What do we have so far Basic biology of the nervous system Motivations Senses

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What do we have so far Basic biology of the nervous system Motivations Senses

McEvoy, Aoife, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal What do we have so far Basic biology of the nervous system Motivations Senses Learning Perception Memory Thinking in addition to mental representations What do we have so far All of these topics give a basic sense of the structure in addition to operation of our mind What kinds of tasks does our mind engage in Language Problem Solving Decision Making Others Problem Solving: Definition A problem exists when you want to get from “here” (a knowledge state) to “there” (another knowledge state) in addition to the path is not immediately obvious.

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What are problems Everyday experiences How to get to the airport How to study as long as a quiz, complete a paper, in addition to finish a lab be as long as e recitation Domain specific problems Physics or math problems Puzzles/games Crossword, anagrams, chess A Partial Problem Typology Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems: Problems where the goal or solution is recognizable-where there is a right answer (ex. a math or physics problem) vs. problems where there is no “right” answer but a range of more or less acceptable answers. Knowledge rich vs. knowledge lean problems: problems whose solution depends on specialized knowledge. Insight vs. non-insight problems-those solved “all of a sudden” vs. those solved more incrementally-in a step by step fashion. Contents of Memory Does the contents of memory influence how easy a problem is Knowledge rich problems Require domain knowledge to answer, physics problems Knowledge lean problems Can use a general problem solving method to solve, don’t need a lot of domain knowledge

Some Problem Examples Tower of Hanoi Weighing problem Traveling salesman (100 cities = 100! or 10200 or each electron, 109 operations per sec. would take 1011 years!!) but 100,000 cities within 1% in 2 days via heuristic breakup (reduce search!) Missionaries & Cannibals Flashlight: 1, 2, 5, 10 min. walkers to cross bridge 21 link gold necklace/21 day stay Subway Problem Vases (or 3-door)

Early findings Zeigarnik effect, 1927 Participants were given a set of problems to solve On some problems, they were interrupted be as long as e they could finish the problem Participants were given a surprise recall test They remembered many more of the interrupted problems than the uninterrupted ones Moss et al. (2007) recent RAT results: open goals

Early Findings: Prob. Solv’ Set Luchins water jug experiment, 1942 Participants were given a series of water jug problems Example: You have three jugs, A holds 21 quarts, B holds 127, C holds 3. Your job is to obtain exactly 100 quarts from a well Solution is B – A – 2C Participants solved a series of these problems all having the same solution Early Findings: P.S. Set Luchins water jug experiment, 1942 New problem: Given 23, 49, in addition to 3 quart jugs. Goal is to get 20 quarts. Given 28, 76, in addition to 3 quart jugs, obtain 25 quarts Some failed to solve, others took a very long time Mental set People who solved series of problems using one method tended to over apply that method to new similar appearing problems Even when other methods were easier or where the learned method no longer could solve the problem Prob. A B C Goal 1 21 127 3 100 2 14 163 25 99 3 18 43 10 5 4 9 42 6 21 5 20 59 4 31 6 23 49 3 20 7 15 39 3 18 8 28 76 3 25 9 8 48 4 22 10 14 36 8 6

Early Findings:Functional Fixedness Duncker’s c in addition to le problem, 1945 Problem: Find a way to fix a c in addition to le to the wall in addition to light it without wax dripping on the floor. Given: C in addition to le, matches, in addition to a bow of thumbtacks Solution: Empty the box, tack it to the wall, place c in addition to le on box Have to think of the box as something other than a container People found the problem easier to solve if the box was empty with the tacks given separately Early Findings:Funct. Fixedness Duncker’s c in addition to le problem Maier’s two-string problem 1930

Functional Fix’dness: Conclusion Functional Fixedness Inability to realize that something familiar as long as a particular use may also be used as long as new functions But is this really a bad thing We learn in addition to generalize from our experience in order to be more efficient in most cases Is it really a good idea to sit around trying to figure out how many potential uses a pair of pliers has How often do mental sets in addition to functional fixedness save time in addition to computation General Problem Characteristics What characteristics do all problems share Start with an initial situation Want to end up in some kind of goal situation There are ways to trans as long as m the current situation into the goal situation Can we have a general theory of problem solving General Theory of Problem Solving Newell & Simon proposed a general theory in 1972 in their book Human Problem Solving They studied a number of problem solving tasks Proving logic theorems Chess Cryptarithmetic DONALD D=5 + GERALD ROBERT

