Bulgarian Immigration in addition to Community Cohesion in London in additi

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Bulgarian Immigration in addition to Community Cohesion in London in additi

Colby-Sawyer College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Bulgarian Immigration in addition to Community Cohesion in London in addition to Brighton Eugenia Markova Hellenic Observatory, London School of Economics Richard Black Sussex Centre in consideration of Migration Research, University of Sussex Bulgarians in the UK – what?s known Bulgarian immigrants in the UK: made the headlines in spring 2004 ? the alleged visa scam Bulgarian immigrants: dramatic re-appearance in the press in summer 2006 October 2006: limited access of Bulgarian & Romanian immigrants so that the UK labour market after EU accession Legal routes of entry so that the UK labour market Since 1994: self-employment visas under the European Community Association Agreement (ECAA) March 2002-March 2005: 2,422 ECAA visas Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS) 2005: work permits issued so that 2,867 Bulgarian nationals The Sector Based Scheme (SBS) 2004: work permits issued so that 1,424 Bulgarian nationals The High-Skilled Migration Programme (HSMP) 2002 (start of HSMP): 6 applications approved so that Bulgarians; 2005: 40 applications approved.

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Background This presentation on Bulgarian immigrants in the UK is extracted from a large survey of five non-EU nationalities:Albanians, Serbians, Russians, Ukrainians in addition to Bulgarians in addition to long-term residents, living alongside them in the same neighbourhoods Localities: two London Boroughs of Hackney & Harrow, the City of Brighton & Hove Field work: June-November 2005 Quantitative survey: 388 new immigrants [85 Bulgarians] & 402 long-term residents In-depth interviews Study localities The London Borough of Hackney: inner-London Borough; population of just over 200,00; phenomenal ethnic diversity; GLA Ethnicity index ? third most diverse local authority in the UK The London Borough of Harrow: outer-London Borough; population of just over 200,000; fifth nationally in terms of proportion of non-white residents; a third of residents born in 137 different countries; 2,040 born in EE The City of Brighton & Hove: South coast; low rate of ethnic diversity; predominantly white population Immigration in addition to community cohesion: a key relationship Main concern: experience of Bulgarian immigrants in the UK – labour market, their broader interaction alongside local communities, in addition to the issue of community cohesion Operationalising community cohesion: employment, education, housing sense of ?belonging? in the neighbourhood in addition to in the UK extent so that which diversity is respected expectations in consideration of the future participation in community activities

Bulgarians coming so that the UK Peak years: 2003 & 2004 N=35 (41%) Couples rather than single men: N=57 (67%) married or had a partner N=45 (79%) of partners in UK, the rest ? in Bulgaria, usually women N=45 (79%) of partners of Bulgarian origin; N=12 (21%) – other ethnicity N=41 (48%) alongside dependent children; Most of them in UK Legal status Temporary, alongside a right so that work 42% (N=36) Dependents 18% (N=15) Permanent residents 17% (N=14) ?Semi-legal? 8% (N=7) Student 6% (N=5) Temporary, not allowed so that work 5% (N=4) Undocumented 5% (N=4) Reasons in consideration of coming so that the UK More than half in the sample left Bulgaria in consideration of economic reasons: ?not earning enough? (29%) ?could not see any prospects in consideration of improvement of economic conditions? (13%) ?unemployed? (4%) Bulgarians came so that the UK because of: ?ease of entry? (45%) ?family in addition to friends in the UK? (37%) ?studies? (8%) NONE OF THE BULGARIANS IN THE SAMPLE CAME BECAUSE OF WELFARE BENEFITS

