Biology Of Human Aging Chapter 12 Urinary System Outline Review of the Structure

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Biology Of Human Aging Chapter 12 Urinary System Outline Review of the Structure

Limerick, Griffin, News Associate Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Biology Of Human Aging Chapter 12 Urinary System Outline Review of the Structure in addition to Function Kidneys / Ureters / Urinary Bladder / Urethra Age-Related Changes Kidneys / Bladder in addition to Urethra Age-Related Dysfunctions Urinary iIncontinence Nocturia Dysfunctions Caused by the prostate gl in addition to Pyelonephritis Renal Calculi Kidney Functions Filter 200 liters of blood daily, allowing toxins, metabolic wastes, in addition to excess ions to leave the body in urine Regulate volume in addition to chemical makeup of the blood Maintain the proper balance between water in addition to salts, in addition to acids in addition to bases Production of rennin to help regulate blood pressure in addition to erythropoietin to stimulate RBC production Activation of vitamin D

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Other Urinary System Organs Urinary bladder – provides a temporary storage reservoir as long as urine Paired ureters – transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Urethra – transports urine from the bladder out of the body Urinary System Organs Figure 25.1a Layers of Tissue Supporting the Kidney Renal capsule – fibrous capsule that prevents kidney infection

Internal Anatomy A frontal section shows three distinct regions Cortex – the light colored, granular superficial region Medulla – exhibits cone-shaped medullary (renal) pyramids Pyramids are made up of parallel bundles of urine-collecting tubules Renal pelvis – flat, funnel-shaped tube lateral to the hilus within the renal sinus Internal Anatomy Major calyces – large branches of the renal pelvis Collect urine draining from papillae Empty urine into the pelvis Urine flows through the pelvis in addition to ureters to the bladder Internal Anatomy Figure 25.3b

The Nephron Nephrons are the structural in addition to functional units that as long as m urine, consisting of: Glomerulus – a tuft of capillaries associated with a renal tubule Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule – blind, cup-shaped end of a renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus The Nephron Renal corpuscle – the glomerulus in addition to its Bowman’s capsule Podocytes (cleft cells) Renal Tubule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) –with numerous microvilli in addition to mitochondria Reabsorbs water in addition to solutes from filtrate in addition to secretes substances into it Loop of Henle – a hairpin-shaped loop of the renal tubule Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) – cuboidal cells without microvilli that function more in secretion than reabsorption

Renal Tubule Figure 25.4b Capillary Beds Figure 25.5a Capillary Beds of the Nephron Every nephron has two capillary beds Glomerulus Peritubular capillaries Each glomerulus is: Fed by an afferent arteriole Drained by an efferent arteriole

Capillary Beds of the Nephron Blood pressure in the glomerulus is high because: Arterioles are high-resistance vessels Afferent arterioles have larger diameters than efferent arterioles Filtration Membrane Figure 25.7a Filtration Membrane Figure 25.7c

Mechanisms of Urine Formation Urine as long as mation in addition to adjustment of blood composition involves three major processes Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Secretion Figure 25.8 Ureters Slender tubes that convey urine from the kidneys to the bladder Ureters enter the base of the bladder through the posterior wall This closes their distal ends as bladder pressure increases in addition to prevents backflow of urine into the ureters Ureters actively propel urine to the bladder via response to smooth muscle stretch Urinary Bladder Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that temporarily stores urine Outlined by the openings as long as the ureters in addition to the urethra Clinically important because infections tend to persist in this region

Urinary Bladder Figure 25.18a, b Urethra Muscular tube that: Drains urine from the bladder Conveys it out of the body Urethra Sphincters keep the urethra closed when urine is not being passed Internal urethral sphincter – involuntary sphincter at the bladder-urethra junction External urethral sphincter – voluntary sphincter surrounding the urethra as it passes through the urogenital diaphragm

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Age-Related Changes Kidney Thickening of connective tissue capsule Decrease in thickness of cortical region General atrophy of cells in addition to gradual decrease in kidney weight Decrease in kidney functioning Increase in the incidents of abnormal glomeruli in addition to replacement of degenerated glomeruli by connective tissue (non-permeable) Proteinuria (presence of protein in urine) Increased abnormalities in addition to degeneration of renal tubules Blood vessels: thickening of walls, loss of muscular tissue, in addition to atherosclerotic deposits Decline in the ability to h in addition to le large changes in acid base levels Age-Related Changes 2. Bladder in addition to Urethra Weakening in addition to loss of elasticity of the muscles in the walls Inability to exp in addition to or contract lower bladder capacity in elderly Retention of residual urine (100 ml) after urination in elderly Delay in awareness of the need to urinate Urination in elderly may be urgent, & due to weakness of external urethral sphincter elderly may be unable to reach the lavatory in time Urination during night more common in elderly Weakness of the muscles of the pelvic cavity floor ineffectiveness of external urethral sphincter urine leakage (usually seen in sudden rise in pressure of bladder) cough or sneeze This is called Stress Incontinence (more common in older women) Age-Related Dysfunctions Urinary Incontinence Involuntary passing of urine through the urethra Incidents twice as high in women as in men Due to weakness of internal & external urethral sphincters & uninhibited contractions of smooth muscles hyperactive bladder Significant problem in older persons marketing of adult diaper-like undergarments is a profitable enterprise Also reduction of bladder volume & delayed sensation to urinate due to muscle atrophy Post-menopausal women: estrogen deficiency weak muscles Involuntary urine passage is due to: Mechanical conditions that elevate bladder pressure (cough or sneeze) Incomplete emptying of the bladder

2. Nocturia Excessive urination at night Not a serious condition by itself, yet disturbs sleep Taking drugs: bodily reactions to drugs (relaxation of sphincters or stimulation of muscles) Not taking drugs: due to age related losses in bladder distensibility & inability of kidney to concentrate here 3. Dysfunctions caused by the Prostate Gl in addition to Reproductive organ, yet interferes with function of urinary system Overall atrophy of prostate with aging, yet a lot of men experience growth of prostate Benign hyperplasia of prostate: compresses the urethra, difficulty in urination, bladder never completely emptied Increases pressure in glomerular capsules kidney malfunction Symptoms: Reduced as long as ce behind urine stream, frequent urination, inability to empty bladder Treatment: surgery, transurethral resection 3. Dysfunctions caused by the Prostate Gl in addition to Carcinoma: most frequent tumor of old men Early stages: little or no urethral obstruction, unaware of tumor Later stage: restrict urine flow, tumor too far advanced to be treated Regular examination, Digital Rectal Exam (DRE), PSA test Drugs: lengthy remissions, surgery

4. Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidney Not restricted to older persons Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection that travels to the kidney in the blood or lymphs Causes swelling of kidney due to fluid build up In severe cases, abscesses develop inflammation & pus Chronic problem in addition to causes extensive scar tissue in kidney kidney failure Responds well to antibiotic treatment Serious condition (uremia) 5. Renal Calculi Kidney stones, not restricted to elderly Most stones do not cause significant symptoms Passage of stones from kidney, ureter, & bladder strong muscle contractions episodes of severe pain If stone lodged in ureter obstructs urine flow kidney damage, ulceration, vulnerable to infection Cause: Ca2+, uric acid, cystine, magnesium, ammonium phosphate Kidney stone as long as mation related to: Various kidney infections, high salt concentration in urine, Vit. A deficiency, tumor of parathyroid gl in addition to

Limerick, Griffin News Associate Editor

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