General Theory of Problem Solving Verbal Protocols Record people as they think aloud during a problem solving task Computational simulation Write computer programs that simulate how people are doing the task Yields detailed theories of task per as long as mance that make specific predictions General Theory of Problem Solving Problem spaces Initial state Goal state(s) Operators that trans as long as m one state into another An Example Tower of Hanoi Given a puzzle with three pegs in addition to three discs Discs start on Peg 1 as shown below, in addition to your goal is to move them all to peg 3 You can only move one at a time You can never place a larger disc on a smaller disc

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Another ex.: Detour Problems Missionaries in addition to cannibals problem Six travelers must cross a river in one boat Only two people can fit in the boat at a time Three of them are missionaries in addition to three are cannibals The number of cannibals on either shore of the river can not exceed the number of missionaries Problem Space

Operators How do we choose which operators to apply given the current state of the problem Algorithm Series of steps that guarantee an answer within a certain amount of time Heuristic General rule of thumb that usually leads to a solution Algorithm Examples Columnar algorithm as long as addition Add the ones column Carry if necessary Add the next column, etc. People don’t have a simple algorithm as long as solving most problems 4 6 2 + 2 3 4 8 5 Common Heuristics “Weak Methods” Hill climbing Just use the operator which moves you closer to the goal no matter what What about problems where you have to first move away from the goal in order to get to it (detour problems) Fractionation in addition to Subgoaling Break the problem into a series or hierarchy of smaller problems

Conclusions Problem solving is an everyday activity We can use findings from problem solving to further our underst in addition to ing of the mind in addition to its processes We can use our knowledge of the mind’s structure in addition to operation to underst in addition to elements of problem solving Different types of problems in addition to different contributions to problem difficulty

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China-US Currency Issues Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor Revised from CLD Progr

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China-US Currency Issues Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor Revised from CLD Progr

Kemp, Bob, Mid Day Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal China-US Currency Issues Jeffrey Frankel Harpel Professor Revised from CLD Program, June 8, 2010; CHINA FUTURE LEADERS, 10 a.m., Bell Hall, January 17, 2011 Topics to be covered (I) Historical timeline of exchange rate diplomacy (II) What is in China’s interest (III) What is in the interest of the US & Rest of World (IV) Shifting power relationships Appendices: U.S. Treasury biannual reports on currency manipulation The current account imbalances The internationalization of the RMB Technical appendices Historical timeline “I have listened to both sides of this debate. Here is what I think. I think those who call as long as a fixed exchange rate are right in the short run. And those who call as long as a floating exchange rate are right in the long run. How long is the short run, you ask You must underst in addition to . China is 8000 years old. So when I say, short run, it could be 100 years.” – Li Ruogu, Deputy Governor, People’s Bank of China, Dalian, May 2004

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Historical timeline of currency diplomacy 1973: End of Bretton Woods era. Major currencies switch from fixed to floating. The rest keep their pegs. 1977: IMF members agree that each shall “avoid manipulating exchange rates in order to prevent effective balance of payments adjustment or to gain an unfair competitive advantage over other members.” [Principle (A) of the “1977 Decision on Surveillance over Exchange Rate Policies,” in addition to Sect.1, Clause 3, of Article IV amended in 1978.] In practice, the IMF almost never pressures countries to revalue their currencies upward; It just pressures deficit countries to devalue. 1983-84: ¥/$ Agreement. 1985: Plaza Accord. Japan, US & others cooperate to bring down overvalued $, esp. vs. ¥ 1987-89: Louvre Agreement: $ depreciation halted. Big bubbles in Japan’s equity & real estate markets, followed by crash, & severe Japanese stagnation in 1990s. Timeline, continued 1988: The Omnibus Trade & Competitiveness Act m in addition to ates the US Treasury report to Congress biannually on whether trading partners were manipulating currencies. Section 3004 requires the Treasury to “consider whether countries manipulate the rate of exchange between their currency in addition to the US $ as long as purposes of preventing effective balance of payments adjustments or gaining unfair competitive advantage in international trade.” The US must hold talks with governments deemed to be breaking rules. In the first Reports to Congress on International Economics & Exchange Rate Policy, Korea & Taiwan PoC were found to be guilty of manipulation, while Singapore & Hong Kong SAR “got off with a warning.” China was named in early 1990s. Timeline, continued: Exchange rate Jan. 1994: China devalues its official rate, unifying its dual exchange rate system. 1997-98: East Asia crisis. China wins plaudits as long as keeping RMB (“yuan”’) fixed while all its neighbors are devaluing. 1995-2005: China continues to peg as long as 10 years at 8.28 RMB/$.