Practical Meta-Analysis in consideration of the Social Sciences Meta-Analysis Defined Outline of Presentation Section I: Motivation Cumulative Knowledge in addition to the Scientific Enterprise ?Cumulative Knowledge? in Environmental Justice ?Cumulative Knowledge? in Education Policy Cumulative Knowledge in Public Management Cumulative Knowledge in Policy Studies Cumulative Knowledge in Policy Evaluation Why Do Social Scientists Struggle alongside Knowledge Accumulation? Section II: Introduction so that Meta-Analysis Meta-Analysis Defined (again) The Language of Meta-Analysis The Language of Meta-Analysis The Language of Meta-Analysis How Do We Calculate Effect Sizes? Calculating R-based Effect Sizes from Original Studies Fisher?s Corrections in consideration of R-based Effect Sizes in addition to Variances Example: Are Pollution Emissions Higher in Black Neighborhoods? What Can We Do With Effect Sizes Statistically? Combining Effect Sizes Combining Effect Sizes: Fixed Effects Models Combining Effect Sizes: Fixed Effects Models Combining Effect Sizes: Random Effects Models Estimating the Random Effects Variance Component What Can We Do With Effect Sizes Substantively? What Can We Do With Effect Sizes Substantively? Section III: Introduction so that Meta-Regression Moving Meta-Analysis so that the Social Sciences Three Critiques of Meta-Analysis in the Social Sciences Response so that Critique #1: Response so that Critique #2 Response so that Critique #2 Response so that Critique #3 Response so that Critique #3 What Do We Need so that Conduct a Meta-Regression? Introduction so that Meta-Regression Example: Synthesizing Research on Educational Vouchers Example: Educational Vouchers Example: Educational Vouchers Obtaining Estimates in consideration of Meta-Regression Models Generalized Least Squares in Meta-Regression Weighted Least Squares in Meta-Regression Weighted Least Squares in Meta-Regression (cont.) RE Variance Component ? 2 Weights in Random Effects Meta-Regression Estimating the Random Effects Meta-Regression Model in Practice Estimating the Random Effects Meta-Regression Model in Practice Estimating the Random Effects Meta-Regression Model in Practice Estimating the Random Effects Meta-Regression Model in Practice Comparison of REMR Results in Environmental Justice (n=680) Validity Check: Can Meta-Regression Really Recover the Quantity of Interest from Original Studies? Simulation Strategy Simulation Strategy (cont.) Simulation Results Section IV: Advanced Meta-Regression Remaining Problems in Meta-Regression Problem 1: Non-Independence of Observations Addressing Problem 1: The Approach in Meta-Analysis Addressing Problem 1: The Approach in Meta-Analysis Addressing Problem 1: The Approach in Econometrics Addressing Problem 1: The Approach in Econometrics Addressing Problem 1 Using Example REMR Model Addressing Problem 1 Using CRVE Extensions so that the CRVE REMR Model Problem 2: Unequal Numbers of Effect Sizes Per Study Addressing Problem 2: The Approach in Meta-Analysis Addressing Problem 2: The Approach in Econometrics Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Addressing Problem 4 Using Example REMR Model Addressing Problem 2 Using GEE Estimating Advanced REMR Models in Stata The Take Aways Evan Ringquist eringqui@indiana.edu

Education Educational background No qualifications ? 1% (N=1) Secondary education or college ? 47% (N=40) University or above ? 52% (N=44) Most of Bulgarians in the sample had completed education in their origin country Language skills on arrival More than two thirds of Bulgarians in the sample reported ?none? or ?basic? level of English on arrival A quarter spoke no English at all More Bulgarian women (46%) than men (23%) reported ?fluent? or ?adequate? English on arrival Current English language skills More than three quarters reported ?fluent? or ?adequate? current level of English These are self-reported levels of competence 83% of Bulgarian women reported ?fluent? or ?adequate current level of English, compared so that 74% of men

