Carbonate Plat as long as ms I. Intro II) Plat as long as m in addition to shelf carbonates III. Plat as long as m Characteristics Plat as long as m Characteristics Continued

Carbonate Plat as long as ms I. Intro II) Plat as long as m in addition to shelf carbonates III. Plat as long as m Characteristics Plat as long as m Characteristics Continued www.phwiki.com

Carbonate Plat as long as ms I. Intro II) Plat as long as m in addition to shelf carbonates III. Plat as long as m Characteristics Plat as long as m Characteristics Continued

Nelson, Chip, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Carbonate Plat as long as ms I. Intro Limestones are biochemical rocks Composed of CaCO3 Calcite, Aragonite Calcium carbonate sediments depend on: Temperature Pressure Agitation Abundance of calcareous-shelled organisms abundant light constant so/oo clear, warm water Organisms like shallow water, away from river II) Plat as long as m in addition to shelf carbonates A. Carbonate depositon mostly on plat as long as ms B. Carbonate plat as long as m is defined as: 1.”a large edifice as long as med by the accumulation of sediment in an area of subsidence” C. Examples: rimmed plat as long as m, isolated plat as long as m, ramp

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III. Plat as long as m Characteristics A. Most plat as long as ms: 1. have a flat top 2. steep sides 3. can be several kilometres thick 4. extend over many hundreds of square kilometres 5. can be rimmed or unrimmed Plat as long as m Characteristics Continued B. Plat as long as m seds also in epeiric seas 1. distinguishing between shelf/epeiric sea carbonates difficult 2. distinction based on paleogeography C. Most carbonate production seaward 1. upwelling/nutrients i. e.g. reefs on plat as long as m margin ii. if no reef, ooid shoals-oosparite 2. l in addition to ward- subtidal carbonate i. poor preservation – storms ii. seds transported offshore/onshore (tidal flats, channels) 3. nearshore protected areas i. micrite/biomicrite/pelmicrite 4. above high tide (supratidal)-dolomite IV. Carbonate deposits A. Micrite mud mounds 1. 100 meter thick, 1km diameter i. deep & shallow water origin ii. lack internal structure iii. Mostly Paleozoic some Mesozoic iii. pelloid deposit 1. skeletal component low iv. plant stabilization v. sed trapping organism-bryzoans

Devonian Saharan Micrite Mud Mounds Asymmetrical mud mounds at Azel Matti (Ahnet Basin, Algeria) Mud mounds (25-30 m high) at Azel Matti (Ahnet Basin, Algeria) V. Reefs -Defined A. a reef – structure constructed of large elements (usually > 5 cm) capable of thriving in energetic environments VI. Reef Structure & Rocks A. Low latitude, shallow water env. 1. framework organisms vary with time i. archaeocyathids, sponges, corals, algae, bryzoa, etc. B. Reef core = massive C. Forereef = talus D. Reef limestone types 1. framestone– in situ fossils as long as m supporting framework 2. bindstone-encrusting & binding organism 3. bafflestone- stalk-shaped fossils-reduce rate of water flow E. Reef core bounded by as long as ereef talus 1. as long as ereef-allocthonus seds 2. c.gr-floatstone, rudstone

VII. Reef Facies A. Reefs generally comprise three facies: 1. Core facies – massive unbedded carbonate with or without skeletons 2. Flank or as long as ereef facies – bedded carbonate s in addition to in addition to conglomerate of in place in addition to /or core derived material, dipping in addition to thinning away from the core 3. Interreef or open plat as long as m facies – subtidal limestone to terrigenous clastic sediment, unrelated to reef growth. Reef Facies Miocene Llucmajor Reef Complex Components , Mallorca Spain strata.geol.sc.edu/ /049-Reef Components.jpg Miocene Reef Facies, Mallorca VIII. Deep sea carbonates A. Deposition seaward of terrigenous seds 1. max depth about 5 km 2. seawater colder w/depth i. more dissolved carbon-dioxide than warm water ii. increase H2CO3= increase dissolution iii. Temp more important than P

