Design Landscape Elements of Design Elements of Design Element of Design Ele

Design Landscape  Elements of Design  Elements of Design  Element of Design  Ele www.phwiki.com

Design Landscape Remember elements, principles, components/ measurements in addition so that symbols used so that develop plans John M. Hess Elements of Design Design Elements create moods or feeling of the Observer: Form- Geometric shape or combination of shapes Elements of Design Line ? Continuity of a landscape .Flow of the landscape Straight lines = direction change Curved lines= relaxed movement Element of Design Texture: Coarse or fine materials used. Examples. Size differences of leaves stones brick bark Elements of Design: Overview The five elements of landscape design include: ? Color – It is important so that use a complementing color scheme throughout the yard. ? Line – Linear patterns are used so that direct physical movement in addition so that so that draw attention so that areas in your garden. ? Form – Form can be expressed through trees in addition so that shrubs of various shapes in addition so that sizes which create natural patterns. ? Texture – Plants alongside varying textures can add so that the atmosphere of your outdoor area. ? Scale – Your outdoor design should balance the size of the buildings it surrounds, while maintaining a comfortable environment in consideration of the individuals who will use the area. Principles of Design Principles of design- Standards by which designs can be created, measured, discussed in addition so that evaluated. Principles of Design Balance: Even distribution of materials on opposite sides of a central axis. Symmetric ? both sides are identical (mirror image). Asymmetric ? visual weight on opposite sides is the same, but materials used in addition so that their placement may vary. Proximal/Distal ? Same as asymmetric alongside depth in the field of vision added. Balance: Symmetric: Formal Balance Asymmetric: Informal Balance Proximal / Distal: Principles of Design: Focalization ? Selects in addition so that positions visually strong items into landscape. Catchs in addition so that draws viewer so that key feature in landscape. Hardscapes Color movement Unique plant or Specimen plant Principles of Design: Simplicity ? Seeks so that make the viewer feel comfortable within the landscape. Principles of Design: Proportion ? Concerned alongside size relationship between all the features of the landscape. Principles of Design: Rhythm in addition so that Line: When something repeats itself enough times alongside a standard distance between repetitions, rhythm is established. Principles of Design: Unity ? The master principle combining all other principles. Total design Methods of Grouping Plants Corner Planting ? Planting is placed at the corner of a landscape. One of the more natural locations in consideration of a focal point. Bench Specimen plant Hardscape Methods of Grouping Plants Foundation Planting ? Plants lining walls or walkways so that soften edges. Can be used so that draw attention so that entrances or openings. Methods of Grouping Plants: Line Planting ? Creates a wall or line in the landscape. Used as screening or privacy. Helps so that create outdoor living area. Methods of Grouping Plants: Mass Planting ? A group of [plants that fill a large area or cluster in the landscape. Methods of Grouping Plants: Accent Plant ? Creates a particular beauty or interest in the landscape. Used so that draw viewer?s eye so that an area, or so that create an illusion that area is larger than it appears. Accent plants should not be placed in middle of lawn area. Accent Plant : Examples Criteria in consideration of Lettering/Numbering Plans in addition so that in consideration of using scales. Use single strokes when forming letters/numbers. Always use all CAPITAL (upper case) letters. Use light strokes when lettering/numbering so that avoid smudges. Draw letters/numbers vertically. Use appropriate spacing when lettering/numbering. Use guidelines always. Show uniformity in letters/numbers. Examples of Lettering: 1 Lettering Examples: 2 Using Scales: Architect / engineering scales may be used so that represent actual dimensions of land / objects on paper. The scale is NOT used as a straight edge. It is a measuring device only. Architect scales hold several units of measure in consideration of sizing so that paper. NOTICE** Rulers are kings in addition so that queens, not items in consideration of drawing or measuring. Irrigation System Components: Sprinkler Irrigation ? Applies water under pressure over the tops of plants. Irrigation System Components Drip /Trickle Irrigation ? Supplies water directly so that the root system of the plant. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Spray head ? Water is distributed in a set pattern over a fixed area. No moving parts normally. Propels water 14 -16 ft, before wind affects pattern. Most commonly use in consideration of shrubs in addition so that flower beds. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Rotary Sprinklers ? Have moving parts, Some are pop ? ups. Move in full circle or partial circles. Throw water up so that 110 ft. Gear or impact driven. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Pop ? up Sprinklers ? Sprinkler heads rise above ground when water pressure is applied, Return so that ground level when pressure is released. Positive retract use a spring so that return nozzle so that ground level. May be rotary sprinklers or fix spray heads. Pop ? up Sprinklers: Examples Types of Sprinkler Heads: Emitters ? A device so that take the place of a sprinkler head in consideration of trickle irrigation. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Microspray ? Low volumeemission device that waters the entire hydrozone in addition so that operates similarly so that conventional spray heads, but at much lower flow rates. Drip irrigation uses up so that 50 % less water than sprinkler systems. Uses 150 -200 micron mesh filter so that prevent clogging. Other Irrigation Components: Back Flow Preventer ? Device that ensures water from irrigation system does not return back so that main water source. This is required in some counties if on city water. Other Irrigation Components: Remote Control Valves ? Devices that open in addition so that close so that allow water flow through pipes. Placed in the water line in addition so that controlled by an electrical contact alongside the irrigation system controller. Other Sprinkler Components: Controller ? The device that automatically opens/ closes the valves in the irrigation system according so that the preset program. Sold based on the number of valves so that be controlled. Controllers are programable. Other Sprinkler Components Program ? A set of instructions in consideration of the controller so that follow : Days in consideration of watering, water flow & length. (Some will skip days based of rain). Zone ? Area or grouping of sprinklers, operating on a certain control valve. Cycle ? One complete run of a controller through its programmed stations/ zones. Other Sprinkler Components: Main Line ? Main source of water in an irrigation system, has water flow or pressure at all times. Lateral Line ? Secondary line of an irrigation system that has water flow / pressure when valve is open. Irrigation Measurements: GPM ? Gallons per minute. Rate of water flow through an irrigation system, time = 1 minute. GPH ? Gallons per hour. Rate of water flow through an irrigation system, time = 1 hour. PSI ? Pounds per square inch. Measure of force at which water moves through the irrigation system. Symbols in consideration of diagrams/ Layouts Evergreen Tree: Symbols in consideration of Diagrams / Layouts Deciduous Tree: Shrub Symbols Evergreen: Deciduous: Ground Cover Symbols Ground Cover: Annual Plant Symbols: On a landscape plan, annuals do not have a symbol. One must simply draw an arrow on the plan so that the area where annuals are so that be planted in addition so that put the word ?Note?. Then in the listing of plants, the annuals are listed by the word note. Symbols: Paver- Brick: Symbols: Water feature: Depending on the feature the symbol normally takes the relative bird?s eye view of the feature, shape outline. Small water feature are normally symbolized as a circle alongside a center dot ( circle should be so that scale of feature). Symbols: Lighting: Lighting symbols are based on design of lighting, lights can be represented by filled squares, circles, triangles. Symbols in a series should be connected by a line so that represent circuit in addition so that power source. Triangles represent hanging light fixtures. Circles in addition so that squares normally represent fixed lights of the approximate shape of symbol. Symbols: Patios, Decks, Drives Concrete, Wood, Brick in addition so that Stone Irrigation Symbols: Irrigation Symbols are normally a universal system, some symbols may differ based on designer or design program. Check out the site below so that see a auto – cad system?s symbols. Softwarerepublic Miscellaneous Symbols North Arrow: Scale: ¬? = 1? Scale is located in title box Title Box: Holds all vendor /client in addition so that drawing information. Legal in addition so that binding.

