Presentation 101 as long as Graduate Students Goals of this Presentation The Three Essential Features of a Good Presentation Opening your presentation Your Opening Statement

Presentation 101 as long as Graduate Students Goals of this Presentation The Three Essential Features of a Good Presentation Opening your presentation Your Opening Statement www.phwiki.com

Presentation 101 as long as Graduate Students Goals of this Presentation The Three Essential Features of a Good Presentation Opening your presentation Your Opening Statement

Foley, Mary, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Presentation 101 as long as Graduate StudentsJ. Paul RobinsonSVM Professor of CytomicsDepartment of Basic Medical Sciences & Weldon School of Biomedical EngineeringPurdue UniversityA set of suggestions in addition to examples as long as creating good quality presentations.What to do in addition to what not to do in your seminar!!This presentation is available as long as download fromhttp://www.cyto.purdue.edu/education Presented to grad students each year since 2000This version 2003© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University2 of 46Notes as long as those reading this presentation from this online version It is not ideal to review a set of slides without having heard the presentation. However, I have put them on line to assist new students when they have to give seminars or conference talks. My suggestions are mainly as long as beginners, but some things carry all the way to experienced speakers. My goal was to increase the confidence of students by giving them a solid basis to use when preparing their slides. To underst in addition to each slide, I suggest you download the PPT file in addition to play it on your computer. I have added explanations to the slides that give my key pointers. J. Paul Robinson, Purdue UniversitySo: These are in the boxes that look like this at the bottom of most slides© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University3 of 46Goals of this PresentationTo demonstrate good principles as long as public presentations using PowerPointTM in addition to computer projectorsTo show how slides might be better usedTo demonstrate good in addition to bad slides, distracting habits, some suggestions to assist your presentationTo suggest a baseline as long as a good presentation

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© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University4 of 46The Three Essential Features of a Good PresentationTell people what you are going to tell themTell them the materialTell them what you told themIntroduction & outlineYour core materials in necessary detailSummarize your findings in addition to close your presentation© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University5 of 46Opening your presentationYou should be early (10 min) as long as your presentation.You should have checked in with the person who will chair the sessionYou should have already checked the projector in addition to computer well be as long as e your talkYou should be ready to begin when invitedYour first slide should be on the screen be as long as e you beginIt should have your presentation title on it in addition to in as long as mation about youPresentation 101 as long as Graduate StudentJ. Paul RobinsonProfessor, Department of Basic Medical Sciences & Department of Biomedical EngineeringHave the projector in addition to computer set up with the opening slide well be as long as e the presentation is due to startA set of suggestions in addition to examples as long as creating good quality presentationsThis presentation is available as long as download from http://www.purdue.edu/education(Example opening slide from this presentation)© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University6 of 46Your Opening StatementIf you are an Invited Speaker:“Thank you very much as long as that generous introduction. I would like to thank the organizers as long as inviting me to give this presentation. It is an honor to be here at Purdue. Today I would like to present some ideas on the invention of the wheel. ”If you are a Seminar Speaker (more in as long as mal): “Thank you very much Professor X. I am very glad to be able to give this seminar. Today I would like to present some ideas on the invention of the wheel.”Your opening statement should be strong, in addition to well prepared. It should be short in addition to it can also be an expression of thanks to your host if appropriate.

© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University7 of 46Your Closing Statement“In my last slide I would like to acknowledge the participation of my colleagues Jim, Jane, Alphonso, in addition to Dr. Jones. I would also like to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation as long as funding this study.” (pause here very briefly) “Thank you very much as long as your attention.” (Don’t say anything else!!!!)DoDon’t Don’t just stop! Don’t say “that’s it” . “that’s the end” .: “I’m finished” NEVER offer to answer questions if there is a chairperson – it is the role of the chairperson, not you, to ask as long as questions!!!! (Don’t invite questions – it’s rude!!!)So: Make the audience feel com as long as table about the end of your presentation by telling them when it is finished. Then they know to clap with great gusto!J. Paul Robinson, Ph.D., & Bartek Rajwa, Ph.D.Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories Imaging, Flow Cytometry, in addition to Functional Cytomics Applications of current cell analysis techniques So: Example Opening Slide – Has complex background – OK as long as one slide, but don’t use it as long as all the rest!© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University9 of 46Imaging, Flow Cytometry, in addition to Functional Cytomics: Applications of current cell analysis techniques J. Paul Robinson, PhDPurdue University Cytometry Laboratories So: Example Opening Slide – Has plain background – not so exciting, but very effective when the goal is to talk science!! Note that the copyright statement at the bottom in black is now virtually unreadable! (So don’t use black on blue!!)

© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University10 of 46Key Material Items to considerYour personal habitsUse of the laser pointerThe slide backgroundUse of color/fontsUse of animation toolsUse of diagrams or flow chartsAmount of material per slideNumber of slides in the presentationYour first in addition to last slides© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University11 of 46Your personal habitsSt in addition to ing: Face your audience, but if you are very nervous, look only at people in the middle or back rowsPacing: Sometimes pacing helps when you are nervous – it can also help to keep the audience’s attention – but it can also be distracting – if you pace, pace slowly in addition to deliberatelySpeech: Speak slowly, clearly, & deliberately don’t say “Ummm” or “Ah .” .between every sentencedon’t say “You know .” when you pause Fidgeting: Don’t play with the toys (like keys) or put your h in addition to s in your pockets – hold the lectern if you have toHumor: Use very sparingly, it can be an ice-breaker but it is very hard to do – my suggestion is to avoid it © J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University12 of 46Using a pointerUse the pointer to add emphasis in addition to assist the audience follow your ideasDo: – Use sparingly – Hold on only as long as a second at a time – Hold it steadyDon’t: – Hold the pointer on!! – Spray the audience ouch! – Flash the pointer all over the slide So In Emergency: If the pointer dies: don’t panic. A good chairperson will observe in addition to deal with it. If not, find a stick, pen, or some long object in addition to use that to point to the screen. Don’t let this put you off your presentation. Try to pretend you are not at all fazed!!

© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University13 of 46Pointer use exampleThere are 4 main points:The length of time you leave the pointer onHow steady your h in addition to isAre you “firing” at the audienceAre you distracting your audience rather than focusing themExample: When you mention the first point – put the laser at the “-”. Discuss this point, then move to the next point. Mostly pointers are useful when dealing with figures in addition to images. It is unnecessary to point to each line of text, but as long as learners, it is a good way to keep yourself on track. © J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University14 of 46Pointer hints as long as nervous people (that’s most people actually!)Hold the lectern when you talk – it stops your h in addition to s doing funny things. When you become more confident, you can walk away from the lectern.Hold the laser pointer on the edge of the lectern when you point it – then your quivering fingers won’t make the pointer bounce everywhere!!FontsTry to use a single, clear font across the entire presentationMake the text large enough that the audience can read itSome fonts are really badSome are worseAnd some should be avoided at all costsNote: You might think that your science is a work of art, but the art is in the science not the art!! Some slides in this presentation use other fonts, but they are taken from various talks to show particular points so Don’ t even think of doing this!© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University7:59 PM

© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University16 of 46WhiteUsing BackgroundsBackgrounds are fun, but they can be distractingSometimes you cannot read the textSometimes they are more interesting than the dataThey significantly increase the size of the fileSometimes they just look ridiculousIt is a well known fact that the most important factor in reading text is contrastThe best contrast is Black in addition to So: Sometimes boring old black in addition to white slides are much easier to see!! © J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University17 of 46BackgroundsBe careful when using backgrounds available from templatesA more conservative approach is saferYou want the audience to focus on your data, not your backgroundIf you must, use a simple color like blueSome examples follow in the next 5 slides – the last 2 are not acceptableLesson: Pretty backgrounds are fun but foolish! It might seem like a good idea at the time, but your audience is thinking ”Oh no, not another symphony of colors .” © J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University18 of 46What Resources are RequiredStart with educational objectives in addition to goalsDefine needs based only on the educational objectivesInitially identify minimal hardware requirements, beg or borrow if necessaryIntegrate staff into lab with scientific staff to increase participationSo: Very plain example slide. No frills. There is no question as to what your message is.

19What Resources are RequiredStart with educational objectives in addition to goalsDefine needs based only on the educational objectivesInitially identify minimal hardware requirements, beg or borrow if necessaryIntegrate staff into lab with scientific staff to increase participationSo: Good example slide (logo in addition to top bar work OK) Colors are muted in addition to tasteful20What Resources are RequiredStart with educational objectives in addition to goalsDefine needs based only on the educational objectivesInitially identify minimal hardware requirements, beg or borrow if necessaryIntegrate staff into lab with scientific staff to increase participationGood example slide –top in addition to side barSo: Good example slide (side/top bar work OK) Colors are fine, note slide number on left.21What Resources are RequiredStart with educational objectives in addition to goalsDefine needs based only on the educational objectivesInitially identify minimal hardware requirements, beg or borrow if necessaryIntegrate staff into lab with scientific staff to increase participationBAD example slide – So: BAD example slide – nasty background – it’s very distracting in addition to much more interesting than the text!!

22What Resources are RequiredStart with educational objectives in addition to goalsDefine needs based only on the educational objectivesInitially identify minimal hardware requirements, beg or borrow if necessaryIntegrate staff into lab with scientific staff to increase participationSo: VERY BAD example slide – drop the fireworks!© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University23 of 46Use of ColorColor shows emphasis .BUT It should be used sparinglyCertain colors cannot be used togetherFor example:Red text cannot be used on blue backgrounds or vice versaBlue text cannot be used on red backgrounds or vice versaColors that should virtually never be used are:Purple, pink in addition to bright greenYellow can be used on black but never on white backgroundSo: NEVER use red in addition to blue together it might look OK on your computer screen, but it’s horrible on the projector screen!! © J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University24 of 46The difference between the computer screen in addition to the projector screenColors that look great on your computer screen may be HORRIBLE on the projector screen.For example BLUE background CANNOT have black text.Your computer SCREEN looks likethis .It’s just OK.But this is what happens when it isprojected onto the screen .Black Text looks fine on yourComputer screenBlack Text looks fine on yourComputer screenSo: NEVER use black text on a blue background it might look OK on your computer screen, but it’s unreadable on the projector screen!!

