By Howard Alpert, July 2003 halpert@mail.org PURPOSE The purpose of this activit

By Howard Alpert, July 2003 halpert@mail.org PURPOSE The purpose of this activit www.phwiki.com

By Howard Alpert, July 2003 halpert@mail.org PURPOSE The purpose of this activit

Chang, Sue, Flash Desk Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal By Howard Alpert, July 2003 halpert@mail.org PURPOSE The purpose of this activity is to introduce you to the world of radioactivity. You are to work alone in addition to to follow the readings both in this activity in addition to in the links which are part of it. Your task is to answer a series of questions which are posted after the readings. Go back to the readings or follow the links to find the answers to the questions. Write the answers to the questions in the space provided, print it out in addition to h in addition to it in. TEACHERS’ PAGE This lesson is intended as an introduction to radioactivity in addition to radiation. Students are to work independently to use both the slides in addition to the web resources to find answers to the questions posed. Students are to transfer this site into their personal folders in addition to fill in their own answers. Upon completing the questions, students are to h in addition to in the typewritten answers.

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READ THE FOLLOWING SLIDES AND FOLLOW THE LINKS TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW: 1.a. What is the difference between radiation in addition to radioactivity 1.b. What is radiation 1.c. Is all radiation harmful 1.d. Give two examples of ionizing in addition to non-ionizing radiation http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/atom.htm Idaho State University, Radiation In as long as mation Network http://www.umich.edu/~radinfo/introduction/lesson/rads%26rads.html University of Michigan, Health Physics Society, “Radiation in addition to Radioactivity” Radiation in addition to Radioactivity Radiation: Energy in transit, either particulate or electromagnetic in nature Radioactivity: The characteristic of various materials to emit ionizing radiation Ionization: The removal of electrons from an atom. The essential characteristic of high energy radiations when interacting with matter. Non-Ionizing Radiation Does not have enough energy to remove electrons from surrounding atoms

Electromagnetic Waves Energy waves, ranging from the low energy radio to high energy gamma Characterized by: Height (amplitude) Length between wave peaks (wave length) Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation These radiations do have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms Examples: X-rays Gamma rays Types of Radiation Alpha Beta Gamma in addition to X-rays Neutron Paper Plastic Lead Concrete 10n

UNSTABLE atoms emit energy VIEW THE FOLLOWING SLIDES AND FOLLOW THE LINKS TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW: 1.a. What is a nucleon 1.b. What is an A.M.U. 1.c. What happens to the atomic mass number in a radioactive substance 1.d. Name three radioactive elements, list the number of protons, neutrons in addition to electrons http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/atoms/slides/sld001.htm “Introduction to the atom,”Frostburg State College, Pennsylvania, Dr. Frederick Senese. Especially slide 12 http://homepages.ius.edu/GKIRCHNE/Chem.htm Atoms The building blocks of all matter Made up of protons in addition to neutrons in addition to electrons. Almost all atoms are very stable Some may have too much energy in addition to be radioactive.

basic particles of the atom: PROTONS, NEUTRONS, ELECTRONS There are stable in addition to unstable atoms Elements An element is the smallest amount of a substance that still exhibits the properties of that substance. Elements are classified by the number of protons in each atom, in addition to can be arranged in order in the Periodic Chart. Molecules in addition to Compounds Atoms group together or bond to each other as long as ming molecules in addition to compounds. Examples water (2 hydrogen, 1 oxygen atoms) sugar (6 carbon, 12 hydrogen in addition to 6 oxygen atoms)

Three States of Matter Solid: Solids are items don’t change their shapes like rocks, wood in addition to ice. Liquid: Liquids flow, like water, alcohol in addition to glass Gas: Gases are free flowing, like air, oxygen in addition to steam. The difference between each is the amount of energy the molecules have VIEW THE FOLLOWING SLIDES AND FOLLOW THE LINKS TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW: 1.a. Name six sources of ionizing radiation that affect you. 1.b. What is the largest source of ionizing radiation that strikes you 1.c. Name three things you could do to reduce your exposure to ionizing radiation 1.d. Why are people who live in Denver have more exposure to ionizing radiation than people who live in New Jersey http://www.uic.com.au/ral.htm Eric J. Hall, “Uranium in addition to Life”, Uranium In as long as mation Centre, Melbourne, Australia http://www.hps.org/publicin as long as mation/radfactsheets/index.html Health Physics Society, Fact Sheets Sources of Annual Radiation Dose Radon 55% Cosmic 8% Terrestrial 8% Internal 11% Medical X-Rays 11% Nuclear Medicine 4% Consumer Products (3%) Other (<1%) Occupational 0.3% Fallout <0.3% Nuclear Fuel Cycle 0.1% Miscellaneous 0.1% mrem Manufactured sources of radiation contribute 60 mrem/year cigarette smoking - 1300 mrem round trip US by air 5 mrem per trip building materials - 3.6 fallout < 1 smoke detectors - 0.0001 medical - 53 mrem mrem mrem Alpha Radiation Only a hazard when inside your body (internal hazard) can’t penetrate skin internal hazard stopped by paper found in soil, radon in addition to other radioactive materials Beta Radiation Hazards skin, eye in addition to internal hazard stopped by plastic found in natural food, air in addition to water stopped by lead naturally present in soil in addition to cosmic radiation found in medical uses X Ray in addition to gamma Ray radiation Penetrating in addition to external hazard Neutron particles have no charge penetrate deep into the body Radiation Versus Radioactive Contamination Radiation: particles or waves of energy emitted from unstable atoms. Radioactive Contamination: radioactive material usually in any location you do not want it. Chang, Sue MarketWatch Flash Desk Reporter www.phwiki.com

Background / Manufactured Radiation In the U.S. – 360 mrem per Year cosmic – 28 diet – 40 terrestrial – 28 radon – 200 The Atom Protons 11p (1.007276 amu) Neutrons 10n (1.008665 amu) Electrons (0.0005486 amu) Neon-20 2010Ne (19.992434 amu) Alpha Decay Alpha Particle (Helium Nucleus) (4.00147 amu) Parent Nucleus Am-241 U-238 Th-232 Ra-226 Daughter Nucleus Np-237 Th-234 Ra-228 Rn-222

Beta (Negatron) Decay Parent Nucleus Rhenium-187 Potassium-40 Daughter Nucleus Osmium-187 Calcium-40 Beta Particle (electron) Antineutrino Gamma-Ray Emission Gamma Ray Parent Nucleus Cesium-137 Molybdenum-99 Daughter Nucleus Barium-137m Technetium-99m Ionizing Radiation – can deposit energy in neighboring atoms resulting in the removal of electrons.

Chang, Sue Flash Desk Reporter

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