Timeline, continued: US pressure Oct. 2003: Treasury Secretary Snow begins to “browbeat” China to allow appreciation. Treasury Report: RMB merits concern & talks Speculators in financial markets start to bet appreciation. as reflected in either capital flows (see Prasad & Wei) or non-deliverable as long as ward price (see appendix graph). Feb. 2005: Senators Schumer & Graham propose first of bills to impose (WTO-illegal) tariffs of 27.5 % against all Chinese goods if China does not substantially revalue its currency. Subsequent versions, by Baucus-Grassley in addition to others substitute the phrase “currency misalignment” in place of “unfair manipulation” to ease st in addition to ard of proof. Timeline, continued: China’s macroeconomy 2004-07: Rapid growth puts China into Excess Dem in addition to . 2005-06: Despite large balance of payments surpluses, PBoC sterilization of reserve inflows prevents excessive money growth & inflation. 2007-08: Sterilization finally falters: Money becomes excessive. Inflation becomes a serious concern. Shanghai stock market experiences a bubble. Mid-2008 – early 2009: Worst of the global recession hits. China loses 26% of exports Growth slows; danger of overheating disappears. Mid-2009 – 2011: China resumes very rapid growth in response to domestic dem in addition to stimulus + renewed exports China is now a major engine of growth in world economy. Danger of overheating returns: esp. real estate bubble. Timeline, continued: Exchange rate July 2005: China announces a new policy, Immediate 2.1 % revaluation, Followed by “managed float”: controlled appreciation, supposedly against an unspecified basket of currencies. But, as often, de jure exchange rate regime de facto. Estimation of true regime reveals: $ link did not even begin to loosen until 2006. By 2007, implicit basket had shifted some weight onto other currencies, especially the €. RMB appreciates against the $ from 2006 to 2008, because € does.

The magnitude of daily movements vs. $ increased in the spring of 2006, May 2008: Chinese leaders hear exporter complaints of competitiveness difficulties. Mid-2008-April 2010: yuan re-pegs $ 6.84 RMB/$ 20% stronger, vs. $, than 2005. Timeline, continued: Exchange rate The RMB rose against the $ as long as 2 years, but returned to peg in mid-2008 $/RMB €/RMB €/$

Timeline, continued Oct. 2006 – IMF Article IV consultation finds RMB “undervalued.” 2007: US Treasury temporarily passes hot potato of exchange rate complaints to IMF, which gets m in addition to ate as long as exchange rate “surveillance.” 2008: Though financial crisis originates in US, “flight to quality” temporarily raises dem in addition to as long as $. 2009: Chinese leaders, as long as the first time, express concerns that their vast holdings of US treasury bills may not be well-invested. Pres. Obama & Secy. Geithner seek to reassure. 2009: Chinese warnings Premier Wen worries US T bills may lose value. Urges the US to keep its deficit at an “appropriate size” to ensure the “basic stability” of the $ (again on 11/10/09). PBoC Gov. Zhou, proposes replacing $ as international currency, with the SDR (March 09). Timeline, continued 2010 Winter 2010: Pressure mounts – International pressure on Beijing to appreciate; Congressional pressure on US Treasury to find China guilty of currency manipulation in its biannual report due April 15. But Chinese say they will never bow to pressure.

April 2010 – Collision is averted: Treasury postpones manipulation report. June 19 – PBoC announces it will “increase the renminbi’s exchange-rate flexibility,” though subsequent appreciation is small. So both sides save face as long as the moment. September 27 – Brazil Finance Minister Mantega warns of “Currency Wars”: Each country intervenes to push its currency down in ef as long as t to gain trade advantage, collectively futile. November 8, G20 Summit in Seoul – China criticizes US Fed’s monetary easing (“QE2”) as an example of currency wars. Jan. 2011: Preparations as long as Obama-Hu summit Jan.14: Geithner notes that – including higher China’s inflation – RMB is appreciating at 10% per year. That suggests US lower priority on the currency issue Vs. IPR, North Korea & other issues.