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A Mathematical Model of Motion 5.1 Graphing Motion in One Dimension Parts of a

A Mathematical Model of Motion  5.1 Graphing Motion in One Dimension  Parts of a www.phwiki.com

A Mathematical Model of Motion CHAPTER 5 PHYSICS 5.1 Graphing Motion in One Dimension Interpret graphs of position versus time in consideration of a moving object so that determine the velocity of the object Describe in words the information presented in graphs in addition so that draw graphs from descriptions of motion Write equations that describe the position of an object moving at constant velocity Parts of a Graph X-axis Y-axis All axes must be labeled alongside appropriate units, in addition so that values. 5.1 Position vs. Time The x-axis is always ?time? The y-axis is always ?position? The slope of the line indicates the velocity of the object. Slope = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) d1-d0/t1-t0 ?d/?t Uniform Motion Uniform motion is defined as equal displacements occurring during successive equal time periods (sometimes called constant velocity) Straight lines on position-time graphs mean uniform motion. Given below is a diagram of aÿball rolling along a table. Strobe pictures reveal the position of the object at regular intervals of time, in this case, once each 0.1 seconds. Notice that the ball covers an equal distance between flashes. Let’s assume this distance equals 20 cm in addition so that display the ball’s behavior on a graph plotting its x-position versus time. The slope of this line would equal 20 cm divided by 0.1 sec or 200 cm/sec. This represents the ball’s average velocity as it moves across the table. Since the ball is moving in a positive direction its velocity is positive. That is, the ball’s velocity is a vector quantity possessing both magnitude (200 cm/sec) in addition so that direction (positive). Steepness of slope on Position-Time graph Slope is related so that velocity Steep slope = higher velocity Shallow slope = less velocity Different Position. Vs. Time graphs Constant positive velocity (zero acceleration) Constant negative velocity (zero acceleration) Increasing positive velocity (positive acceleration) Decreasing negative velocity (positive acceleration) Uniform Motion Accelerated Motion Different Position. Vs. Time Changing slope means changing velocity!!!!!! Decreasing negative slope = Increasing negative slope = A Starts at home (origin) in addition so that goes forward slowly B Not moving (position remains constant as time progresses) C Turns around in addition so that goes in the other direction quickly, passing up home During which intervals wasÿhe traveling in a positive direction During which intervalsÿwas he traveling in a negative direction During which intervalÿwas he resting in a negative location During which intervalÿwas he resting in a positive location During which two intervals did he travel at the same speed A) 0 so that 2 sec B) 2 so that 5 sec C) 5 so that 6 sec D)6 so that 7 sec E) 7 so that 9 sec F)9 so that 11 sec Graphing w/ Acceleration x A Start from rest south of home; increase speed gradually B Pass home; gradually slow so that a stop (still moving north) C Turn around; gradually speed back up again heading south D Continue heading south; gradually slow so that a stop near the starting point You try it . Using the Position-time graph given so that you, write a one or two paragraph ?story? that describes the motion illustrated. You need so that describe the specific motion in consideration of each of the steps (a-f) You will be graded upon your ability so that correctly describe the motion in consideration of each step. Tangent Lines t x On a position vs. time graph: Increasing & Decreasing Increasing Decreasing On a position vs. time graph: Increasing means moving forward (positive direction). Decreasing means moving backwards (negative direction). Concavity On a position vs. time graph: Concave up means positive acceleration. Concave down means negative acceleration. Special Points P Q R S 5.2 Graphing Velocity in One Dimension Determine, from a graph of velocity versus time, the velocity of an object at a specific time Interpret a v-t graph so that find the time at which an object has a specific velocity Calculate the displacement of an object from the area under a v-t graph 5.2 Velocity vs. Time X-axis is the ?time? Y-axis is the ?velocity? Slope of the line = the acceleration Different Velocity-time graphs Different Velocity-time graphs Velocity vs. Time Horizontal lines = constant velocity Sloped line = changing velocity Steeper = greater change in velocity per second Negative slope = deceleration Acceleration vs. Time Time is on the x-axis Acceleration is on the y-axis Shows how acceleration changes over a period of time. Often a horizontal line. All 3 Graphs v t a t Real life a t v t Note how the v graph is pointy in addition so that the a graph skips. In real life, the blue points would be smooth curves in addition so that the orange segments would be connected. In our class, however, we?ll only deal alongside constant acceleration. Constant Rightward Velocity Constant Leftward Velocity Constant Rightward Acceleration Constant Leftward Acceleration Leftward Velocity alongside Rightward Acceleration Graph Practice Try making all three graphs in consideration of the following scenario: 1. Newberry starts out north of home. At time zero he?s driving a cement mixer south very fast at a constant speed. 2. He accidentally runs over an innocent moose crossing the road, so he slows so that a stop so that check on the poor moose. 3. He pauses in consideration of a while until he determines the moose is squashed flat in addition so that deader than a doornail. 4. Fleeing the scene of the crime, Newberry takes off again in the same direction, speeding up quickly. 5. When his conscience gets the better of him, he slows, turns around, in addition so that returns so that the crash site. Area Underneath v-t Graph If you calculate the area underneath a v-t graph, you would multiply height X width. Because height is actually velocity in addition so that width is actually time, area underneath the graph is equal so that Velocity X time or Vút Remember that Velocity = ?d ?t Rearranging, we get ?d = velocity X ?t So .the area underneath a velocity-time graph is equal so that the displacement during that time period. Area Note that, here, the areas are about equal, so even though a significant distance may have been covered, the displacement is about zero, meaning the stopping point was near the starting point. The position graph shows this as well. Velocity vs. Time The area under a velocity time graph indicates the displacement during that time period. Remember that the slope of the line indicates the acceleration. The smaller the time units the more ?instantaneous? is the acceleration at that particular time. If velocity is not uniform, or is changing, the acceleration will be changing, in