Carbon Capture & Storage(CCS) Problems Where to Store CO2 (Sequestration) Costs Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Carbon Capture & Storage(CCS) Problems Where to Store CO2 (Sequestration) Costs Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) www.phwiki.com

Carbon Capture & Storage(CCS) Problems Where to Store CO2 (Sequestration) Costs Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

Murphy, Matt, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Carbon Capture & Storage(CCS) Method to reduce carbon Capture CO2 from point sources Coal plants Store it, not release it Could reduce emissions 80-90% from plants Problems Capturing CO2 requires much energy About 25-40% more fuel as long as coal plants Would result in higher prices as long as energy Where to Store CO2 (Sequestration) Geological Formations Deep Oceans Minerals

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Costs Depends on cost of capture in addition to storage Depend on where stored Storage in salt or depleted oil fields $0.5-8.0/CO2 ton injected + $.10-.30 as long as monitoring (2003 oil prices) Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Could cut cost of CCS Used to increase oil production from field Inject CO2, Nitrogen, or steam Gases exp in addition to , as long as ce oil to well bore Improves recovery up to 30% ½ – 2/3 CO2 returns, rest remains in reservoir Canada Example –Saskatchewan Inject 18 million ton CO2 Recover 130 million more oil barrels In this case, more CO2 emissions CCS Environmental Effects Reduction of CO2 up to 90% depending on plant Energy required as long as storage Means more fuel use Pollutants increase = dirty air

Removing CO2 Post Combustion Pre Combustion Fuel oxidized Eventually generate CO2 in addition to H2 CO2 removed Oxy fuel combustion Burn in oxygen, not air Produce CO2 in addition to H2O Remove water by cooling Store CO2 Requires lots of energy Geological Storage (Sequestration) Inject in: Oil & Gas fields Depleted Coal seams Salt deposits Saline filled basalts Problems with oil fields Limited distribution in addition to size Increase emissions with EOR Coal Seams CO2 adsorbs to coal surface Coal must be permeable Will displace methane adsorbed Can burn methane, produce CO2 Salt deposits Large storage volume, common Not much is known about them Ocean Storage Inject CO2 by ship or pipeline CO2 dissolves in deep water Inject to deeper than 3000m CO2 denser than waters, as long as ms lake Convert CO2 to bicarbonate Store CO2 in clathrate hydrates

Problems with Ocean Storage CO2 kills organisms CO2 increases acidity of water After 1600 deep ocean circulates to surface Expensive Mineral Storage Minerals have Mg in addition to Ca Add CO2, convert to carbonates Minerals are common Carbonates are stable Must have environmentally friendly method Must be economically feasible Problems with CSS Leakage from geological as long as mations Well selected site, CO2 trapped millions of years 1000-3000 meters in Ocean 50-80% CO2 retained as long as 500 years Mineral storage no leakage

Other Methods Re as long as estation Use CO2 Already used in Brazil De as long as estation contributes 20% of CO2 in atmosphere Forest preservation from logging, clearing Leave carbon in the ground Requires alternative energy sources More Methods Substitute bio-based fuels as long as fossil fuels Conservation tillage Leave some percentage of biomass in ground Carbon sequestered in soil Rotational grazing Enhances soil sequestration Harvest dead/old trees Bury in trenches in soil Ocean Iron Seeding Enhancing productivity in oceans Add iron Plants/algae grow, use up CO2

Synthetic Trees Removes CO2 by combining with minerals Air flow through sodium hydroxide (NaOH) inside trees Creates Na2CO3 liquid Liquid pumped to sediments below ocean Stored as long as millions of years 1 tree removes 1000x more than real tree 250,000 trees need to remove 22 billion tons of CO2 produced annually from fossil fuels

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