Appreciation + inflation WSJ 1/22/11 5% nominal appreciation per annum + 5% inflation differential 10% real appreciation per annum September-December 2010 Data sources: The Economist, BLS, CEIC, Thomson Reuters Global Macro Monitor (II) From China’s viewpoint, Countries should have the right to fix their exchange rate if they want to. True, the IMF Articles of Agreement in addition to the US Omnibus Trade Act of 1988 call as long as action in the event that a country is “unfairly manipulating its currency”. But Few countries have been as long as ced to appreciate. Pressure on surplus countries to appreciate will inevitably be less than pressure on deficit countries to depreciate. I support retiring the language of “manipulation.” Usually, it is hard to say when a currency is undervalued. Don’t cheapen the language that is appropriate to WTO rules. China should do what is in its own long-term interest.

What is in China’s interest My view: mutually-beneficial bargain, between equals As part of G-20 process E.g., China agrees that: its exchange rate is part of the problem, it will cooperate to lower the RMB/$ rate in a gradual manner, in addition to of course it won’t dump US treasury bills. In exchange, US agrees that: its low national saving rate is part of the problem, it will cooperate to reduce the budget deficit, in addition to of course it won’t close off the US market to Chinese goods. But perhaps a bargain isn’t even necessary; It is in China’s own interest to begin appreciating the RMB. Five reasons China should let RMB appreciate, in its own interest Overheating of economy Reserves are excessive. It gets harder to sterilize the inflow over time. Attaining internal in addition to external balance. To attain both, need 2 policy instruments. In a large country like China, expenditure-switching policy should be the exchange rate. Avoiding future crashes. RMB undervalued, judged by Balassa-Samuelson relationship. 1. Overheating of economy: Bottlenecks. Pace of economic growth is outrunning: raw material supplies, in addition to labor supply in coastal provinces Also: physical infrastructure environmental capacity level of sophistication of financial system. Asset bubbles. Shanghai stock market bubble in 2007. Inflation 6-7% in 2007 => price controls shortages & social unrest. All of the above was suspended in late 2008, due to global recession. But it is back again now; skyrocketing real estate prices.

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Attempts at “sterilization,” to insulate domestic economy from the inflows Sterilization is defined as offsetting of international reserve inflows, so as to prevent them from showing up domestically as excessive money growth & inflation. For awhile PBoC successfully sterilized until 2007-08. The usual limitations finally showed up: Prolongation of capital inflows <= self-equilibrating mechanism shut off. Quasi-fiscal deficit: gap between domestic interest rates & US T bill rate Failure to sterilize: money supply rising faster than income Rising inflation (admittedly due not only to rising money supply) 2. Foreign Exchange Reserves Excessive: Though a useful shield against currency crises, China has enough reserves: $2 ½ trillion by April 2010; & US treasury securities do not pay high returns. Harder to sterilize the inflow over time. New York Times Jan 12, 2011 Foreign exchange reserves held by the People’s Bank of China are approaching $3 trillion in 2011. New York Times Jan 12, 2011 The Chinese money supply has almost doubled in the last 3 years, contributing to a rapid growth aggregate dem in addition to as reflected in nominal GDP Source: HKMA, Half-Yearly Monetary in addition to Financial Stability Report, June 2008 The Balance of Payments rate of change of as long as eign exchange reserves (largely $), rose rapidly in China over past decade, due to all 3 components: trade balance, Foreign Direct Investment, in addition to portfolio inflows Attempts to sterilize reserve inflow: While reserves (NFA) rose rapidly, the growth of the monetary base was kept to the growth of the real economy – even reduced in 2005-06. Successful sterilization in China: 2005-06 were remarkably successful in 2005-06. High reserve growth offset by cuts in domestic credit => steady money

