Be/FS joining as long as ITER TBM Outline Introduction Current Knowledge Layering Scheme

Be/FS joining as long as ITER TBM Outline Introduction Current Knowledge Layering Scheme www.phwiki.com

Be/FS joining as long as ITER TBM Outline Introduction Current Knowledge Layering Scheme

Purcell, Mandy, Executive Publisher has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Be/FS joining as long as ITER TBMRyan Matthew HuntFNST MeetingAugust 18, 2009A collaboration between UCLA, SNL-Livermore, Brush-Wellman, Axsys Inc. in addition to Bodycote. F82H supplied by JAEA through TITAN collaborationOutlineIntroductionCurrent KnowledgeBonding Layering SchemeInitial ProgressExperimental ProcedureCharacterization of Cu//F82H bondAnalysis of Ti//Cu Diffusion ZoneConclusionsFuture Work2IntroductionApplication: ITER requires a 2mm coating of Beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of TBMsBe used as armor layerRAFM steel used as structural material (F82H, Eurofer, etc.)Research Task: create a robust diffusion bond between two dissimilar metals strong enough to survive in ITER:Beryllium & RAFM steel (F82H)32mm coating on plasma facing surfaces

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Current KnowledgeBe reacts with just about everythingExceptions: Ge, Si, Ag, AlForms brittle intermetallic compoundsNeed a diffusion barrier material4Much research in last 15 years to solve this problem in relation to FW beryllium bondsBe to CuCrZr, Be to SS, Cu to SSArrived at Ti/Cu interlayer schemeLayering SchemePiggyback on FW shield module research:Titanium diffusion barrierMust be thin as possibleCostly to fabricate thick layer; too thick Ti may fail from brittle fractureCopper compliant layerStress from thermal expansion difference is absorbed by ductile Cu5Ti (5-25 m) via PVDCu (10-30 m) via PVDBeF82HHIPLimitations on JointFabricationHIP temp bounds:< 850 C recrystallization temperature of BerylliumWant lowest temp possible to avoid extraneous heat treatment of TBM structural joints> 650 C insufficient bonding below this temp (known from FW research)i.e. FW Be/CuCrZr bond uses 2 m Ti, 25 m Cu @ 560 C HIP, as long as 2 hrsImplementationStrength of interface need exceed stress in region=57 MPa predicted from thermal stress [Lee2006] 3D FEM analysis of TBM armor layer not yet completed

Initial progress(Prior to inclusion of Beryllium)Measure strength of Cu direct bond to RAFM steel Previously, Cu to SS easy to bond. SS had nickel to aid diffusion. RAFM has much less Ni. Cu may not bond as well.Experiment 1: Measure Cu to F82H bond strengthTensile, shear, in addition to toughness at interfaceDetermine min. thickness of Ti that still blocks diffusion at HIP temperaturesExperiment 2: For each possible HIP temp., measure depth of diffusion of Cu into Ti7Experimental ProcedureExperiment 1Fabricate 5 HIP SS cans with Cu & F82H substrates insideHIP as long as 2 hours, 103 MPa @ 650, 700, 750, 800, 850 °CMeasure strength in MTS tensile, shear & toughnessExperiment 2Fabricate samplesAnneal in vacuum furnace to simulate HIP bondMeasure diffusion depth via EMP line scansSubstrateCu used as long as simplicity20 m Ti25 m CuCharacterization of Cu//F82H bondComposition:AES shows very narrow (~1 m) diffusion zone after 850 °C HIP(Analysis of lower temps underway)Strength:@ 850 C in addition to @ 750 C Failure in Cu bulk materialachieves 211 MPa min. tensile strength@ 650 C Failure at material interfacecreates insufficient bond(Awaiting results as long as 800, 700 C HIP bonds)9

Analysis of Ti//Cu Diffusion Zone10Samples annealed 30 min. Use data to predict depth as long as 2 hour anneal Note: Oxygen levels in Ti higher than expected. PVD chamber potentially problematic. May Cause slightly different diffusion behavior.650 °C750 °C850 °CInitial ConclusionsTi/Cu interlayers, HIP at 750 °C as long as 2 hrs, 103 MPa, appear to be viable recipe as long as bonding.750 °C is promising result, close to PWHT of TBM, (as desired by JAEA research)800, 700 °C Cu/F82H HIP cycle results underwayHigher temp HIP cycles may require unreasonable amount of Ti to completely block diffusion of Cu into Be Still can slow diffusion11Future WorkFull JointManufacture coupons to include Beryllium, utilizing analysis from current experiments10 sample matrix: Expect failure in Ti/Cu intermetallicsFor comparison – direct bond, only Ti, only Cr, Cr/CuDesign AnalysisShow that bond will survive in ITERPer as long as m FEM stress analysis of TBM. Include:Primary (pressure) in addition to Secondary (thermal) loading in regionCyclic loading as long as lifetime of ITEREffects of irradiation will not be studied. Suggested as future work as long as qualification.12

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