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25AdvantagesSt in addition to ard AssayUses whole bloodCheaper than microdropGel MicrodropRare populationsShort incubationSort in addition to recover live cellsSource: One Cell System, 2002; BD Resource Manual, 2001So: EXAMPLE: bad color, way too much animation – it’s just a bad slide. (Note as long as PDF – this slide has gratuitous animation you won’t see on the PDF!!)© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University26 of 46AdvantagesSt in addition to ard AssayUses whole bloodCheaper than microdropGel MicrodropRare populationsShort incubationSort in addition to recover live cellsSource: One Cell System, 2002; BD Resource Manual, 2001So: OK – it might look boring, but this is a very basic slide in addition to really does not need any enhancement. Audience is focusing on just the text. 27AdvantagesSt in addition to ard AssayUses whole bloodCheaper than microdropGel MicrodropRare populationsShort incubationSort in addition to recover live cellsSource: One Cell System, 2002; BD Resource Manual, 2001So: If you want to make it a little more attractive this works well.

© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University28 of 46AnimationHow much animation is rightMake sure you test it carefully!A small amount of animation is goodToo much is “ditzy” in addition to often annoys your audienceSo: “Ditzy” animations are really off-putting to the audience. Good animations, such as how a reaction takes place, are fine.29 of 48And as long as Imaging Technologies DNA arrays “Quantitative” fluorescence assays High Throughput assays (96-384 well plates) Elispot Drug effect assaysToxicology assaysSo: Example – simple animation – it works but the background is still nasty!30 of 48And as long as Imaging Technologies DNA arrays “Quantitative” fluorescence assays High Throughput assays (96-384 well plates) Elispot Drug effect assaysToxicology assaysSo: Example – gratuitous animation – plain annoying!!

© J. Paul Robinson, Purdue University49 of 46About this PresentationIt was designed to assist graduate students to create quality presentationsYou may copy this in addition to use it as long as any purpose, it may not be commercializedIf you do use it, please acknowledge the source as:J. Paul Robinson, Ph.D.Professor, Purdue UniversityEmail: jpr@flowcyt.cyto.purdue.eduWeb: www.cyto.purdue.eduThe actual presentation is at http://www.cyto.purdue.edu/Education/index.htmThis talk has been presented several times since 2000. This current version 06/02/10

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The Lecture Series 1st Lecture Motivation Transport of a ray Equivalence of Transport of ONE Ray Û Ellipse

The Lecture Series 1st Lecture Motivation Transport of a ray Equivalence of Transport of ONE Ray Û Ellipse www.phwiki.com

The Lecture Series 1st Lecture Motivation Transport of a ray Equivalence of Transport of ONE Ray Û Ellipse

Danza, Maria, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal An Introduction to Ion-Optics Series of Five Lectures JINA, University of Notre Dame Sept. 30 – Dec. 9, 2005 Georg P. Berg The Lecture Series 1st Lecture: 9/30/05, 2:00 pm: Definitions, Formalism, Examples 2nd Lecture: 10/7/05, 2:00 pm: Ion-optical elements, properties & design 3rd Lecture: 10/14/05, 2:00 pm: Real World Ion-optical Systems 4th Lecture: 12/2/05, 2:00 pm: Separator Systems 5th Lecture: 12/9/05, 2:00 pm: Demonstration of Codes (TRANSPORT, COSY, MagNet) 1st Lecture Motivation, references, remarks (4 – 8) The driving as long as ces (9) Definitions & first order as long as malism (10 – 16) Phase space ellipse, emittance, examples (17 – 25) Taylor expansion, higher orders (26 – 27) The power of diagnostics (28 – 30) Q & A 1st Lecture: 9/30/05, 2:00 – 3:30 pm: Definitions, Formalism, Examples

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Motivation Manipulate charged particles (b+/-, ions, like p,d,a, ) Beam lines systems Magnetic & electric analysis/ separation (e.g. St. George) Acceleration of ions Who needs ion-optics anyway Over 6109 people have – I hope so – happy lives without! A group of accelerator physicists are using it to build machines that enables physicists to explore the unkown! Many physicists using accelerators, beam lines in addition to magnet system (or their data) needs some knowledge of ion-optics. This lecture series is an introduction to the last group in addition to I will do my best to let you in on the basics first in addition to than we will discuss some of the applications of ion-optics in addition to related topics. Introductory remarks Introduction as long as physicists Focus on ion-optical definitions, in addition to tools that are useful as long as physicist at the NSL & future users of St. George recoil separator. Light optics can hardly be discussed without lenses & optical instruments ion-optics requires knowledge of ion-optical elements. Analogy between Light Optics in addition to Ion-Optics is useful but limited. Ion-optical & magnet design tools needed to underst in addition to electro-magnet systems. Ion-optics is not even 100 years old in addition to (still) less intuitive than optics developed since several hundred years Galileo Telescope 1609 Optics in Siderus Nuncius 1610 Historical remarks: Ruther as long as d, 1911, discovery of atomic nucleus