addition so that cannot be determined ? in consideration of an instant?, so you can only find average acceleration 5.3 Acceleration Determine from the curves on a velocity-time graph both the constant in addition so that instantaneous acceleration Determine the sign of acceleration using a v-t graph in addition so that a motion diagram Calculate the velocity in addition so that the displacement of an object undergoing constant acceleration 5.3 Acceleration Like speed or velocity, acceleration is a rate of change, defined as the rate of change of velocity Average Acceleration = change in velocity Elapsed time Units of acceleration Rearrangement of the equation Finally This equation is so that be used so that find (final) velocity of an accelerating object. You can use it if there is or is not a beginning velocity Displacement under Constant Acceleration Remember that displacement under constant velocity was alongside acceleration, there is no one single instantaneous v so that use, but we could use an average velocity of an accelerating object. ?d = vt or d1 = d0 + vt Average velocity of an accelerating object V = « (v0 + v1) Average velocity of an accelerating object would simply be « of sum of beginning in addition so that ending velocities So . Key equation Some other equations 2 This equation is so that be used so that find final position when there is an initial velocity, but velocity at time t1 is not known. If no time is known, use this so that find final position . 2 2 Finding final velocity if no time is known 2 2 The equations of importance 2 2 2 2 2 Practical Application Velocity/Position/Time equations Calculation of arrival times/schedules of aircraft/trains (including vectors) GPS technology (arrival time of signal/distance so that satellite) Military targeting/delivery Calculation of Mass movement (glaciers/faults) Ultrasound (speed of sound) (babies/concrete/metals) Sonar (Sound Navigation in addition so that Ranging) Auto accident reconstruction Explosives (rate of burn/expansion rates/timing alongside det. cord) 5.4 Free Fall Recognize the meaning of the acceleration due so that gravity Define the magnitude of the acceleration due so that gravity as a positive quantity in addition so that determine the sign of the acceleration relative so that the chosen coordinate system Use the motion equations so that solve problems involving freely falling objects Freefall Defined as the motion of an object if the only force acting on it is gravity. No friction, no air resistance, no drag Acceleration Due so that Gravity Galileo Galilei recognized about 400 years ago that, so that understand the motion of falling objects, the effects of air or water would have so that be ignored. As a result, we will investigate falling, but only as a result of one force, gravity. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 Galileo?s Ramps Because gravity causes objects so that move very fast, in addition so that because the time-keepers available so that Galileo were limited, Galileo used ramps alongside moveable bells so that ?slow down? falling objects in consideration of accurate timing. Galileo?s Ramps Galileo?s Ramps So that keep ?accurate? time, Galileo used a water clock. in consideration of the measurement of time, he employed a large vessel of water placed in an elevated position; so that the bottom of this vessel was soldered a pipe of small diameter giving a thin jet of water, which he collected in a small glass during the time of each descent. the water thus collected was weighed, after each descent, on a very accurate balance; the difference in addition so that ratios of these weights gave us the differences in addition so that ratios of the times. Displacements of Falling Objects Looking at his results, Galileo realized that a falling ( or rolling downhill) object would have displacements that increased as a function of the square of the time, or t2 Another way so that look at it, the velocity of an object increased as a function of the square of time, multiplied by some constant. Galileo also found that all objects, no matter what slope of ramp he rolled them down, in addition so that as long as the ramps were all the same height, would reach the bottom alongside the same velocity. Galileo?s Finding Galileo found that, neglecting friction, all freely falling objects have the same acceleration. Hippo & Ping Pong Ball In a vacuum, all bodies fall at the same rate. When there?s no air resistance, size in addition so that shape matter not! If a hippo in addition so that a ping pong ball were dropped from a helicopter in a vacuum (assuming the copter could fly without air), they?d land at the same time. Proving Galileo Correct Galileo could not produce a vacuum so that prove his ideas. That came later alongside the invention of a vacuum machine, in addition so that the demonstration alongside a guinea feather in addition so that gold coin dropped in a vacuum. Guinea Feather in addition so that Coin/NASA demonstrations Acceleration Due so that Gravity Galileo calculated that all freely falling objects accelerate at a rate of 9.8 m/s2 This value, as an acceleration, is known as g Acceleration Due so that Gravity Because this value is an acceleration value, it can be used so that calculate displacements or velocities using the acceleration equations learned earlier. Just substitute g in consideration of the a Example problem A brick is dropped from a high building. What is it?s velocity after 4.0 sec. How far does the brick fall during this time The Church?s opposition so that new thought Church leaders of the time held the same views as Aristotle, the great philosopher. Aristotle thought that objects of different mass would fall at different rates makes sense huh All objects have their ?natural position?. Rocks fall faster than feathers, so it only made sense (so that him) Galileo, in attempting so that convince church leaders that the ?natural position? view was incorrect, considered two rocks of different mass. Falling Rock Conundrum Galileo presented this in his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems(1632) as a discussion between Simplicio (as played by a church leader) in addition so that Salviati (as played by Galileo) Two rocks of different masses are dropped Massive rock falls faster Rocks continued Now consider the two rocks held together by a length of string. If the smaller rock were so that fall slower, it would impede the rate at which both rocks would fall. But the two rocks together would actually have more mass, in addition so that should therefore fall faster. A conundrum The previously held views could not have been correct. Galileo had data which proved Aristotle in addition so that the church wrong, but church leaders were hardly moved in their position that all objects have their ?correct position in the world? Furthermore, the use of Simplicio (or simpleton) as the head of the church in his dialog, was a direct insult so that the church leaders themselves.

