Bolometric Adding Interferometry: MBI & QUBIC

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Bolometric Adding Interferometry: MBI & QUBIC

Collins, Tamara, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Bolometric Adding Interferometry: MBI & QUBIC Peter Timbie University of Wisconsin – Madison CMB Interferometers Why CMB Interferometry Systematics! simple optics – beams can be as long as med with corrugated horn arrays symmetric beam patterns, low sidelobes, no mirrors – no off-axis aberrations correlates Ex in addition to Ey on a single detector to measure Stokes U (no differencing of detectors) differences sky signals (measures visibilities) without scanning simple observing strategy – measure U in addition to Q on each field by rotating about optical axis measures Temp in addition to Polarization power spectra directly angular resolution ~ 2X better than imager of equivalent diameter coherent (HEMTs) or incoherent (bolometers) systems possible

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Interferometer Beam Systematics j n1 n2 uij i Beam mismatch, distortion, etc. do not couple T into Stokes U visibility. [E.F. Bunn PRD 75, 083517 (2007)] y x X Interferometers measure visibilities: Beam Combination as long as Large N Pairwise (Michelson): signals are split in addition to combined pairwise N(N-1)/2 pairs (78 as long as N = 13, 4950 as long as N =100) multiplying correlator (coherent receivers only) a. analog (DASI/CBI) b. digital (most radio interferometers) – power – b in addition to width Fizeau (Butler): signals from all antennas appear at all detectors Guided-wave adding interferometer (Butler combiner, Rotman lens) Quasioptical adding interferometer using a telescope (MBI, EPIC-I, QUBIC) Ryle’s Adding Interferometer (1952) “visibility”

Adding Interferometer as long as Many Horns OMTs total power single-horn auto-correlation Stokes U visibilities N horns 2N phase modulators beam combiner detectors Stokes I visibilities Bolometer Array Parabolic mirror Phase Shifters Feed horn antennas Cryostat 45° CW twist rectangular wave guide 45º CCW twist rectangular wave guide Quasioptical Beam Combiner Interference pattern The interference pattern is imaged on the bolometer array Each pixel measures a linear combination of all visibilities with different phase shifts Sequences of phase shift modulations allow reconstruction of all visibilities in optimal way In a close-packed array, many baselines are redundant – these need to be ‘co-added’ [Charlassier et al., arxiv:0806.0380, A&A 497 (2009) 963] [Hyl in addition to et al., arXiv :0808.2403v1, MNRAS 393 (2009) 531]

Sensitivity – comparison to imager Both systems have: 256 horns 1 angular resolution background-limited bolos 25 % b in addition to width Interferometer: co-adds ‘redundant’ visibilities has 1000 detectors [Hamilton et al., arxiv:0807.0438, A&A 491-3 (2008) 923-927] updated with b in addition to width in addition to accurate NET calculations] data pts from simulation The Millimeter-Wave Bolometric Interferometer (MBI-4) Fizeau (optical) beam combiner 4 feedhorns (6 baselines) 90 GHz (3 mm) ~1o angular resolution 7o FOV Antennas Liquid nitrogen tank Liquid helium tank Secondary mirror 3He refrigerator Primary mirror Bolometer unit Phase modulators MBI Assembly 19 spider-web bolos (JPL) (PSB’s not required) 15 cm

MBI Team MBI-4 at Pine Bluff Observatory Madison, WI First light March 2008 Beam maps March 2009 See poster by Am in addition to a Gault MBI-4 interference fringes Baseline as long as med by horns 2 in addition to 3 Observed Gunn oscillator on tower Observed Signal (Bolometer 9) Simulated Signal

MBI Interference Fringes The QUBIC collaboration University of Wisconsin USA University of Richmond USA IUCAA, Pune India La Sapienza, Roma, Italia Universita di Milano-Bicocca Italia CESR Toulouse France Maynooth University Irel in addition to Manchester University UK CSNSM Orsay France IAS Orsay France APC Paris France Brown University USA QU Bolometric Interferometer as long as Cosmology Google Maps A merging of MBI (USA) with BRAIN (Europe) The QUBIC instrument concept Off-axis quasi-optical beam combiner back horns 4K 300 mK 4K 4K 4K 4K Cryostat Sky ~70 cm ~60 cm ~10 cm ~25 cm ~40 cm

QUBIC Design 6 modules of 144 entry horns 14 deg. primary beams square compact configuration multipole range : 25-150 ~900 TES bolometers / module ~10000 baselines / module phase switch redundant baselines simultaneously – phase steps of 15 degrees – sequence length ~500 steps 3 channels: 90,150,220 GHz 25% B in addition to width Modular Cryogenics One 4K pulse tube as long as 6 modules 100 mK focal plane r ~ 0.01 in one year of data ~ 25cm QUBIC program MBI-4 Prototype 4 horns bolometric interferometer works in Wisconsin (2008 in addition to 2009) Fringes observed ! BRAIN Pathfinder Site testing, logistics Atmosphere characterization at Dome C (effective temperature, polarization ) 2 campaigns, January 2006 in addition to 2007 Third campaign starting next Antarctic summer QUBIC Search as long as primordial B-modes (50 < l < 150) 6 Bolometric interferometer modules 144 horns/module (90, 150, 220 GHz) 25% B in addition to width Full instrument in 2012-2013 Target : r ~ 0.01 in 1 year of data 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 BRAIN Pathfinder QUBIC first module QUBIC 2011 MBI-4 2012 Next steps as long as Bolometric Interferometry phase modulators are critical multiple phase states (~ 5 bits) 1 ms switching speed several technologies under study: Faraday, MEMs, s/c nanobridge switches, varactor diode simulations of systematic effects, scan strategies as long as eground removal in visibility space QUBIC see poster by T.K. Sridharan as long as alternate BI approach Collins, Tamara Spa Magazine Contributing Editor www.phwiki.com

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