Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy Jason T. Motz Harvard Medical School in addition to The Wellm
Bizjak, Marybeth, Food Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy Jason T. Motz Harvard Medical School in addition to The Wellman Center as long as Photomedicine Massachusetts General Hospital 11 April 2006 A New Type of Secondary Radiation C. V. Raman in addition to K. S. Krishnan, Nature, 121(3048): 501-502, March 31, 1928 If we assume that the X-ray scattering of the ‘unmodified’ type observed by Prof. Compton corresponds to the normal or average state of the atoms in addition to molecules, while the ‘modified’ scattering of altered wave-length corresponds to their fluctuations from that state, it would follow that we should expect also in the case of ordinary light two types of scattering, one determined by the normal optical properties of the atoms or molecules, in addition to another representing the effect of their fluctuations from their normal state. It accordingly becomes necessary to test whether this is actually the case. The experiments we have made have confirmed this anticipation, in addition to shown that in every case in which light is scattered by the molecules in dust-free liquids or gases, the diffuse radiation of the ordinary kind, having the same wave-length as the incident beam, is accompanied by a modified scattered radiation of degraded frequency. The new type of light scattering discovered by us naturally requires very powerful illumination as long as its observation. In our experiments, a beam of sunlight was converged successively by a telescope objective of 18 cm. aperture in addition to 230 cm. focal length, in addition to by a second lens was placed the scattering material, which is either a liquid (carefully purified by repeated distillation in vacuo) or its dust-free vapour. To detect the presence of a modified scattered radiation, the method of complementary light-filters was used. A blue-violet filter, when coupled with a yellow-green filter in addition to placed in the incident light, completely extinguished the track of the light through the liquid or vapour. The reappearance of the track when the yellow filter is transferred to a place between it in addition to the observer’s eye is proof of the existence of a modified scattered radiation. Spectroscopic confirmation is also available. Some sixty different common liquids have been examined in this way, in addition to every one of them showed the effect in greater or less degree. That the effect is a true scattering, in addition to secondly by its polarisation, which is in many cases quire strong in addition to comparable with the polarisation of the ordinary scattering. The investigation is naturally much more difficult in the case of gases in addition to vapours, owing to the excessive feebleness of the effect. Nevertheless, when the vapour is of sufficient density, as long as example with ether or amylene, the modified scattering is readily demonstrable. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 ” as long as his work on the scattering of light in addition to as long as the discovery of the effect named after him”
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The Raman Effect: Inelastic Scattering hni h(ni-nR) hni 3 2 1 0 S1 3 2 1 0 S0 Energy Virtual Level Rayleigh Raman (inelastic) (elastic) Scattering Scattering Inelastic Scattering Energy transferred from incident light to molecular vibrations Emitted light has decreased energy (i
Raman Spectra: Fingerprinting a Molecule Raman spectra are molecule specific Spectra contain in as long as mation about vibrational modes of the molecule Spectra have sharp features, allowing identification of the molecule by its spectrum Examples of analytes found in blood which are quantifiable with Raman spectroscopy Spectroscopic Advantages of NIR Raman Narrow vibrational b in addition to s are chemical specific in addition to rich in in as long as mation Freedom to choose excitation wavelength minimize unwanted tissue fluorescence optimize sampling depth utilize CCD technology Diagnostic Advantages of Raman Spectroscopy Wavelength selection No biopsy required Directly measures molecules Small concentrations Chemical composition Morphological analysis Quantitative analysis In vivo diagnosis
Outline The Raman Effect Theory Techniques & Applications Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy History Excitation wavelength selection Advantages of Raman spectroscopy Instrumentation Laboratory Clinical: optical fiber probes Case Study: Atherosclerosis Disease background Impact of Raman spectroscopy Frontiers Laser Sources as long as Raman Spectroscopy In Vitro Experimental Raman System
Conclusions Raman spectroscopy fingerprints molecules by characterizing interactions between photons in addition to molecular vibrations Near-infrared excitation is preferred as long as biomedical applications Recent optical fiber probe developments allow accurate real-time analysis in vivo New areas of research are promising as long as widespread clinical application References McCreery RL. Raman Spectroscopy as long as Chemical Analysis. Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2000. Ferraro JR, Nakamoto K, in addition to Brown CW. Introductory Raman Spectroscopy 2nd ed. Academic Press, Boston, 2003. Hanlon EB, et al. Prospects as long as in vivo Raman spectroscopy, Phys Med Biol 45: R1-R59 (2000). Mahadevan-Jensen A in addition to Richards-Kortum R. Raman spectroscopy as long as the detection of cancers in addition to precancers, J Biomed Opt 1:31-70 (1996). Utzinger U in addition to Richards-Kortum R. Fiber optic probes as long as biomedical spectroscopy, J Biomed Opt 8: 121-147 (2003).
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