bar height cleared scissors eastern cut-off western roll straddle
Brillhart, Aaron, Host; Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal The Evolution of High Jumping Technique: Biomechanical Analysis Jesús Dapena Department of Kinesiology Indiana University U.S.A. adapted from the Dyson Award Lecture at the XX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports Cáceres, Spain, 2002 There was no high jumping event in the ancient Greek Olympic Games. High jumping seems to have its origin with the Celts (Tailteann Games). But modern high jumping began in Germany in the late 1700s.
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Then it developed into a competitive sport in Engl in addition to in the early 1800s. And soon after, it spread to Canada in addition to the United States. To clear a high jump bar, it is necessary to drive the center of mass (c.m.) of the athlete to the largest height possible. basic principles of high jumping: It is also necessary to move the body in the air in a way that will allow the athlete to clear a bar set as close as possible to the peak height reached by the c.m. bar height cleared
For a given peak height of the c.m., lowering some parts of the body makes other parts of the body go higher. This is the mechanical principle that high jumpers have used to improve the effectiveness of the bar clearance. Techniques have progressed a lot since the beginning of modern high jumping around 1800. And every new technique was named after an improvement in the bar clearance. Lets look at this progression in the bar clearance technique. progression of bar clearance effectiveness If a high jumper remains in a straight vertical position after taking off from the ground, the height of the bar that the feet can clear will be far below the peak height of the c.m. By lifting the legs, the trunk in addition to head get lower, in addition to the c.m. stays at the same peak height as be as long as e. But the athlete can clear a higher bar.
scissors The next technique in the evolution of high jumping was the scissors, in which the legs are lifted over the bar in alternation one after the other. The advantage of the scissors technique is that parts of both legs are below the level of the bar at the peak of the jump. This increases the height of the pelvis, in addition to there as long as e the bar height that can be cleared. progression of bar clearance effectiveness eastern cut-off The scissors was followed by the eastern cut-off technique (sometimes called the Lewden scissors in Europe). In this technique the athlete rotates the trunk into a horizontal position at the peak of the jump. This lowers the trunk, in addition to there as long as e lifts the pelvis higher than in the simple scissors technique. The result is a higher bar clearance. A disadvantage of the Eastern cut-off is that it requires tremendous flexibility.
progression of bar clearance effectiveness western roll The eastern cut-off was succeeded by the western roll technique. In this technique the athlete cleared the bar on his/her side, with the takeoff leg tucked under the rest of the body. This technique probably did not improve much the effectiveness of the bar clearance in relation to the eastern cut-off. However, it also did not require very much flexibility. Thus, the contribution of the western roll was to provide a reasonably effective bar clearance as long as a larger number of high jumpers. progression of bar clearance effectiveness
straddle The western roll was followed by the straddle technique. In this technique the athlete cleared the bar face-down, with the body stretched along the bar. The straddle allowed parts of the legs to be lower than the bar at the peak of the jump. This allowed the pelvis to rise to a greater height in relation to the position of the c.m., in addition to there as long as e improved the effectiveness of the bar clearance. progression of bar clearance effectiveness While the straddle was replacing the western roll, important innovations were occurring in the run-up in addition to in the takeoff:
improvements in run-up in addition to takeoff: fast run-up Some athletes used a fast run-up. This allowed them to put the muscles of the takeoff leg in fast eccentric conditions during the takeoff phase, which in turn allowed the athlete to exert a larger vertical as long as ce on the ground. (In eccentric conditions the muscles are as long as ced to stretch while they are trying to shorten. In such conditions the muscles can make very large as long as ces.) improvements in run-up in addition to takeoff: fast run-up low position at end of run-up Other athletes ran with the c.m. in a low position in the last steps of the run-up. This allowed them to have available a long vertical range of motion as long as the c.m. during the takeoff phase. This increased the height of the jump. close to vertical at end of takeoff improvements in run-up in addition to takeoff: fast run-up low position at end of run-up Some athletes noticed that a vertical position of the body at the end of the takeoff increased the height of the jump. This was also due to an increased vertical range of motion during the takeoff phase.
double-arm action close to vertical at end of takeoff improvements in run-up in addition to takeoff: fast run-up low position at end of run-up Other jumpers moved their arms into a backward position in the last steps of the run-up, in addition to then threw them strongly as long as ward in addition to upward during the takeoff phase. This allowed the takeoff leg to exert a larger as long as ce against the ground. double-arm action close to vertical at end of takeoff improvements in run-up in addition to takeoff: fast run-up low position at end of run-up straight lead leg action Still others kicked as long as ward in addition to upward with the lead leg during the takeoff phase, with a motion similar to a soccer kick:
There as long as e, today both techniques should be in use but they are not. Only the Fosbury-flop is being used today; the straddle has disappeared. The crucial factor was that the Fosbury- flop was much easier to learn than the straddle. So today, all high jumpers use the Fosbury-flop technique even though the straddle probably would be better as long as some of them. The End
Brillhart, Aaron Host; Meteorologist
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