number if determined by the difference in depth of penetration resulting from the application of a minor load followed by a larger major load.On the basis of the magnitude of both major in addition to minor load, two scales are used: Rockwell in addition to superficial Rockwell.

Cont CLOSED DIE FORGING OPEN DIE FORGING Open die as long as ging

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