Basic tools of the trade Geometry, drawing tools, CAD drafting program (e.g. AutoCad) Linear Algebra (Matrix calculations), first order ion-optics (e.g. TRANSPORT) Higher order ion-optics code to solve equation of motion, (e.g. COSY Infinity, GIOS, RAYTRACE (historic) Electro-magnetic field program (solution of Maxwell’s Equations), (e.g. finite element (FE) codes, 2d & 3d: POISSON, TOSCA, MagNet) Properties of incoming charged particles in addition to design function of electro-magnetic facility, beam, reaction products (e.g. kinematic codes, charge distributions of heavy ions, energy losses in targets) Many other specialized programs, e.g as long as accelerator design (e.g. synchrotrons, cyclotrons) not covered in this lecure series. Literature Optics of Charged Particles, Hermann Wollnik, Academic Press, Orl in addition to o, 1987 The Optics of Charged Particle Beams, David.C Carey, Harwood Academic Publishers, New York 1987 Accelerator Physics, S.Y. Lee, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1999 TRANSPORT, A Computer Program as long as Designing Charged Particle Beam Transport Systems, K.L. Brown, D.C. Carey, Ch. Iselin, F. Rotacker, Report CERN 80-04, Geneva, 1980 Computer-Aided Design in Magnetics, D.A. Lowther, P. Silvester, Springer 1985 Ions in static or quasi-static electro-magnetic fields Lorentz Force q = electric charge B = magn. induction E = electric field v = velocity For momentum analysis the magnetic as long as ce is preferred because the as long as ce is always perpendicular to B. There as long as e v, p in addition to E are constant. Force in magnetic dipole B = const: p = q B r p = mv = momentum = bending radius Br = magn. rigidity For ion acceleration electric as long as ces are used. Dipole field B perpendicular to paper plane Radius r Object (size x0) General rule: Scaling of magnetic system in the linear region results in the same ion-optics Note: Dispersion dx/dp used in magnetic analysis, e.g. Spectrometers, magn. Separators, x p p+dp (1)

Definition of BEAM as long as mathematical as long as mulation of ion-optics What is a beam, what shapes it, how do we know its properties Beam parameters, the long list Beam rays in addition to distributions Beam line elements, paraxial lin. approx. higher orders in spectrometers System of diagnostic instruments Not to as long as get: Atomic charge Q Number of particles n Defining a RAY Ion-optical element Code TRANSPORT: (x, Q, y, F, 1, dp/p) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ) Convenient “easy to use” program as long as beam lines with paraxial beams Code: COSY Infinity: (x, a, y, b, l, dK, dm, dz) Needed as long as complex ion-optical systems including several charge states different masses velocities (e.g. Wien Filter) higher order corrections Not defined in the figure are: dK = dK/K = rel. energy dm = dm/m = rel. energy dz = dq/q = rel. charge change a = px/p0 b = py/p0 All parameters are relative to “central ray” properties Not defined in the figure are: dp/p = rel. momentum l = beam pulse length All parameters are relative to “central ray” central ray Note: Notations in the Literature is not consistent! Sorry, neither will I be. TRANSPORT Coordinate System Ray at initial Location 1

Transport of a ray Ray at initial Location 0 Ray after element at Location t 6×6 Matrix representing optic element (first order) Note: We are not building “r in addition to om” optical elements. Many matrix elements = 0 because of symmetries, e.g. mid-plane symmetry (2) TRANSPORT matrices of a Drift in addition to a Quadrupole For reference of TRANSPORT code in addition to as long as malism: K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker, D.C. Carey, in addition to Ch. Iselin, TRANSPORT: A computer program as long as designing charged particle beam transport systems, SLAC-91, Rev. 2, UC-28 (I/A), also: CERN 80-04 Super Proton Synchrotron Division, 18 March 1980, Geneva, Manual plus Appendices available on Webpage: ftp://ftp.psi.ch/psi/transport.beam/CERN-80-04/ David. C. Carey, The optics of Charged Particle Beams, 1987, Hardwood Academic Publ. GmbH, Chur Switzerl in addition to Transport of a ray though a system of beam line elements Ray at initial Location 0 (e.g. a target) Ray at final Location n 6×6 Matrix representing first optic element (usually a Drift) xn = Rn Rn-1 R0 x0 Complete system is represented by one Matrix Rsystem = Rn Rn-1 R0 (3) (4)

