Biology 107 Cellular Respiration Metabolism Review Energy Flow in Ecosystems ATP Supplies Energy as long as Cellular Work Modes of ATP Synthesis
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ATP Supplies Energy as long as Cellular Work Modes of ATP Synthesis Enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP Reactions result in the transfer of electrons to O2. This transfer of energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with free Pi. Substrate Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O oxidation reduction Electrons lose potential energy along the way Cellular Respiration Involves Oxidation-reduction Reactions
Exergonic Reactions Advantage of Multistep Process in Transfer of Energy to ATP Summary of Multistep Reactions Used to Generate ATP in Eukaryotic Cells Glycolysis Energy Scorecard
Structure of NAD+/NADH H+ H+ e- e- Early Steps in Glycolysis Later Steps in Glycolysis
Substrate Phosphorylation Summary of Net Products of Gycolysis Two ATPs Two water molecules Two NADHs (+2H+) Two pyruvates The electrons in the NADHs can yield ATPs through the electron transport system, in addition to the pyruvate can be metabolized in the Krebs cycle. In the Presence of Oxygen, Pyruvates Enter the Mitochondrion in addition to are Oxidized
In the Absence of Oxygen, Pyruvates are Fermented to Liberate NAD+ Lactic Acid Fermentation Compared to Alcohol Fermentation Summary
Cellular Respiration I Student Objectives: As a result of this lecture in addition to the assigned reading, you should underst in addition to the following: 1. Cell release chemical energy by means of an exergonic process called cellular respiration, the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules by cells. 2. Cellular respiration is the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of molecules in addition to the storage of energy from that breakdown in a as long as m (e.g., ATP) the cell can use to per as long as m work. Cellular Respiration II 3. Normally there is an oxidation of the organic molecule causing the hydrogen atoms (electrons in addition to their accompanying protons) to be removed from the carbon atoms in addition to eventually combined with oxygen (which is thereby reduced). In cellular respiration, the electrons go from higher energy levels to lower energy levels, in addition to energy is released. This energy is released over many steps as electrons move to successively lower energy levels. Some of that energy is lost as heat; a portion of that energy (40%) is captured in the terminal phosphate bonds of ATP. 5. The efficiency in living systems is due to the fact that energy release occurs over the course of a series of controlled reaction steps. Cellular Respiration I The harvesting of energy involves the rearrangement of electrons in chemical bonds. The common theme is that a cell transfers energy from one molecule to another by coupling an exergonic reaction (energy-releasing) to an endergonic reaction (energy-storing). The energy released was stored in the specific arrangement of a molecule’s covalent bonds, in addition to the energy stored is in the new covalent bonds as long as med. In summary, cellular respiration rearranges electrons in chemical bonds. These are redox reactions. Because an electron transfer requires both a donor in addition to an acceptor, an electron leaves one molecule only when it contacts another molecule that attracts it more strongly. 8. In respiration, there are two main coenzymes derived from B complex vitamins. First is NAD+ ,(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) which in part is derived from B3, niacin. The second coenzyme is FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which in part is derived from B2, riboflavin.
Cellular Respiration I Glucose supplies energy to as long as m ATP by two related processes: 1) glycolysis in addition to 2) cellular respiration. The products of glycolysis are reactants used in respiration. In glycolysis (“splitting of sugar”), the 6-carbon glucose molecule is split into two 3-carbon molecules, pyruvate. The net energy harvested from the glycolysis reactions is in the as long as m of ATP in addition to NADH. a. This production of ATP in glycolysis is by the direct, enzyme- mediated transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP by the mechanism called substrate phosphorylation. This is different from electron transport (oxidative) phosphorylation, which requires oxygen in addition to a transport system. b. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol in addition to does not require oxygen (i.e., it is an anaerobic process). Cellular Respiration I In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvates are fed into the second stage of energy capturing, cellular respiration. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvate is converted to either lactic acid or ethanol. This conversion process is known as fermentation, in addition to it produces no ATP. Fermentation is a mechanism as long as cells to replenish the supply of NAD+ that the cell is using in glycolysis. The reactions of glycolysis follow essentially the same routes in prokaryotes in addition to eukaryotes, except the products of fermentation are more varied under anaerobic conditions.
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