CAPMAP CAPMAP CAPMAP Experimental setup

CAPMAP CAPMAP CAPMAP Experimental setup

CAPMAP CAPMAP CAPMAP Experimental setup

Millar, Greg, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CAPMAP Measuring the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Dorothea Samtleben, Center as long as Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago Center as long as Cosmological Physics (CfCP) National Science Frontier Center Founded at the University of Chicago in August 2001 as long as initially 5 years Creation of an interdisciplinary environment 14 faculty, 10 center fellows, graduate students, associated postdocs Research Focus Theory Structures in the Universe Cosmic Radiation Backgrounds High Energy Particles from Space Four major research components:

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Activities of the Center Various as long as mal in addition to in as long as mal seminars Workshops (Auger-workshop, COSMO-02) Visitors Dedicated outreach in addition to education ef as long as ts Opportunities as long as sabbaticals as long as High Energy Physicists Motivation What do we want to learn from our experiment Experimental approach Which strategy to choose Experimental design What does our experiment look like Talk Outline How can we improve our underst in addition to ing of nature Set up an experiment to study a well defined configuration e.g. High Energy Physics Study the outcome of an experiment which nature has set up e.g. Astrophysics

Setup of nature‘s ‘experiment‘ How can we find out what happened in the early universe We do have witnesses! We will learn about the conditions in the infant universe by a thorough questioning of the witnesses We can compare our theories with the in as long as mation they provide in addition to improve our underst in addition to ing of the evolution of the universe The witnesses: Photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation -100 mK +100 mK The sky observed at 90 GHz (COBE DMR)

What happened 300,000 years after the Big Bang The plasma of photons, protons in addition to electrons became cold enough so that electrons in addition to protons as long as med first atoms The universe became transparent These photons give us a direct snapshot of the infant universe Still around today but cooled down (shifted to microwaves) due to the expansion of the universe Expectations from inflationary models as long as CMB observations Blackbody spectrum Homogeneous, isotropic On large scales scale-invariant temperature fluctuations (regions were not yet causally connected) On small scales temperature fluctuations from ‘accoustic oscillations‘ (radiation pressure vs gravitational attraction) Polarization anisotropies, correlated with temperature anisotropies Characteristics of the CMB Frequency Spectrum Temperature Anisotropy Polarization Frequency spectrum of the CMB (Compilation by Richard McCray)

Temperature Anisotropy of the CMB Dipole due to peculiar velocity of solar system Emission from the galactic plane Remaining CMB anisotropy COBE results DASI: First Detection of CMB Polarization (September 2002) Map is 5 degrees square 200 mK 100 0 -100 – 200 mK 5 K Spherical Harmonics Description of CMB by using spherical harmonics Ylm(q,j) Ylm Pictures by Clem Pryke

Description of Anisotropies Usually representation by power spectrum Cl (variance at the multipole l) Angular scale: q ~ 180°/l Statistical properties of CMB can be observed in addition to compared with theory Temperature Power Spectra Compilation by Wayne Hu Compilation by Max Tegmark Dependence on cosmological parameters Change in baryon density Change in curvature Animations by Max Tegmark

Why is the CMB polarized Thomson scattering Radiation incident along this axis Charge moves along this axis Radiation primarily scattered along this axis Pictures by Matthew Hedman Quadrupole pattern Quadrupole pattern in the radiation will create polarization Quadrupole moment in motion of charge Radiation scattered along this axis has a polarized component A view on the dynamic universe Quadrupole moments from Temperature anisotropies will be washed out Dynamics in the early universe determine the polarization spectrum

Different Polarization patterns Density fluctuations E-modes Gravity waves E- in addition to B-modes, Amplitude determined by scale of inflation E-Mode (scalar, even parity) B-Mode (vector or tensor, odd parity) Why did the CMB polarization escape detection as long as so long Highly sensitive detectors Excellent control of systematics (atmospheric, instrumental) Excellent angular resolution Tiny fluctuations (1 part in 1 million) on small angular scale Challenge as long as the experiments: Comparison of Power Spectra

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How to catch in addition to query the witnesses Based at ground , balloon, space Which frequency to observe Which techniques to use (HEMT,Bolometers) What is an optimal scanning strategy Height in the atmosphere at which radiation is attenuated by a factor 1/2 Atmospheric Transmission Are there false witnesses Dust Synchrotron Point Sources Gravitational Lensing S-Z from Clusters Compilation by Matthew Hedman

DASI 30(13) 20‘ South Pole CBI 30(13) 3‘ Atacama (Chile) VLA 8.4 6‘‘ Socorro (New Mexico) ATCA 8.7(5) 2‘ Australia AMIBA 90(19) 2‘ Mauna Loa (Hawaii) SPORT 22,32,60,90 7° ISS, full sky MAP 22,30,40(2),60(2),90(4) 13‘ L2, full sky PLANCK-LFI 30(4), 44(6),70(12), 100(34) 33,23,13,10 L2, full sky BAR-SPORT 32,90 30‘,12‘ Antarctic LDB POLAR 30 7° Wisconsin COMPASS 30 7° Wisconsin PIQUE 40,90 30‘,15‘ New Jersey CAPMAP 40(4),90(10) 7‘,3‘ New Jersey PLANCK-HFI 100(4),143(12),217(12), 353(6),545(8),857(6) 11‘,8‘,6‘,5‘ L2, full sky B2K+X 150(4), 240(4) 340(4) 10‘ Antarctic LDB MAXIPOL 150(12) 420(4) 10‘ US Balloon BICEP 150(96) 0.7 ° South Pole () POLARBEAR 150(~3000) 10‘ South Pole POLATRON 90 2‘ Ovro QUEST 100,150(~30) 6‘ Atacama (Chile) Overview of Polarization Experiments Experiment Freq in GHz ( chan) Beamsize Location Technique Based on compilation by Peter Timbie Interferometer Correlation Polarimeterr Bolometer Princeton D. Barkats, P. Farese, J. McMahon, S. T. Staggs + undergraduates Chicago C. Bischoff, M. Hedman, D. Samtleben, K. V in addition to erlind, B. Winstein + undergraduates Miami J. Gundersen, E. Stefaniescu JPL T. Gaier CAPMAP CAPMAP Chicago Miami JPL Princeton

Summary in addition to Outlook CMB is the oldest light in the universe Provides direct view of the infant universe Measurement of CMB Polarization is a big experimental challenge, anisotropies of the order of 1 part in 1 million CAPMAP uses a 7m telescope in New Jersey to observe the polarization at 90 in addition to 40 GHz Installation of 4 out of 14 horns underway First data taking winter 2002/2003 Exciting time in cosmology, share it with us at the CfCP!

Millar, Greg Host

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