Geometrical interpretation of some TRANSPORT matrix elements Wollnik, p. 16 Focusing Function (xa) Wollnik = dx/dQ physical meaning = (xQ) RAYTRACE = R12 TRANSPORT Achromatic system: R16 = R26 = 0 Defining a BEAM (Ellipse Area = p(det s)1/2 Emittance e is constant as long as fixed energy & conservative as long as ces (Liouville’s Theorem) Note: e shrinks (increases) with acceleration (deceleration); Dissipative as long as ces: e increases in gases; electron, stochastic, laser cooling Attention: Space charge effects occur when the particle density is high, so that particles repel each other Warning: This is a mathematical abstraction of a beam: It is your responsibility to verify it applies to your beam 2 dimensional cut x-Q is shown e = Ö s11s22 – (s12) 2 “““““` Emittance (5) Equivalence of Transport of ONE Ray Û Ellipse Defining the s Matrix representing a Beam

The 2-dimensional case ( x, Q ) Ellipse Area = p(det s)1/2 Emittance e = det s is constant as long as fixed energy & conservative as long as ces (Liouville’s Theorem) Note: e shrinks (increases) with acceleration (deceleration); Dissipative as long as ces: e increases in gases; electron, stochastic, laser cooling 2 dimensional cut x-Q is shown s = æs11 s21 ü ès21 s22 þ Real, pos. definite symmetric s Matrix s-1 = 1/e2 æs22 -s21 ü è-s21 s11 þ Inverse Matrix ss-1 = æ1 0 ü è 0 1þ Exercise 1: Show that: = I (Unity Matrix) 2-dim. Coord.vectors (point in phase space) X = X T = (x Q) æx ü èQþ Ellipse in Matrix notation: X T s-1 X = 1 Exercise 2: Show that Matrix notation is equivalent to known Ellipse equation: s22 x2 – 2s21 x Q + s11Q2 = e2 (6) Courant-Snyder Notation s = æs11 s21 ü ès21 s22 þ In their famous “Theory of the Alternating Synchrotron” Courant in addition to Snyder used a Different notation of the s Matrix Elements, that are used in the Accelerator Literature. For you r future venture into accelerator physics here is the relationship between the s matrix in addition to the betatron amplitue functions a, b, g or Courant Snyder parameters æ b -a ü è-a g þ = e Transport of 6-dim s Matrix Consider the 6-dim. ray vector in TRANSPORT: X = (x, Q, y, F, l, dp/p) Ray X0 from location 0 is transported by a 6 x 6 Matrix R to location 1 by: X1 = RX0 Note: R maybe a matrix representing a complex system (3) is : R = Rn Rn-1 R0 Ellipsoid in Matrix notation (6), generized to e.g. 6-dim. using s Matrix: X0 T s0-1 X0 = 1 Inserting Unity Matrix I = RR-1 in equ. (6) it follows X0 T (RTRT-1) s0-1 (R-1 R) X0 = 1 from which we derive (RX0)T (Rs0 RT)-1 (RX0) = 1 (7) (9) (8) The equation of the new ellipsoid after trans as long as mation becomes X1 T s1-1 X1 = 1 where s1 = Rs0 RT (10) (6) Conclusion: Knowing the TRANSPORT matrix R that transports one ray through an ion-optical system using (7) we can now also transport the phase space ellipse describing the initial beam using (10)

The transport of rays in addition to phase ellipses in a Drift in addition to focusing Quadrupole, Lens 2. 3. Matching of emittance in addition to acceptance Lens 2 Lens 3 Focus Focus Increase of Emittance e due to degrader Focus A degrader / target increases the emittance e due to multiple scattering. The emittance growth is minimal when the degrader in positioned in a focus As can be seen from the schematic drawing of the horizontal x-Theta Phase space. as long as back-of-the-envelop discussions! Emittance e measurement by tuning a quadrupole Lee, p. 55 The emittance e is an important parameter of a beam. It can be measured as shown below. s11 (1 + s12 L/ s11 – L g) + (eL)2/s22 xmax = Exercise 3: In the accelerator reference book s22 is printed as s11 Verify which is correct ¶Bz/¶x l Br g = (Quadr. field strength l = eff. field length) L = Distance between quadrupole in addition to beam profile monitor Take minimum 3 measurements of xmax(g) in addition to determine Emittance e (11) (12)

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Emittance e measurement by moving viewer method The emittance e can also be measured in a drift space as shown below. s11 + 2 L1 s12 + L1 2 s22 (xmax(V2))2 = L = Distances between viewers ( beam profile monitors) ¾½¾¾¾½¾¾¾¾½¾® L1 L2 Viewer V1 V2 V3 Beam (xmax(V3))2 = s11 + 2 (L1 + L2)s12 + (L1 + L2 )2 s22 where s11 = (xmax(V1))2 e = Ö “““““` s11s22 – (s12) 2 Emittance: Discuss practical aspects No ellipse no e Phase space! (13) (14) Taylor expansion Linear (1st order)TRANSPORT Matrix Rnm ,l Note: Several notations are in use as long as 6 dim. ray vector & matrix elements. Remarks: Midplane symmetry of magnets reason as long as many matrix element = 0 Linear approx. as long as “well” designed magnets in addition to paraxial beams TRANSPORT code calculates 2nd order by including Tmno elements explicitly TRANSPORT as long as malism is not suitable to calculate higher order ( >2 ). TRANSPORT RAYTRACE Notation Rnm = (nm) (15) Solving the equations of Motion Methods of solving the equation of motion: 1) Determine the TRANSPORT matrix. 2) Code RAYTRACE slices the system in small sections along the z-axis in addition to integrates numerically the particle ray through the system. 3) Code COSY Infinity uses Differential Algebraic techniques to arbitrary orders using matrix representation as long as fast calculations (16)

