Background to Special Relativity: The Wave Theory of Light ca. 1900 Newton’s “Ne

Background to Special Relativity: The Wave Theory of Light ca. 1900 Newton’s “Ne www.phwiki.com

Background to Special Relativity: The Wave Theory of Light ca. 1900 Newton’s “Ne

Kuhn, Sarah, Film and TV writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Background to Special Relativity: The Wave Theory of Light ca. 1900 Newton’s “New Theory of Light in addition to Colours” stated that white light is a mixture of heterogeneous rays, separated by refraction (e.g. by a prism) according to their degrees of refrangibility, with the degrees of refrangibility corresponding to the spectral colours. In the wave theory, a ray of light of a given degree of refrangibility, corresponding to a given colour, is produced by a wave of a given wavelength. Light is just one kind of electromagnetic radiation, corresponding to one small part of a spectrum of possible wavelengths, which includes waves shorter than those of “violet” light (“ultraviolet” light) in addition to longer than those of “red” light (“infrared” light). Wavelike behavior of light: Interference: waves of differing wavelengths combining to produce a wave with different characteristics Diffraction: Bending of light around edges of objects The Ether: If light is a wave, it is natural to assume that it is a wave propagating in some medium; the waves must be the vibrations of something. Since electromagnetic radiation appears to be everywhere, in addition to can even pass through solid bodies, this medium must fill all of space, including the interstitial spaces of the fundamental parts of matter. This medium became known as the “luminiferous” (light-bearing) ether. Measurements of the velocity of light showed that it travels at a constant velocity (c), which was assumed to be a velocity relative to the ether.

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The Galilei-Newtonian theory of relativity: The laws of physics make no distiction between uni as long as m motion in addition to rest. Mechanical effects depend only on the acceleration, not on the velocity, of the system. Given a system in which the Newtonian relation between as long as ce, mass, in addition to velocity holds, any system in uni as long as m motion relative to this system is dynamically indistinguishable from it. Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics: Electrodynamical effects depend on the propagation of waves in the ether, in addition to there as long as e they depend on the velocity of the system relative to the ether. The velocity of light relative to the ether is a measureable constant. Are these two principles incompatible No! The velocity of light is not an absolute velocity in space, but a velocity relative to the ether. It is, in principle, no more a difficulty than the existence of a determinate velocity of sound relative to air. The velocity of light as measured by any observer should depend on that observer’s own velocity relative to the ether. In other words, the velocity of light should obey the Newtonian principle of the addition of velocities: Newtonian relativity implies that any velocity depends on the velocity of the system in which it is measured. A sufficiently sensitive measurement should reveal the dependence of the velocity of light on the motion of the earth through the ether (the “ether wind”).

A light beam from A goes to a half-silvered mirror at B: the reflected part goes to D, in addition to the transmitted part goes to E; the paths BD in addition to BE have the same length (L). The parted beams are reflected at D in addition to E in addition to then rejoin. If the apparatus is at rest, times of the two trips BE in addition to BD are equal, in addition to the rejoined waves will be in phase. If the apparatus is moving through the ether at velocity v, with the direction BE parallel to the direction of motion, the times of light travel along the two arms will not be equal. The time from B to D in addition to back should be shorter than the time from B + E in addition to back.

But the result of the experiment is null! How to interpret this To accept that motion relative to the ether really makes no physical difference, we would have to accept the notion that there is actually a velocity (the velocity of light) that has the same value as long as observers in different states of uni as long as m motion-i.e. a velocity that appears the same to observers with different velocities. This seems absurd. The Lorentz contraction: The light did not travel at the same speed in both directions; rather, the times were the same because the path BE contracted. In other words, the speed of light appears to be the same because the measuring apparatus contracted in the direction of motion. All objects moving through the ether contract in the dimension parallel to their motion through the ether, in addition to this explains why motion through the ether cannot be detected. Einstein on simultaneity (1917): We encounter the same difficulty with all physical statements in which the conception ” simultaneous ” plays a part. The concept does not exist as long as the physicist until he has the possibility of discovering whether or not it is fulfilled in an actual case. We thus require a definition of simultaneity such that this definition supplies us with the method by means of which, in the present case, he can decide by experiment whether or not both the lightning strokes occurred simultaneously. As long as this requirement is not satisfied, I allow myself to be deceived as a physicist ( in addition to of course the same applies if I am not a physicist), when I imagine that I am able to attach a meaning to the statement of simultaneity. The present (“now”) time space The future The past Events that can still be influenced by what you do now, but that cannot influence what is happening now Events that can influence what happens now, but that cannot be influenced by anything you do now here in addition to now The “causal structure” of spacetime

time space Events that can still be influenced by what you do now, but that cannot influence what is happening now: the “future light cone” of p Events that can influence what happens now, but that cannot be influenced by anything you do now: the “past light cone” of p p What if you couldn’t travel faster than light Causally inaccessible to p Causally inaccessible to p time space p If you can’t travel faster than light, then what’s happening “now” can only influence you later. “now” What is simultaneous as long as a bat

time space The bat in spacetime Visual simultaneity time space Visual perception in spacetime

If light propagation is isotropic, then light from the explosion goes equal distances in equal times, in addition to reaches equidistant points at the same time. The same thing, in space-time time space

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Einstein on the train (Dramatization)

Galilean trans as long as mations Lorentz trans as long as mations

“Is it not clear from the smallness of the scintillation on the screen that we have to do with a particle And is it not clear, from the diffraction in addition to interference patterns, that the motion of the particle is directed by a wave De Broglie showed in detail how the motion of a particle, passing through just one of two holes in screen, could be influenced by waves propagating through both holes. And so influenced that the particle does not go where the waves cancel out, but is attracted to where they cooperate. This idea seems to me so natural in addition to simple, to resolve the wave-particle dilemma in such a clear in addition to ordinary way, that it is a great mystery to me that it was so generally ignored.” (Bell 1986) Pilot waves in the double slit experiment

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