Does the Balassa-Samuelson relationship have predictive power Typically across countries, gaps are corrected halfway, on average, over subsequent decade. => 3-4 % real appreciation on average per year, including effect of further growth differential . Correction could take the as long as m of either inflation or nominal appreciation, but appreciation is preferable. http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~jfrankel/index.htm

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AME 441: Conceptual Design Presentation B-19 Group 5: Andrea Doyle, Tim Kac



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AME 441: Conceptual Design Presentation B-19 Group 5: Andrea Doyle, Tim Kac

Elizabethtown College, PA has reference to this Academic Journal, AME 441: Conceptual Design Presentation B-19 Group 5: Andrea Doyle, Tim Kacmar, Ryan Kirker, Meghan Perry-Eaton, Denis Sullivan, Mike Trela, Thomas Zieg February 5, 2004 Overview Introduction Main Wing Selection Engine Selection Takeoff in addition to Landing Distances Passive Lift Enhancement Static Stability Conclusions Introduction Design Drivers Maximum Level Speed at Constant Altitude Maximum Climb Rate Allowable Parameters Total Planform Area between 400 in addition to 800 in2 Power Plant Consisting of an Electric Motor Internal Cargo Bay of Specified Dimensions Sport Propeller of Specific Pitch in addition to Diameter Digital Radio Control System (7 Channels)

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Why a Flying Wing? Advantages Minimum Drag High Speed Absence of Horizontal Tail Maximizes Climb Rate Given AC in addition to CG locations Maximizing Excess Power Weight Breakdown Wing Loading Design Drivers: Max Level Cruise ? High Wing Loading Max Rate of Climb ? Low Wing Loading Large aircraft are not a good comparison. R/C Model Aircraft Wing Loading Professional Kit Models: 12 oz/ft2. Conceptual Design: 27 oz/ft2. Maximize Available Power, Decrease Drag

Overall Wing Design Taper Ratio, 0.4 ? Like Elliptical Planform Wing Sweep, 20% ? Historical Data Winglets ? Decrease Drag, Stability Dihedral, none Winglets & Wing Sweep are effective Dihedral Twist takes away from effective Dihedral Wing Airfoil Section: EH 3.0/12.0 Low Moment about A.C. -0.002 Thick Section Structure Stability Designed in consideration of Flying Wing model Aircrafts Wing Specifics Flaps in consideration of increase lift at take off in addition to acceleration so that cruise. Dimensions Wing Area, 600 sq. in. Compromise between low drag in addition to low CL. Wing Span, 5.4 ft A = 7.1, 8.1 alongside winglets Root Chord, 1.09 ft & Tip Chord .44 ft CL @ cruise, .225

Opting in consideration of Evaluation Expediency in an Age of Budgetary Cost Cutting Robin Kipke, Evaluation Associate at the UC Davis Center in consideration of Program Evaluation in addition to Research The Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC) is a statewide evaluation technical assistance center funded by the California Department of Public Health Tobacco Control Program TCEC serves over 100 county health agencies in addition to community-based organizations that are working so that reduce the prevalence in addition to impact of tobacco use in California It?s goal is so that build the evaluation capacity of client organizations through: The state budget crisis resulted in huge cuts so that public health funding, affecting the monies available so that county health programs A number of Tobacco Control projects report they can no longer afford so that retain external evaluators Instead, evaluation responsibilities are being shifted so that in-house staff alongside little expertise Additionally, staff positions have been cut, left unfilled, or subjected so that furlough days This has left fewer hours in addition to staff so that accomplish the same amount of work Gathering Best Practices from the Field TCEC has begun so that collect effective evaluation strategies directly from the projects doing the work Agencies alongside limited means or staff so that collect large samples of public opinion data could try so that add a few key questions so that larger biennial surveys being carried out by other studies or departments (e.g., CA Health Interview Survey, CDC, etc.) To reach a larger sample, try asking other institutions so that pass out your questionnaires along alongside their materials: In rural areas where low population density makes obtaining an adequate sample difficult, conducting a series of focus groups alongside purposive sampling may be a better strategy Building Evaluation Capacity in Practice Content analysis of final evaluation reports in addition to proposed evaluation plans indicates a large proportion of projects still need so that improve their practice of evaluation To help projects improve their understanding of evaluation principles in addition to methods, TCEC hosts monthly interactive webinars on practical topics Short presentations on data collection methods, webinars in addition to how-to publications are archived on the TCEC website (http://tobaccoeval.ucdavis.edu) A quarterly evaluation newsletter covers needful issues related so that the stages of project timelines California has been hit harder than most states alongside budget shortfalls. As a result, many social service programs that rely on state funding have seen their budgets stagnate or shrink. This has left many county health departments tobacco control programs alongside less money in addition to fewer staff so that do the same amount of work. Meeting the Need of Changing Realities As client needs shift towards more time-efficient evaluation activities, TCEC has begun so that rethink how it provides technical assistance Needs assessment indicates that projects are most interested in obtaining data collection instruments in English in addition to other languages While improving the evaluation practice of client agencies remains a priority, TCEC is finding ways so that save agencies staff time in addition to money by creating tools in addition to templates which can easily be adapted in consideration of their immediate needs Improving Data Collection To facilitate higher quality data, TCEC has drafted model data collection instruments on the most prevalent policy objectives alongside specifications in consideration of their use The instruments have been created alongside lower literacy level in addition to various ethnic target populations in mind Plans are being made so that field test the instruments alongside specific English-speaking priority populations so that assess their clarity Vetted instruments will be translated into Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Russian in addition to other languages as client need dictates TCEC also administers a coalition satisfaction survey service ? collecting data via Survey Monkey in addition to providing analysis so that projects Clients can also request access so that hundreds of instruments created in addition to used by tobacco control projects in a TCEC repository