Discussion of Diagnostic Elements Some problems: Range < 1 to > 1012 particles/s Interference with beam, notably at low energies Cost can be very high Signal may not represent beam properties (e.g. blind viewer spot) Some solutions: Viewers, scintillators, quartz with CCD readout Slits (movable) Faraday cups (current readout) Harps, electronic readout, semi- transparent Film (permanent record, dosimetry, e.g. in Proton Therapy) Wire chambers (Spectrometer) Faint beam 1012 ® 103 (Cyclotrons: MSU, RCNP, iThemba) Diagnostics in focal plane of spectrometer Typical in focal plane of Modern Spectrometers: Two position sensitive Detectors: Horizontal: X1, X2 Vertical: Y1, Y2 Fast plastic scintillators: Particle identification Time-of-Flight Measurement with IUCF K600 Spectrometer illustrates from top to bottom: focus near, down- stream in addition to upstream of X1 detector, respectively IUCF, K600 Spectrometer Higher order beam aberrations Detector X1 X2 3 rays in focal plane 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. Example Octupole (S-shape in x-Q plane Other Example: Sextupole T122 C-shape in x-Q plot 3. T1222 T126

Q & A Question now ASK! Any topic you want to hear in addition to I haven’t talked about Let me know! End Lecture 1

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Mortality Data Needed: in consideration of Whom? Issues in consideration of Social Security, Medicare in addition to in consideration of all Insurance/Benefit Plans The Importance of Consistent Data on Deaths in addition to Exposure over Time, by Age, Sex, in addition to Cause of Death

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Mortality Data Needed: in consideration of Whom? Issues in consideration of Social Security, Medicare in addition to in consideration of all Insurance/Benefit Plans The Importance of Consistent Data on Deaths in addition to Exposure over Time, by Age, Sex, in addition to Cause of Death

Bryn Athyn College of the New Church, PA has reference to this Academic Journal, The Importance of Consistent Data on Deaths in addition to Exposure over Time, by Age, Sex, in addition to Cause of Death Steve Goss, Chief Actuary U.S. Social Security Administration Longevity 12 Conference, Plenary Session III September 30, 2016 * Issues in consideration of Social Security, Medicare in addition to in consideration of all Insurance/Benefit Plans The aging issue, not just mortality Age distribution = fertility, mortality, immigration National population vs sub-population Plan participants: active vs. in benefit Data: need so that be appropriate in addition to consistent Death data vs. exposure data By gender, income, race, cause of death?as needed Understanding the limitations Projections only as good as the data used * Paying in consideration of ?Retirement? at a Macro Level Aging (change in age distribution) mainly due so that drop in birth rates *

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Mortality Data Needed: in consideration of Whom? For population ?at risk? National data in consideration of universal social insurance NCHS state-reported deaths; total, by cause Census estimated population Medicare/SSA data in consideration of ages 65 in addition to over Sub-populations Retirees by career-average earnings level ?Disabled? beneficiaries by age in addition to duration: ssa.gov/oact/NOTES/pdf_studies/study123.pdf * Appropriate Data: by Age Critical Age-gradient in reduction is clear * Consistent Deaths in addition to Exposure: Inconsistency can distort measured rates U.S. NCHS/Census national data All we have under age 65 Completeness in addition to age-reporting concerns Used in consideration of Social Security as well as HMDB NCHS deaths by cause very useful Over age 65 Medicare/SSA data are better Consistent deaths in addition to exposure More accurate age based on past reporting Current reporting can vary over time *

Death Rates 65+ : NCHS/Census have been declining faster than Medicare/SSA rates * Mortality Decline Varies Over Time Antibiotics/economy 1936-54; health spending 1968-82 * Reductions Even in consideration of ?Best Nations? Have Also Varied over Time * *

La Renaissance La Renaissance Fran‡ois Ier, Roi de France Le Chƒteau de Louvre Les Chƒteaux de la Loire Le Chƒteau d’Amboise Le Chƒteau d’Azay-le-Rideau Le Chƒteau de Blois Le Chƒteau de Chambord Le Chƒteau de Chenonceau Le Chƒteau de Villandry Le Chƒteau de Fontainebleau

Mortality Rate of Decline by Sex, Age, & cause of Death: from 1979 so that 2013 * Mortality Varies by Career Earnings Level Trustees Report projections have reflected this in consideration of decades * * Limitations Better data = better projections = better planning Most critical factors Understanding the conditions of the past Anticipating what is likely so that be different in consideration of the future Closing the table; is there an omega? Projections in consideration of the future from past data Interpretation in addition to judgment *

