Carbonate Rocks Environment Environment Continued Classification Scheme Dunhams Classification
Norman, Major, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Carbonate Rocks Carbonate rocks – limestones composed of calcite (CaCO3) or dolostones composed of dolomite (CaMgCO3). Form through biological in addition to biochemical processes in addition to through inorganic precipitation from seawater Carbonate rocks widespread in addition to in every geological period beginning with Cambrian Environment Most carbonate sediments as long as m in warm waters E.g., corals in addition to algae common in carbonate rocks, in addition to mostly found tropical to subtropical latitudes or from about 30o N in addition to S latitudes Most carbonate sediments generated in photic zone Unlike s in addition to stones, most carbonate grains as long as med in environment in which they are deposited Detrital grains in s in addition to stones usually derived from outside the environment in which they were deposited Environment Continued Carbonate sediments do not usually occur below depths of about 3500 -4000 meters in the oceans Below these depths carbonate sediments will dissolve The depths at which carbonate sediments dissolve in the ocean is called the carbonate compensation depth or CCD
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Classification Scheme Two principal classification schemes used as long as limestones. Folk’s classification scheme, named after Robert Folk, Dunham’s classification scheme, named after Robert Dunham Folk’s scheme based on presence or absence of allochems (carbonate particles or grains), matrix (limestone clay called micrite), in addition to type of cement (spar is a cement composed of coarse xls) Dunham’s scheme based on texture of rock. i.e. whether rock contains matrix, whether carbonate grains float in matrix or whether they are in contact with each other, in addition to whether rock has carbonate grains Dunhams Classification Based on whether have more or less that 10% grains Whether rock is mud or grain supported. Also if original components were bound together like coral. Tells about transport history. Folk Classification Carbonate rocks consits of: Allochemsgrains Intersitial materialmicrite or spar cement Micrite is “lime mud”, the dense, dull-looking sediment made of clay sized crystals of CaCO3. Sparclear to translucent carbonate cement.
Micrite in addition to Spar Folk Continued Name is built up by stringing together all the allochem names in order from least to most abundant, in addition to then adding the interstitial material name (“matrix” below as long as short). For example, a rock like this: Oolites + Fossils + Spar matrix = Oo bio sparite The name is written as one word, Oobiosparite. Another example (again allochems from least to most abundant): Pellets + Oolites + Fossils + Micrite matrix = pel oo bio micrite The name is written as one word, Peloobiomicrite. But what if there is both micrite in addition to spar matrix The system is the same; just list them from least to most abundant. Fossils + Spar matrix + Micrite matrix = bio spar micrite Carbonate Grains ooids-Ooids are spherical grains as long as med by calcite precipitation around a nucleus such as a shell fragment, a quartz grain, etc. They are less than 2mm in diameter in addition to typically as long as m in shallow, warm, agitated, in addition to carbonate-saturated waters such as those near the Bahamas.
pisolites-Pisolites are ooids greater than 2mm in size Similar environments as ooids stromatolites-Stromatolites are laminated carbonate sediments composed of mats of blue-green algae in addition to layers of sediment. The algae, which as long as ms the mats, is a plant in addition to plants require sunlight to survive. There as long as e, stromatolites generally as long as m in warm shallow waters. The algae is “sticky” in addition to it grows filaments. This sticky in addition to filamentous algae traps sediment brought in by the currents. Consequently, a layer of algae as long as ms then a layer of sediment is deposited on top of the algae. Subsequently, the algae grows through the sediment to as long as m another mat in addition to the cycle begins again. Ultimately, a layered rock composed of alternating algal mats in addition to sediments is produced. Stromatolites as long as m in quiet, hypersaline waters with little animal life around to destroy the mats. oncolites-Oncolites are stromatolites rolled in a ball.
corals-Corals have a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae called zooanthellae. Algae are plants. There as long as e, in order as long as corals to survive they generally have to be within the photic zone (the zone of maximum light penetration in the ocean). Plants require sunlight as long as photosynthesis. In the process of photosynthesis, plants produce oxygen in addition to consume CO2. Corals are major reef as long as mers today in addition to in the past. However, keep in mind that some corals do occur in deep waters. Intraclasts-Semi-consolidated carbonate material ripped-up in addition to incorporated in the rock. dolostone-A dolostone is a rock compose of 90-100% dolomite.
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