B. CCD = depth below which no carbonate seds accumulate 1. deeper in equatorial water i. more carbonate production 2. shallow near margin i. More organics 3. CCD changes w/ time i. depends on CO2 content & carbonate production C. Deep sea red clay or siliceous sed below CCD IX. Unrimmed Shelves A. Characteristics of unrimmed shelves: 1) a 10m -300 km wide seafloor gently slopes offshore from a continental area 4) lithofacies are generally grainy 5) high-energy, carbonate s in addition to s in the wave in addition to /or tide agitated inner shelf 6) skeletal muddy s in addition to s to muds in quiet deeper outer shelf i. periodically affected by storms 7) localized patch reefs in addition to s in addition to shoals, 8) no protection from onshore waves

XI. Rimmed Plat as long as ms A. Shallow plat as long as ms 0-30 m deep bounded at outer edges by high-energy facies (typically reefs) in addition to a pronounced break in slope B. Reduced connection between open-ocean in addition to shelf due to protection by reefs, s in addition to shoals, or isl in addition to s, thus dampening wave energy C. Lithofacies are generally muddy D. Shelf depth determines facies type in addition to distribution 1. Shallow water shelves have grassy covered s in addition to s in addition to muds on their inner parts in addition to skeletal s in addition to s in addition to patch reefs on the outer parts while 2. deep water shelves (lagoons with water depths < 30m) are floored by muds. E. Behind the reef are muddy carbonate sediments that contain lots of marine organisms http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-448/images/fig18.jpg Growth of Rim Belize belizemodernfacies.com/page-id=19 Shallow Rimmed Shelf-Florida, Deeper Rimmed Shelf-Belize strata.geol.sc.edu/ /Sea-Level-Changes.htm XII. Isolated Plat as long as m A. E.g. Bahamas B. Interior = skeletal l.s., peloid s in addition to s & mud C. Plat as long as m margins = shoals of ooid grainstone D. Talus slope & slump & gravity flows E. Plat as long as m evolution: 1. Develop on horst 2. graben = deeper water Isolated Plat as long as m http://www.geologie.uni-stuttgart.de/online-kurse/virtfoss/CPR%20ordner/Figuren/Bilder%20Lec3/Fig.3-3.gif X. Ramps A. gentle slope (<1o) B. shallow nearshore deposition 1. tidal flat/lagoonal facies 2. shoal water complex of bank or ooid-peloid s in addition to shoals C. pass into deeper water 1. limestone/wackestone 2. slope & basin lime muds (from Burchette in addition to Wright 1992) Trucial Coast Ramp strata.geol.sc.edu/ /Sea-Level-Changes.htm Generalized model of a Carboniferous carbonate plat as long as m (from Richards, 1989a). http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/wcsb-atlas/A-CH14/FG14-18.html Nelson, Chip WMXC-FM Host www.phwiki.com

XI. Intrashelf Basins on Rimmed Shelves in addition to Ramps A. Rimmed shelf w/inshore basin B. Pass l in addition to ward into coastal siliciclastics C. Seaward-basin pass to rim of skeletal or ooids D. Basin depth few 10’s of m 1. below fairweather wave base 2. seds = shale, quartz s in addition to 3. If below wave base, euxinic, dysaerobic l.s. & shale Intrashelf Basin- I couldn’t find one as long as carbonate setting Carbonates would occur at outer edge Stop At This Slide! Succeeding Slides are extraneous.

Eg Trucial coast in the Persian Gulf – lithofacies include: a back ramp with microbial intertidal flatsthat pass l in addition to ward into an evaporitic basin in addition to skeletal-pelleted s in addition to s to pelleted lime muds in protected lagoons a shallow ramp with high energy skeletal/oolitic s in addition to shoals, beach barrier systems in addition to coral reefs a deep ramp that is transitional from aggregate/skeletal s in addition to s dominated by molluscs in addition to as long as aminifera to skeletal muddy s in addition to s dominated by mollusc debris a gradual transition into bivalve rich marls of deeper water Sedimentary processes Any living reef is a balance between 4 factors: upward growth of in-place calcareous elements continual destruction by a host of raspers, borers in addition to grazers prolific sediment production by rapidly growing, short-lived, attached calcareous benthics concurrent inorganic or organically induced cementation. The modern reef growth window Continuing the carbonate nomenclature of Dunham to reefs

Rimmed Shelves shallow water shelves – grass covered s in addition to s in addition to muds on their inner parts in addition to skeletal s in addition to s in addition to patch reefs on the outer parts deep water shelves – lagoons with water depths up to 30m, floored by mud; outer reefs in addition to patch reefs surrounded by reef talus; skeletal s in addition to s in nearshore areas.

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