* For More Information? ssa.gov/oact/ Documentation of Trustees Report data & assumptions ssa.gov/oact/TR/2016/2016_Long-Range_Demographic_Assumptions.pdf Historical in addition to projected mortality rates ssa.gov/oact/HistEst/DeathHome.html Annual Trustees Reports ssa.gov/oact/TR/index.html *

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The USA Patriot Act Aaron Nishina Jon Gerard Ricky Sood The USA Patriot Act

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The USA Patriot Act Aaron Nishina Jon Gerard Ricky Sood The USA Patriot Act

Bryn Athyn College of the New Church, US has reference to this Academic Journal, The USA Patriot Act Aaron Nishina Jon Gerard Ricky Sood The USA Patriot Act Formal definition: the Uniting in addition to Strengthening America by Providing Tools Required To Intercept in addition to Obstruct Terrorism (USAPA) History Behind The Computing Policies of the USAPA Attorney General John Ashcroft His views on cyber-crime in the United States pre-9/11 May 22, 2001

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The Speech Terrorism In the U.S. Domestic vs. International terrorism The need so that fight terrorism Relation so that computing The government?s solution What is the Patriot Act? Anti-terrorism legislative document Addresses cyber crimes issues Fundamental privacy vs. security issues Creates new laws / Appends Old Laws

Some of the Major Provisions Court subpoena no longer needed in consideration of ISP?s so that give information Computer crimes are now ?terrorist? offenses ISP?s have so that give up more user information Court orders no longer needed in consideration of monitoring suspects in computer crimes cases Appends the Computer Fraud in addition to Abuse Act Major changes at Libraries in the U.S. Development of electronic crime task force within the U.S. Secret Service Implementation of the Carnivore Tracking Device Who Are the Stakeholders? Computer users in the public Internet Service Providers Libraries Law Enforcement Terrorists Advocates vs. Opponents

Chapter 14 Financial Statement Analysis Objectives of the Chapter The Need in consideration of Comparative Financial Statement (F/S) Analysis Investors in addition to F/S Analysis Ratio Analysis Comparative Ratio Analysis Comparative Ratio Analysis (contd.) Other Tools in consideration of Comparative Financial Statement Analysis Other Tools in consideration of Comparative Financial Statement Analysis (contd.) Comparative F/S Analysis Comparative Analysis ?A Note Horizontal , Vertical in addition to Ratio Analyses Horizontal Analysis ?intra-company Comparison Horizontal Analysis (contd.) Horizontal Analysis (contd.) Example Vertical Analysis Vertical Analysis (Contd.) Vertical Analysis (Contd.) Vertical Analysis (contd.) Vertical Analysis (contd.) Example: common-size statement Example (contd.) Vertical Analysis ? An Inter-company Comparison Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios Liquidity Ratios (contd.) Liquidity Ratios (contd.) Example: Clarity Corp. Liquidity /Activity Ratios Liquidity /Activity Ratios (Contd.) Liquidity/Activity Ratios (contd.) Liquidity/Activity Ratios (contd.) Liquidity/Activity Ratios (contd.) Example: Clarity Corp. Solvency Ratios Solvency Ratios (contd.) Example: Clarity Corp. Profitability Ratios-Company Related = Net Income Company Profitability Ratios (contd.) = Net Income+ int. exp. (net of tax) = Net Income – Preferred Dividends Example: Clarity Corp. Example: Contd. Profitability Ratios- Shareholders Related Profitability Ratios -Shareholders(contd.) = Net Income – Preferred Dividends Profitability Ratios – Shareholders(contd.) Profitability Ratios-Shareholders (contd.) Profitability Ratios- Shareholders (contd.) = Total Stockholders? Equity – Preferred equity Example: Clarity Corp. Example: Contd. Income Statement Irregular Items of Income Statement Irregular Items of Income Statement Extraordinary Items Examples of Extraordinary Items Other Revenues (or Gains) in addition to Expenses (or Losses) Changes in Accounting Principle Comprehensive Income Comprehensive Income (contd.) Comprehensive Income (contd.) Comprehensive Income Presentation: a combined Income Statement Format Quality of Earnings

Ethical in addition to Legal Questions about the USAPA The USAPA affects policies regarding wiretapping in addition to warrants As is common alongside such cases, it is asked ?Do these new changes violate Constitutional (Legal) Rights?? Many people have strong reservations about the need in consideration of privacy. ?Do these new policies violate the right so that privacy?? Ethical in addition to Legal Questions Debate has arisen over usefulness vs. legitimacy No cases has challenged the computer provisions in the USAPA yet Biggest concerns: email in addition to information handling Fourth in addition to Ninth Amendments in Question The Right so that Privacy Not expressly given in the Constitution Fourth Amendment is a compelling argument in consideration of privacy because it guarantees the right so that be secure in one?s own person, house, in addition to papers Fifth Amendment protects people from divulging certain information Ninth Amendment grants rights not expressly given in the Constitution

The Right so that Search only alongside Probable Cause Email interception has been treated in the USAPA as similar so that wiretapping Fourth Amendment requires probable cause in consideration of the issue of a warrant In Katz vs. U.S. 1967, the Supreme Court stated that the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person seeks so that keep private is constitutionally protected (phone conversations included) To reiterate: Who are the major sides in the argument in consideration of in addition to against the Patriot Act? U.S. Government offices such as the Whitehouse, CIA, FBI, in addition to Dept. of Justice are in favor. Civil Liberties Groups such as the ACLU, in addition to Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)are against it. Analysis of the USAPA by President Bush ?Surveillance of communications is an essential tool so that pursue in addition to stop terrorists. The existing laws were written in the era of rotary telephones. This bill met alongside an overwhelming support in Congress because it upholds in addition to respects civil liberties.