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Northern British Columbia CA.

Customary Units of Capacity and Weight Customary Units of Capacity The most co

Customary Units of Capacity and Weight  Customary Units of Capacity  The most co www.phwiki.com

* Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight * Customary Units of Capacity The most commonly used customary units of capacity are the ounce, cup, pint, quart, in addition so that gallon. * Customary Units of Capacity 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 gallon = 128 ounces 1 quart = 2 pints 1 pint = 2 cups 1 cup = 8 ounces * Abbreviations in consideration of Customary Units of Capacity gallon = gal quart = qt pint = pt cup = c ounces = oz * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity gallon * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity gallon * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 gallon = 4 quarts gallon * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity quart quart quart quart 1 gallon = 4 quarts * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 quart = 2 pints * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gal = 8 pt pint pint pint pint pint pint pint pint * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 pint = 2 cups * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 pint = 2 cups 1 gal = 8 pt cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup 1 gal = 16 c * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 cup = 8 ounces * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 cup = 8 ounces 1 gal = 8 pt 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 1 gal = 16 c 1 gal = 128 oz. * Customary Units of Weight The most commonly used customary units of weight are ounce, pound, in addition so that ton. * Customary Units of Weight 1 ton = 2000 pounds 1 pound = 16 ounces * Abbreviations in consideration of Customary Units of Weight ton = T pound = lb ounce = oz * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 1 ton 2000 pounds * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 1 ton 2000 pounds * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 16 ounces 1 pound * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 1 pound 16 ounces * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight So that change from a large customary unit of capacity or weight so that a small unit of capacity or weight ? use a bridge map. Think about equivalent units * as (just like) Relating factor * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 2 gallons = ____ quarts 1 gallon = 4 quarts 2 x 4 = 8 8 1 gallon 4 quarts 2 gallons ___quarts 8 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 4 Tons = ____ pounds 1 Ton = 2000 pounds 4 x 2000 = 8000 8000 1 Ton 2000 pounds 4 Tons _____pounds 8000 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 5 cups = ___ ounces 1 cup = 8 ounces 5 x 8 = 40 40 1 cup 8 ounces 5 cups _____ounces 40 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 8 pounds = ___ ounces 1 pound = 16 ounces 8 x 16 = 128 128 1 pound 16 ounces 8 pounds _____ounces 128 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 2 « Tons = ____ pounds 5000 1 Ton 2000 pounds 2 « Tons _____pounds 5000 1 Ton = 2000 pounds 2 x 2000 = 4000 « Ton = 1000 pounds +1000 = 5000 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight So that change from a small customary unit of capacity or weight so that a large unit of capacity or weight ? use a bridge map. Think about equivalent units * as (just like) Relating factor * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 24 quarts = ____ gallons 4 qt = 1 gal 24 ö 4 = 6 6 4 quarts 1 gallon 24 quarts ___gallons 6 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 64 ounces = ___ pounds 16 ounces = 1 pound 64 ö 16 = 4 4 16 ounces 1 pound 64 ounces ___pound 4 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 10 pints = ___ quarts 2 pints = 1 quart 10 ö 2 = 5 5 2 pints 1 quart 10 pints ___quarts 5 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 500 pounds = ___ ton 1 ton = 2000 pounds 500 = 2000 2000 pounds 1 ton 500 pounds ___ton * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 32 cups = ___ gallons 16 cups = 1 gallon 32 ö 16 = 2 2 16 cups 1 gallon 32 cups ___gallons 2

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Western Ontario CA.

Units and Key Constants Important Constants for Air Useful Equivalents Thermo

Units and Key Constants  Important Constants for Air  Useful Equivalents  Thermo www.phwiki.com