Estimated Cruise Velocity Importance Velocity estimation greatly effects the design of the wing. Estimated Velocity Theoretical Estimate: 100 ft/s Based on a propeller efficiency ranging from .4 so that .6 Conservative Estimate: 80 ft/s Battery will not be fully charged in addition to other losses will occur. Wing Twist & Angle of Attack Twist: For Stability & Control of Aircraft Minimize Moment @ A.C. Low Stability Factor, 8% Longer Wing Span Good Weight Estimate Calculated -4ø of Twist from Root so that Chord Root Chord, ? = 4 ø Tip Chord, ? = 0 ø Mean Aerodynamic Chord, ? = 2.5ø .817 ft long at 1 ft from the root chord.

Propulsion System Astro 15 Motor 12? X 8? Pitch Propeller 9.78 lbs. Static Thrust 2.16 lbs. Cruise Thrust (2 lbs. of Drag at Cruise) Take-Off in addition to Landing Analysis CDO= 0.015 Aspect Ratio=7.15 CLG=1 Take-off Weight= 8lb ?=0.1, wet grass 5 foot obstacle Wing Loading= 1.687 lb/ft2 VTD= 43.34 ft/sec Landing Weight= 7lb Dropped landing gears ?=0.3, wet grass, large surface area interaction alongside ground Lift Enhancement Airfoil Data EH3.0-12.0 Cl max = 1.0 ?s 2-D no flaps = 10 degrees CLmax no flaps = 0.90 ?s 3-D no flaps = 13.129 degrees Flap Information Plane ?f = 30 degrees Sf/Sw = 0.20 cf/cw = 0.25 3-D alongside flaps ?CLmax = 0.0189 CLmax = 0.9189 ?s 3-D flapped = 11.629 degrees ?CD0 = 0.0156

Stability Conclusions Flying Wing Configuration Estimated 8 lb Takeoff Weight Wing Dimensions Area: 597 in2 Span: 4.7 ft Root Chord: 1.08 in Tip Chord: .44 in Wing Twist: 5ø EH 3.0-12.0 Airfoil Cl max-1.0 3% Camber 12 % Thickness Wing Loading 27 oz/ft2 Power Plant Astro Cobalt 15 Electric Motor -Shaft Output Power: 268 W -12 Cell Pack -2.38:1 Gear Ratio -12×8 Propeller Takeoff in addition to Landing Takeoff Speed: 48.34 ft/s Takeoff Distance: 248.57 ft Landing Distance: 743.12 ft Flap Information Plane ?f = 30 degrees Sf/Sw = 0.20 cf/cw = 0.25 Cruise Speed 80 ft/s


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Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism Overview Industrial Metabolism: Theory in addition to Policy Robert U. Ayres



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Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism Overview Industrial Metabolism: Theory in addition to Policy Robert U. Ayres