Housing Almost three quarters of Bulgarians interviewed lived in private rented housing in all three localities Owner-occupiers ? 12% (N=10), residence in UK=5- 10 yrs Common routes in consideration of finding accommodation ? family, friends, other Bulgarians (44%); letting agency (28%) Living alongside non-family members (NFM)? 57% (N=48, of them: 23 living alongside another 1-2 NFM; 19 ? alongside 3-5 NFM; 6 ? alongside 6-10 NFM) Labour market (1) Employment prior so that the UK Professions varied: from doctors, accountants, midwifes, nurses so that tennis coaches, fitness instructors, shop-owners, taxi drivers in addition to locksmiths Not all were in employment ? 28% students, 4% unemployed Just under a quarter worked in another foreign country ? 10 different countries; mainly, Germany, Greece, Libya=> most ?first time emigrants? Labour market (2) Bulgarian immigrants? first employment in UK Main sectors: construction (men); personal services (women); hotel & restaurant sector (both men & women) Bulgarian immigrants? current employment: Never worked ? 11% (N=9); mainly women – dependants Very high employment rate ? only 1 unemployed Majority in full-time employment Self-employed ? 20% (N=15, 4 ? through an agency) Only 4 working illegally, in agriculture & construction; 7 ? ?semi-legal?, in health, personal services, hotels in addition to construction Jobs: 50% – process, plant & elementary occupations; 20% – managerial, professional; 16% – administrative & skilled trades; 15% – personal services

Labour market (3) Finding & changing employment Most important way in consideration of finding first/current job ? ?through other Bulgarians? Two thirds working in consideration of a White British employer; 11% – in consideration of a SEE employer; 9% – another Bulgarian Wages 24% (N=15) of economically active earning below œ5, the National Minimum Wage Rate No men working below œ4 an hour, just 2 women Low wages prevalent in Hackney in addition to less so in Brighton Labour market (4) Working hours: Bulgarian immigrants were more likely than the other groups in the study so that work over 45 hours per week; more women than men. Those alongside permanent status were more likely so that work longer hours. Only 8% of economically active Bulgarians were doing more than one job. Membership of a trade union: Bulgarians ? the only immigrant group in the survey without a single trade union member Cohesion in diverse communities (1) Sense of ?belonging? Belonging so that the neighbourhood Real lack of identification amongst Bulgarians in addition to the other immigrant groups surveyed alongside the neighbourhood they were living in (two thirds of Bulgarians felt they did not belong so that it) Belonging so that Britain More than half of Bulgarians felt they belonged ?strongly? or ?fairly strongly? so that Britain Bulgarians in Brighton alongside weakest sense of belonging so that Britain: N=18, 62% felt they did not belong so that Britain, compared so that 7 (24%) in Hackney in addition to 10 (35%) in Harrow

Why this weak feeling of belonging so that neighbourhood? Weaker belonging in Britain because of stronger belonging in the home country? Belonging so that Bulgaria 95% (81) belonged, 59 (70%)? ?very strongly?; 4(5%) ? felt they belonged not very strongly so that Bulgaria Those in Brighton ? weaker sense of belonging so that Bulgaria than those in London Belonging so that the Borough Belonging so that Borough stronger than belonging so that the neighbourhood Bulgarians in Brighton more pessimistic about belonging than those in London (only 2 in Brighton felt ?fairly strongly? so that the City, 11 ? in Hackney, 12 ? in Harrow) Other factors affecting neighbourhood belonging Of those who would return so that Bulgaria soon, just 15% alongside return plans in the next three years said they belong compared so that 57% without return plans Bulgarians alongside children in the UK; home owners in addition to men ? stronger sense of belonging Language ability, occupation, age in addition to legal status ? not associated so that belonging so that the neighbourhood Valuing diversity Three measures are used Whether the individuals believed that: a) their neighbourhoods are places where people get on well together Bulgarians had the most positive stance in the survey about this ? 81% definitely agreeing or tended so that agree alongside this proposition; this was much lower in consideration of the other groups in the survey; 83% in Hackney, 69% in Brighton neighbourhoods are places where people help each other And, frequency of talking so that neighbours