* Units in addition so that Key Constants * Conventional Units Parameter English Units SI Units Distance Feet, Inches Meters, M Time Seconds Seconds, s Force Pounds (force), lbf 4.448 Newton, N Pressure psf, psi Pascal, Pa (1N/1m2) bar (105Pa) 1 ft H2O 2.989 kPa Mass Pounds (mass), lbm 0.4536 kilogram Energy Btu Joule, J Power 1 Hp 0.7457 kWatt * Equivalent Systems of Units * Important Constants in consideration of Air * Useful Equivalents * in consideration of Liquid Water : U.S. Standard Atmosphere – 1976 * Standard Atmosphere Stratosphere >65,000 ft 59 F Temperature Altitude 3.202 psia 14.696 psia Pressure 36,089 ft Altitude 36,089 ft * * * Thermodynamics Review * Thermodynamics Review Thermodynamic views microscopic: collection of particles in random motion. Equilibrium refers so that maximum state of disorder macroscopic: gas as a continuum. Equilibrium is evidenced by no gradients 0th Law of Thermo [thermodynamic definition of temperature]: When any two bodies are in thermal equilibrium alongside a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium alongside each other. Correspondingly, when two bodies are in thermal equilibrium alongside one another they are said so that be at the same temperature. * Thermodynamics Review 1st Law of Thermo [Conservation of energy]: Total work is same in all adiabatic processes between any two equilibrium states having same kinetic in addition so that potential energy. Introduces idea of stored or internal energy E dE = dQ – dW dW = Work done by system [+]=dWout= – pdV Some books have dE=dQ+dW [where dW is work done ON system] dQ = Heat added so that system [+]=dQin Heat in addition so that work are mutually convertible. Ratio of conversion is called mechanical equivalent of heat J = joule * Review of Thermodynamics Stored energy E components Internal energy (U), kinetic energy (mV2/2), potential energy, chemical energy Energy definitions Introduces e = internal energy = e(T, p) e = e(T) ? de = Cv(T) dT thermally perfect e = Cv T calorically perfect 2nd law of Thermo Introduces idea of entropy S Production of s must be positive Every natural system, if left undisturbed, will change spontaneously in addition so that approach a state of equilibrium or rest. The property associated alongside the capability of systems in consideration of change is called entropy. * Review of Thermodynamics Extensive variables ? depend on total mass of the system, e.g. M, E, S, V Intensive variables ? do not depend on total mass of the system, e.g. p, T, s, r (1/v) Equilibrium (state of maximum disorder) ? bodies that are at the same temperature are called in thermal equilibrium. Reversible ? process from one state so that another state during which the whole process is in equilibrium Irreversible ? all natural or spontaneous processes are irreversible, e.g. effects of viscosity, conduction, etc. * Thermodynamic Properties Primitive Derived * 1st Law of Thermodynamics in consideration of steady flow, defining: We can write: in addition so that * 1st Law of Thermodynamics Substituting back into 1st law: Height term often negligible (not in consideration of hydraulic machines) Defining total or stagnation enthalpy: The first law in consideration of open systems is: * Equation of State The relation between the thermodynamic properties of a pure substance is referred so that as the equation of state in consideration of that substance, i.e. F(p, v, T) = 0 Ideal (Perfect) Gas Intermolecular forces are neglected The ratio pV/T in limit as p ? 0 is known as the universal gas constant (R). p u /T ? R = 8.3143e3 At sufficiently low pressures, in consideration of all gases pu/T = R or Real gas: intermolecular forces are important * Real Gas * Real Gas * 1st & 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Gibbs Eqn. relates 2nd law properties so that 1st law properties: * Gibbs Equation Isentropic form of Gibbs equation: in addition so that using specific heat at constant pressure: * Thermally & Calorically Perfect Gas Also, in consideration of a thermally perfect gas Cp[T]: Calorically perfect gas – Constant Cp * Isentropic Flow in consideration of Isentropic Flow [if dQ=0, Adiabatic Gas Law]: Precise gas tables available in consideration of design work Thermally Perfect Gas good flows at moderate temperature. * Common Gases monatomic diatomic polyatomic * Important Constants in consideration of Air * Gibbs Equation Rewriting Gibbs Equation: * Gibbs Equation Rewriting Gibbs Equation: * Isobars are not parallel * Mollier in consideration of Static / Total States Ds Poin Poout V2/2 h02i h02 h01 We will soon see

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Ontario Institute of Technology CA.

Simple Harmonic Motion Do Now Damping and Resonance Damping and Resonance D

Simple Harmonic  Motion  Do Now  Damping and Resonance  Damping and Resonance  D www.phwiki.com

Simple Harmonic MotionDo Now5 min ? Explain why a pendulum oscillates using words in addition so that pictures. Work INDIVIDUALLY.5 min ? Share alongside your table partner add/make changes so that your answer if necessary. Vocab Review!What does the word oscillation mean back in addition so that forth movementWhen is oscillatory motion is called periodic motion If the motion repeatsIf the motion follows the same path in the same amount of timeWe refer so that these repeating units of periodic motion motion as The time it takes so that complete one cycle is called the cyclesperiod (T)Example:Earth?s rotation has a period of 24 hours, or 86,400 s. Simple Harmonic MotionPendulums in addition so that springs are special examples of motion that not only oscillatory in addition so that periodic, but also simple harmonic.Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion in which the force that brings the object back so that equilibrium is proportional so that the displacement of the object. e.g. greater displacement = greater force Restoring Force – CFUsIn which position(s) is the restoring force Of the pendulum greatest zero angled downward in addition so that towards the right In which position(s) is the restoring force of the spring greatest zero directed upwards A B C D E F GA, GDG, F, EGAB, C, D, E, F, GSprings can also be compressed! Any elastic (stretchable) material will act somewhat like a spring.Calculating restoring (net) forceIn pendulums Look at the diagram. What forces cancel out What is the net force In springs Fspring = kx where k is spring constant, x = displacementT in addition so that mgcos? cancel out we know because there is no a in that direction mgsin? We do: Calculating restoring (net) forceAn engineer measured the force required so that compress a spring. Based on the data, what is the spring constant Predict the force required so that compress the spring by 3.5 mm.k = 2 N/mm = 0.002 N/mF = 7 N Use the simulator!How do the spring constants of spring 1 in addition so that spring 2 compare Calculate the spring constant in consideration of spring 1.Calculate the spring constant in consideration of spring 3.Predict how far the spring will stretch alongside a 250 g weight.Determine the weight of each cylinder.Calculating periodIn pendulums In springs Period only depends on length & gravity Longer string = longer period Weaker gravity = longer period Period only depends on mass in addition so that spring constant. Higher mass = longer period Looser spring / smaller k = longer periodNOTE:Period is NOT affected by the amplitude of motion!Period CFUs ? Turn & TalkIf you stretch in addition so that release a slinky, you will notice that the amplitude of its motion decreases over time (why ). How does this decrease in amplitude affect the period of motion Will a grandfather clock run slower or faster if placed on the moon Why How does doubling the mass affect the period of a pendulum How does doubling the mass affect the period of a spring It doesn?t! Amplitude of motion does NOT affect period.The grandfather clock will run slow (have a longer period) because as acceleration due so that gravity decreases, the period increases.Doubling the mass has NO affect on the period of a pendulum.Doubling the mass of a spring increases the period by a factor of û2 Conservation of energyIn pendulums In springs Ideally, pendulums in addition so that springs both conserve energy. (Realistically, they lose energy over time due so that friction).In both cases, PE is maximum at maximum displacement. PE gradually converts so that KE, in addition so that reaches zero at the equilibrium point. KE shows the opposite trend ? it is maximum at equilibrium in addition so that reaches zero at maximum displacement.TEWe have a simple formula in consideration of the PE in a spring.PEspring = « kx2Conservation of energy CFUA in addition so that G have equal heights.D is equilibrium positionFill in the following table: Conservation of energy CFUA in addition so that G have equal heights.D is equilibrium positionFill in the following table: You Do Problems – 1) A spring stretches by 18 cm when a bag of potatoes weighing 56 N is suspended from its end.Determine the spring constant, kHow much EPE does the spring have when it is stretched this far Damping in addition so that ResonanceDamping is the decrease in amplitude of a wave.All real pendulums in addition so that springs have damping. Energy is lost due so that frictionAmplitude of motion becomes smaller, until it ceasesSome systems are designed so that heavily damped, such as shock absorbers on a carDamping mechanisms in the foundations of buildings in earthquake zonesHeavy damping Damping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingDamping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Damping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Shattering glass alongside your voice Damping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Shattering glass alongside your voiceShattering a kidney stone alongside ultrasoundTacoma ? Narrows BridgeDamping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Shattering glass alongside your voiceShattering a kidney stone alongside ultrasoundTacoma ? Narrows Bridge animation

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Windsor CA.