Elizabethtown College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Industrial Metabolism: Theory in addition to Policy Robert U. Ayres Summary: Patrick Wilkinson Critique: James Silva Overview Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism The Materials Cycle Measures of Industrial Metabolism Policy Implications of the Industrial Metabolism Perspective Introduction so that Industrial Metabolism Definition: ?the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials in addition to energy, plus labor, into finished products in addition to wastes in a (more or less) steady-state condition.? Metabolism: Analogous so that the process of a living organism Takes in food in consideration of self/storage in addition to excretes wastes. Differences: Organisms reproduce themselves, specialized, change over long period of time. Firms produce products or services, not specialized, can change quickly

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The Materials Cycle Closed cycles are self-sustaining alongside no external sources or sinks in addition to are in steady state. Open cycles are unsustainable, using materials without replenishing sources. Must stabilize or will ultimately fail The Biological cycle is a closed cycle, while our industrial cycle is an open cycle. The Material Cycle ?Industrial system of today?: Unsustainable Can this stabilization be obtained alongside a ?technological ?fix??? If so, how? If not, how long will the current system last? Biological system Has not always been a closed system ?Responded so that inherently unstable situations (open cycles) by ?inventing? new processes (organisms) so that stabilize the system by closing the cycles.? Time scales Biological system took billions of years Industrial system does not have that much time Measures of Industrial Metabolism Recycling in addition to dissipative loss are the ?fates? of all waste materials There are 3 classes of materials use Those that are recyclable under present technology in addition to cost Those that are recyclable, but not under present tech. in addition to cost Those that are not recyclable For the industrial system so that function as a closed cycle, it must recycle or reuse nearly all materials

Measures of Industrial Metabolism Examples of dissipative use: Class 3 materials Sulfur CFC?s Ammonia Phosphoric acid Chlorine Although can be classified as class 2 when used in plastics in addition to solvents Measures of Industrial Metabolism Potentially recyclable materials Are they being recycled in addition to reused? Recycle (reuse) vs. Dissipation of a material shows how far sustainability is from being reached Policy Implications of the Industrial Metabolism Perspective Industrial metabolism is ?holistic? in theory All interactions are considered together resulting in the best in consideration of the system as a whole Short term solutions in addition to policies, however, are being enforced Such policies are usually more harmful in addition to costly in the long run Ex.?s Pollution in addition to coal as a fuel Air in addition to water pollution reduced, but land disposal increased Clean coal technology could extend coal as fuel, but effects of byproducts extended as well

CS 61B Data Structures in addition to Programming Methodology Announcements Today Static Fields in addition to Methods Constants Constants (cont.) Preventing Inheritance Abstract Classes Example Example (cont.) Abstract Class Rules in consideration of Classes Example What are Interfaces? Example Example compareTo Example compareTo Comparable Properties of Interfaces Properties of Interfaces Extending Interfaces Interfaces in addition to Abstract Classes Implement Multiple Interfaces Using Interfaces in addition to Abstract Class The Java Collections Framework Next Lecture

Critique Sulfur Example Comparison: human vs. natural Material Source vs. Material Path A more ?holistic view? Sulfur Example Example of Dissipative use Nearly all sulfur mined is dissipated or discarded Mostly used in consideration of sulfuric acid ? used in non-recyclable chemicals Thus sulfur mainly falls into the third category But? plaster-of Paris Comparison: human vs. natural Where is the natural so that compare alongside the anthropogenic? What are the percentages referring to? ?In all cases, alongside the possible exception of nitrogen, the anthropogenic contributions exceed the natural flows by a considerable margin.? Really?

Comparison: human vs. natural (Can you interpret this?) Material Source vs. Material Path Should be less concerned alongside how much of something is left than alongside what path used material takes How much oil/steel/etc. is left so that be extracted from natural sources is not a good measure of evaluation in consideration of industrial processes A better way is so that quantify how much recycling of material is going on: What do we do alongside what we use? A more ?holistic view? Defines it more by what it is not Contrasts alongside ?narrowly conceived or short-run (myopic) ?quick fix? policies? Longer pipelines in consideration of sewage Air vs. water vs. land Not an in-depth application paper Less than 15 pages The industrial system of tomorrow??


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