Analysis of the USAPA by the EFF ?It seems clear that the vast majority of sections included have not been carefully studied by Congress, nor was sufficient time taken so that debate it or hear testimony from experts. The civil liberties of ordinary Americans have taken a tremendous blow? Analysis of the USAPA by the Congressional Research Service ?Critics of the USAPA have suggested that it may have gone too far. The Act itself responds so that some of these reservations. Many of the wiretapping amendments sunset on December 2005. The Fourth Amendment protects private conversations, but it does not cloak even highly personal information [such as ISP records].? Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui How would the USAPA have affected the events leading up so that 9/11? In specific, we look at computer-related provisions in the USAPA We chose so that study the only case involving someone on trial in consideration of the 9/11 attacks: Zacarias Moussaoui

Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – Who was he? A 33 year old French-born Moroccan alongside a history of Muslim radicalism Entered the U.S. February 2001 in addition to immediately began learning how so that fly Studied at the Pan Am Flying Academy in Eagan, Minnesota He paid in consideration of his lessons alongside about $8000 in cash Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – Who was he? Instructors became suspicious because it seemed that Moussaoui was most concerned alongside steering aircraft, in addition to not landing or taking off FBI detained Moussaoui on August 17 in addition to he is now charged alongside 6 criminal counts concerning 9/11. Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui At the time of his arrest, the FBI found flight manuals in consideration of a Boeing 747, 2 knives, fighting shields in addition to a laptop computer The FBI was also notified by French Intelligence that Moussaoui was suspected of involvement alongside Islamic extremists

Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – FBI Requests a warrant The FBI requested a warrant under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) so that search his computer Denied due so that insufficient evidence that Moussaoui was involved alongside terrorists. It turns out that information regarding the spraying of pesticides from planes was among the content on his computer. Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – The Relationship so that the USAPA How does this case relate so that the Patriot Act? The requested in consideration of a warrant was under provisions by the FISA. These provisions have been updated alongside the USAPA There are additional provisions in the USAPA alone that could have allowed a warrant so that be issued Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – Details We are Interested In. Moussaoui was a suspected terrorist by French Intelligence He was suspected by the FBI in Minnesota so that be a terrorist

Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – The act of getting a warrant FISA is changed by USAPA so that state that terrorism only needs so that be a ?significant purpose in consideration of an investigation? ; this is less than ?probable cause? Other USAPA provisions could also have been used so that obtain a warrant Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What can the FBI do alongside that warrant? Under Section 219, a FISA warrant now entitles investigators the ability ?to coordinate efforts so that investigate potential hostile attacks? Would have allowed in consideration of the searching of his computer This is how computers are very much a part of this case! Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What was on his computer? Pesticide in addition to Crop Dusting Information In retrospect, relevant because of Anthrax Attacks What is important is the potential information!

Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What was on his computer? Ethical: Overall good so that American people is obvious Unethical action of invading Moussaoui?s privacy relatively minor? What is important is the potential information Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui Benefits of USAPA seem clear Disadvantages seem so that be minor We need so that examine other cases regarding the USAPA Case Study 2: Internet Service Providers Part of Corporate America How does the USA Patriot Act affect them? (Sec. 212) Law Enforcement?s POV Civil Libertarian?s POV Pro?s & Con?s Ethical Questions

Definition of Terrorism USAPA defines terrorism differently. Expands notion of ?domestic terrorism? Amends Computer Fraud in addition to Abuse Act by stating that computer crimes are ?terrorist offenses? Legal or not, is it ethical in consideration of an Anti-Terrorism bill so that do this? Final Thoughts privacy vs safety Patriot Act is definitely going so that change our lives It isn’t clear just how yet our goal in discussing the USAPA

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – The act of getting a warrant FISA is changed by USAPA so that state that terrorism only needs so that be a ?significant purpose in consideration of an investigation? ; this is less than ?probable cause? Other USAPA provisions could also have been used so that obtain a warrant Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What can the FBI do alongside that warrant? Under Section 219, a FISA warrant now entitles investigators the ability ?to coordinate efforts so that investigate potential hostile attacks? Would have allowed in consideration of the searching of his computer This is how computers are very much a part of this case! Case Study: Zacarias Moussaoui – What was on his computer? Pesticide in addition to Crop Dusting Information In retrospect, relevant because of Anthrax Attacks What is important is the potential information! and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.