Statistics & Data Analysis Class #1 Outline Professor Balkin?s Info What is S

Statistics & Data Analysis  Class #1 Outline  Professor Balkin?s Info  What is S www.phwiki.com

Statistics & Data Analysis Course Number B01.1305 Course Section 60 Meeting Time Monday 6-9:30 pm CLASS #1 Class #1 Outline Introduction so that the instructor Introduction so that the class Review of syllabus Introduction so that statistics Class Goals Types of data Graphical in addition so that numerical methods in consideration of univariate series Minitab Tutorial Professor Balkin?s Info Ph.D. in Business Administration, Penn State Masters in Statistics, Penn State Mathematics/Economics in addition so that Music, Lafayette College Employment Pfizer Inc. Management Science Group; Sept. 2001 ? current Ernst & Young Quantitative Economics in addition so that Statistics Group; June 1999 ? August 2001 What is Statistics STATISTICS: A body of principles in addition so that methods in consideration of extracting useful information from data, in consideration of assessing the reliability of that information, in consideration of measuring in addition so that managing risk, in addition so that in consideration of making decisions in the face of uncertainty. POPULATION: set of measurements corresponding so that the entire collection of units SAMPLE: set of measurements that are collected from a population OBJECTIVES: So that make inferences about a population from a sample, including the extent of uncertainty Design the data collection process so that facilitate drawing valid inferences Reasons in consideration of Sampling Typically due so that prohibitive cost of contacting millions of people or performing costly experiments Election polls query about 2,000 voters so that make inferences regarding how all voters cast their ballots Sometimes the sampling process is destructive Sampling wine quality Statistics in Everyday Life Monthly Unemployment Rates (BLS) Consumer Price Index Presidential Approval Rating Quality in addition so that Productivity Improvement Scientific Inquiry Training effectiveness Advertising impact Interesting Statistical Perspectives ?Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary in consideration of efficient citizenship as the ability so that read in addition so that write?. (H. G. Wells) ?There are three kinds of lies — Lies, damn lies, in addition so that statistics?. (Benjamin Disraeli) ?You?ve got so that know when so that hold ?em, know when so that fold ?em.? (Kenny Rogers, in The Gambler) ?The average U. S. household has 2.75 people in it.? (U. S. Census Bureau, 1980) ?4 out of 5 dentists surveyed recommended Trident Sugarless Gum in consideration of their patients who chew gum.? (Advertisement in consideration of Trident) Semester Overview Understanding data Intro so that descriptive statistics, interpreting data, in addition so that graphical methods Dealing alongside in addition so that quantifying uncertainty Random variables in addition so that probability Using samples so that make generalizations about populations Assessing whether a change in data is beyond random variation Modeling relationships in addition so that predicting Using sample data so that create models that give predictions in consideration of all values of a population Goals in consideration of this Class So that gain an understanding of descriptive statistics, probability, statistical inference, in addition so that regression analysis so that it may be applied so that your job So that be able so that identify when statistical procedures are required so that facilitate your business decision making So that be able so that identify both good in addition so that poor use of statistics in business Goals in consideration of Me So that teach you statistics in addition so that data analysis effectively So that improve my effectiveness as an instructor My Promise So that You I will not teach you anything in this class that is not regularly used in business in addition so that industry If you ask, ?Where is this used ? I will have a real example in consideration of you Types of Data Example: Data Types Business Horizons (1993) conducted a comprehensive survey of 800 CEOs who run the country’s largest global corporations. Some of the variables measured are given below. Classify them as quantitative or qualitative. State of birth Age Educational Level Tenure alongside Firm Total Compensation Area of Expertise Gender How Much Data CHAPTER 2 Summarizing Data about One Variable Introduction Unorganized mass of numbers is difficult so that interpret First task in understanding data is summarizing it Graphically Numerically Chapter Goals Distinguish between qualitative in addition so that quantitative variables Learn graphic representations of univariate data Learn numerical representations of univariate data Investigate data acquired over time Distribution of Values Distribution is essentially how many times each possible data values occur in a set of data. Methods in consideration of displaying distributions Qualitative data Frequency table Bar charts Quantitative data Histograms Stem-Leaf diagrams Boxplots Example: Qualitative Data Background: A question on a market research survey asked 17 respondents the size of their households Data: 1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,6 Frequency Table Example: Qualitative Data (cont.) Barchart: Plot of frequencies each category occurs in the data set Example: Quantitative Data Background: Forbes magazine published data on the best small firms in 1993. These were firms alongside annual sales of more than five in addition so that less than $350 million. Firms were ranked by five-year average return on investment. The data are the annual salary of the chief executive officer in consideration of the first 60 ranked firms. Data (in thousands): 145 621 262 208 362 424 339 