?Neighbourhood is a place where people help each other? Bulgarians were much more positive than the other groups in the survey ? one in three agreeing alongside it; Albanians ? most pessimistic Bulgarians in addition to Russians in the sample ? less likely so that report they talked so that neighbours frequently; 17 Bulgarians (20%) never talked so that neighbours; 5 (6%) ? never spoke so that local people; they had no children, recent arrivals Interactions between immigrants in addition to long-term residents At one extreme ? marriage in addition to co-habitation Most of Bulgarians (84%, N=48) alongside a Bulgarian partner; just 7% (N=4) alongside an English person Role of social networks 75% of Bulgarians (N=64) had friends from a different ethnic group, usually former socialist countries In case of a problem ? more than three quarter relied on their partners or Bulgarian housemates, relatives or friends; 3 said ?nobody so that help? Cooperation at work Almost all working Bulgarians believed people at work respected each other; only 3 said they did not More than half were working alongside people from other ethnic groups; only 8 (11%) working alongside other Bulgarians Expectations from life in the UK Stable job so that pay in consideration of a decent living ?quiet life? ?I like my life in the UK, that?s why I have chosen so that live here. I want a quiet life in addition to so that be able so that travel alongside my family everywhere in the world-I want everything that a normal person wishes so that achieve?. (Bulgarian, Hackney, M, 28) Plans so that return so that Bulgaria Bulgarians alongside higher intentions in consideration of return than the other groups in the sample Those in Brighton more likely so that return Few Bulgarians felt the return was imminent; more than half did not know when, only 2 alongside a fixed date ?Earning enough money? in addition to ?improvement in the economic situation in Bulgaria? ? the most important factors in consideration of return

Community participation Whether people feel they can influence decisions at local level Just a quarter of Bulgarians felt they could do so A quarter had undertaken action so that solve a local problem (contacted the appropriate organisation, local radio, MP) Volunteering Only 3 (4%) Bulgarians had volunteered in the last 12 months compared so that 30% Ukrainians, 31% Serbians, 27% Russians, 26% Albanians Involvement in groups, clubs More than half of Bulgarians (55%) involved in clubs, mainly sports clubs; none of the Bulgarians ? members of a political party or religious organisation Bulgarians in addition to Russians ? more likely so that be members of an ethnic community group Conclusion Bulgarians in the selected localities in UK differed significantly from those in Athens, Greece in addition to Madrid, Spain: better educated, more families alongside children than in Greece but less than in Spain Bulgarians that arrived in UK in 2000 in addition to after were competing in a more crowded labour & housing markets since East European immigration had grown Stereotypes of Bulgarians – potential welfare dependents, Albanians – linked so that organised crime in addition to Russians – wealthy newcomers interested in football are very wide from the mark A better image would be of hard working individuals supporting their families Should the government, in addition to civil society pay more attention so that East Europeans?

Chessen, Jaclyn Managing Editor

Chessen, Jaclyn is from United States and they belong to Managing Editor and work for Tucson Observer, The in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Community participation Whether people feel they can influence decisions at local level Just a quarter of Bulgarians felt they could do so A quarter had undertaken action so that solve a local problem (contacted the appropriate organisation, local radio, MP) Volunteering Only 3 (4%) Bulgarians had volunteered in the last 12 months compared so that 30% Ukrainians, 31% Serbians, 27% Russians, 26% Albanians Involvement in groups, clubs More than half of Bulgarians (55%) involved in clubs, mainly sports clubs; none of the Bulgarians ? members of a political party or religious organisation Bulgarians in addition to Russians ? more likely so that be members of an ethnic community group Conclusion Bulgarians in the selected localities in UK differed significantly from those in Athens, Greece in addition to Madrid, Spain: better educated, more families alongside children than in Greece but less than in Spain Bulgarians that arrived in UK in 2000 in addition to after were competing in a more crowded labour & housing markets since East European immigration had grown Stereotypes of Bulgarians – potential welfare dependents, Albanians – linked so that organised crime in addition to Russians – wealthy newcomers interested in football are very wide from the mark A better image would be of hard working individuals supporting their families Should the government, in addition to civil society pay more attention so that East Europeans? and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.