736 291 58 498 643 390 332 750 368 659 234 396 300 343 536 543 217 298 1103 406 254 862 204 206 250 21 298 350 800 726 370 536 291 808 543 149 350 242 198 213 296 317 482 155 802 200 282 573 388 250 396 572 Example: Quantitative Data (cont.) Histograms are constructed in the same way as bar charts except: User must create classes so that count frequencies Bars are adjacent instead of separated alongside space Example: Quantitative Data (cont.) Example: Quantitative Data (cont.) Questions: What is the typical value of CEO salary How much variability is there around this value What is the general shape of the data Histogram characteristics: Central tendency Variability Skewness Modality Outliers Skewnesss Modality Outliers Example: Stem-Leaf Diagram Background: Telecom company wants so that analyze the time so that complete new service orders measured in hours Data: 42 21 46 69 87 29 34 59 81 97 64 60 87 81 69 77 75 47 73 82 91 74 70 65 86 87 67 69 49 57 55 68 74 66 81 90 75 82 37 94 Diagram: 2 19 3 47 4 2679 5 579 6 045678999 7 0344557 8 111226777 9 0147 Measures of Central Tendency Mode: Value or category that occurs most frequently Median: Middle value when the data are sorted Mean: Sum of measurements divided by the number of measurements Example: Mode Background: A question on a market research survey asked 17 respondents the size of their households Data: 1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,6 Frequency Table Mode Example: Median Background: A question on a market research survey asked 17 respondents the size of their households Data: 1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,6 Since the n=17 observations, Median is the (n+1)/2 = 9th observation Median Example: Mean Background: Cable company wants so that know how long an installer spends at each stop. One employee performed five installations in one day in addition so that recorded how many minutes she was at each location. Data: 45, 23, 36, 29, 52 Mean = (45+23+36+29+52) / 5 = 37 minutes Example: Back so that the CEO?s Salaries Mean = 404.1695 Median = 350 WHY THE DIFFERENCE Measures of Variation A primary reason in consideration of using statistics is due so that variability If there was no variability, we would not nee statistics Examples: Worker productivity Stock market Promotional expenditures Measures Standard deviation: variation around the mean Range: distance between smallest in addition so that largest observations Standard Deviation Standard Deviation: summarizes how far away from the mean the data value typically are. Calculation Find the deviations by subtracting the mean from each data value Square these deviations, add them up, in addition so that divide by n-1 Take the square root of this number Example: Standard Deviation Background: Your firm spends $19 Million per year on advertising, in addition so that management is wondering if that figure is appropriate. Other firms in your industry have a mean advertising expenditure of $22.3 Million per year. Example: Standard Deviation (cont.) Example: Standard Deviation (cont.) Difference from peer group average is $3.3 Million This difference is smaller than the industry standard deviation of $9.18 Million Conclusion: You advertising budget, while slightly below the industry average, is typical compared alongside your industry peers Empirical Rule If the histogram in consideration of a given sample is unimodal in addition so that symmetric (mound-shaped), then the following rule-of-thumb may be applied: Let represent the sample mean in addition so that s the sample standard deviation. Then Example: Stock Market Volatility Description: Stock market returns are supposed so that be unpredictable. Let?s see if the empirical rule holds true Data: S&P-500 Daily returns; Jan 01, 1998 ? May 17, 2002 Mean = 0.0002 St. Dev. = 0.0128 72.8% (95.3%) of the returns fall between the sample mean plus in addition so that minus one (two) st.dev. Inter-Quartile Range Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) provides an alternative approach so that measuring variability Computation: Sort the data in addition so that find the median Divide the data into top in addition so that bottom halves Find the median of both halves. These are the 25th in addition so that 75th percentiles IQR = 75th percentile ? 25th percentile Outlier Measure ? Any value outside the inner fences is an outlier candidate Lower inner fence = 25th percentile ? 1.5 IQR Upper inner fence = 75th percentile + 1.5 IQR Box-Plot ? S&P-500 Example Data: S&P-500 Daily returns; Jan 01, 1998 ? May 17, 2002 Median 75th percentile 25th percentile Upper inner fence Lower inner fence Outliers Minitab Tutorial Why Use Minitab Goal of course is so that learn statistical concepts Most statistical analyses are performed using computers Each company may use a different statistical package YES Minitab is used in business! Typically in quality control in addition so that design of experiments EXCEL has very limited statistical functionality in addition so that is considerably more difficult so that use than Minitab There are many stat packages (SAS, SPSS, Systat, Splus, R, Statistica, Mathematica, etc.) Minitab is the easiest program so that use right away Excellent Help facilities Statistical glossary built-in Minitab Tutorial ? Case Study 1 A hotel kept records over time of the reasons why guest requested room changes. The frequencies were as follows Room not clean 2 Plumbing not working 1 Wrong type of bed 13 Noisy location 4 Wanted nonsmoking 18 Didn?t like view 1 Not properly equipped 8 Other 6 Minitab Tutorial ? Case Study 2 Exercise 2.8 in book Produce graphics Produce descriptive statistics Minitab Tutorial ? Case Study 3 Diversification Data: S&P-500 in addition so that IBM daily returns from Jan 01, 1998 through May 17, 2002 Next Time Probability in addition so that Probability Distributions

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Ottawa CA.

Importance of Demographics 2014Presentation so that CANEConning March 23, 2015Pu

Importance of Demographics 2014Presentation so that CANEConning March 23, 2015Pu www.phwiki.com

Importance of Demographics 2014Presentation so that CANEConning March 23, 2015Publications in addition so that ServicesExperience/ResourcesConning Insurance Research17 professionals, including marketingDedicated property?casualty in addition so that life/health-annuity groupsBackgrounds include actuarial, strategic planning, equity research, underwriting, investment bankingAverage experience of over 20 yearsConning LibraryOver 200 publications annually, 2,000+ in archiveSubscription service?Clients include insurers, professional services firms, investor communityAlso provide proprietary research: strategic planning, business development, peer analysesIn-depth insurance expertise supports asset management business in addition so that is key differentiator in consideration of Conning2THE HARTFORD AT A GLANCECOMPANYFounded: 1810Employees: Approximately 17,500Headquarters: Hartford, Conn2013 Revenues: $26.2BShareholder equity: $18.9BMARKET RANKINGSNo. 4 commercial multi-peril carrier, based on direct written premiumsNo. 2 workers? compensation insurer, based on direct written premiumsNo. 7 in P&C commercial insuranceNo. 11 in total personal lines (4th largest direct player)No. 3 in fully insured disability in forcenotable:The Hartford serves more than one million small businesses.The Hartford is a founding partner of U.S. Paralympics.The Hartford?s trademark logo echoes the majestic stag depicted in Sir Edwin Landseer?s 1851 painting Monarch of the Glen. A hart fording a stream is a natural symbol in consideration of a company named The Hartford.The Hartford provided insurance in consideration of the only home Abraham Lincoln ever owned3Source: www,Hartford, IR Section Why Do Demographics Matter The Changing Consumer: Long-Term in addition so that Short-TermPopulation GrowthGeographic ShiftsChanging Age ProfileIncreasing Racial/Ethnic DiversitySocioeconomic ChangesCurrent Market Trends: Consumer BehaviorOwnershipMigrationDrivingNew Approaches in consideration of Market SegmentsHNW, NSA, Senior, HispanicNew Approaches in consideration of Customer Contact4The Changing insurance Consumer5Five Critical Trends Reshaping Consumer Markets6 Tomorrow?s Consumer Market Will Not Look Like Today?sSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Harvard University Joint Center in consideration of Housing Studies, Bureau of Labor StatisticsU.S. Population Characteristics7Population Growth Has Been an Important Growth DriverU.S. Population by Decade (Ending)(in millions)Source: U.S. Census Bureau8U.S. Population Growth by Decade (Ending)Population Growth Will Not Be Uniform Across the StatesSource: U.S. Census Bureau0%-1%1%-3%3%-4%4%-5%5%9State Population Growth 2010-2014 Recent Migration Patterns Support Longer-Term TrendsSource: U.S. Census Bureau10-0.1% so that -0.3%0.0% so that 0.1%0.2%0.3% so that 0.4%<= -0.4%>= 0.5%Migration Magnets, 2011-2012Birth Rates Are Also Highly Variable Across the StatesBirths per 1,000 womenSource: National Center in consideration of Health Statistics11State Birth Rate, 2013

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Winnipeg CA.

In Between Time: Interconception Health Care Starting alongside the Postpartum V

In Between Time: Interconception Health Care Starting alongside the Postpartum V www.phwiki.com

Starting alongside the Postpartum Visit Part 1: Routine postpartum care in consideration of every womanMODULE 4The National Preconception Curriculum & Resources Guide in consideration of CliniciansMODULE 4Release Date: June 15, 2016Termination Date: June 14, 2018Provided by Albert Einstein College of Medicine in addition so that Montefiore Medical Center in joint providership alongside the University of North Carolina Center in consideration of Maternal & Infant Health. Authors in addition so that ReviewerAuthorsMerry-K Moos, BSN, FNP (inactive), MPH, FAAN Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology (retired), UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC; Consultant, UNC Center in consideration of Maternal in addition so that Infant HealthFlojaune Griffin Cofer, PhD, MPH, Preconception Health Coordinator, California Department of Public Health: Maternal, Child in addition so that Adolescent Health DivisionMary Rosser, MD, PhD, FACOG, Assistant Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology in addition so that Women?s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical CenterCME Peer ReviewerThis activity has been reviewed in addition so that approved by Peter S. Bernstein, MD, MPH Professor of Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology in addition so that Women?s Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY Neither the authors nor reviewer declare any conflict of interest. No off-label or investigational uses of drugs/devices are included in the content of this activity.Target AudienceClinicians, including physicians, nurse midwives, nurse practitioners in addition so that physician assistants, who provide postpartum care Accreditation in addition so that Credit Designation StatementsAccreditation Statement?This activity has been planned in addition so that implemented in accordance alongside the Accreditation Council in consideration of Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through joint providership of Albert Einstein College of Medicine in addition so that the University of North Carolina Center in consideration of Maternal & Infant Health.ÿAlbert Einstein College of Medicine is accredited by the ACCME so that provide continuing medical education in consideration of physicians.Credit Designation Statement ?Albert Einstein College of Medicine designates this internet enduring material in consideration of a maximum of 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit?. Physicians in addition so that others should claim only credit commensurate alongside the extent of their participation in the activity. Learning ObjectivesExplain how the postpartum visit introduces in addition so that advances interconception care Discuss the rationale in consideration of interconception care in addition so that its potential impact on women?s health in addition so that on future pregnancy outcomesIdentify a framework in consideration of individualizing care so that each woman?s health profileDescribe the significance of interpregnancy intervals on future pregnancy outcomes OutlineRationale in consideration of interconception careExamination of 10 core content areas in consideration of postpartum care Review evidence about interpregnancy intervalsCase study applying the postpartum care framework When Is the ?Interconception? Period It is defined as the period between pregnanciesIt begins at the end of one pregnancyIt ends alongside the conception of the next pregnancyIt can only be defined retrospectively which presents a conundrumThe Conundrum: Which of These Postpartum Women Will Become Pregnant Again?That Is: Which are in the Interconception Phase of Childbearing Whether the woman EVER becomes pregnant again Addressing her known risks in consideration of morbidities in addition so that mortality must be a priority in our care. An Under-Utilized Interconception/Prevention Opportunity:The Postpartum VisitAn Under-Utilized Interconception/Prevention OpportunityThe postpartum visit is often framed as the end of an episode of care (pregnancy) rather than the beginning of the next stage in a woman?s health care needsProperly utilized, the postpartum visit offers opportunity so that impact:The woman?s short in addition so that long term health statusThe woman?s in addition so that fetus? health in any future pregnanciesThe health of any future childrenUnfortunately, the Postpartum Exam Is Far from UniversalCommercially insured women: 81% have a postpartum visit 3-8 weeks after giving birthMedicaid insured women: 64% have a postpartum visit 3-8 weeks after giving birthSelf pay: Unknown, likely lower than other groups USDHHS, Women?s Health, USA, 2013 Why Such Poor Attendance Possible Reasons:Inconvenient in consideration of new motherCompeting maternal prioritiesNot sure of purposePrevious poor experience alongside the visitUnresolved traumas about birth experienceFear of scoldingNo connection alongside the provider the woman will be seeingWhy Such Poor Attendance?cont. Covered by global fees so no incentive in consideration of providersFramed as the end of a health care event rather than the beginning of the ?rest of a woman?s life? If They Come?What Is Offered chart reviews of 400 postpartum visits Study of the content of the pp visit in consideration of 400 womenUnpublished data from dissertation by S. Verbiest (SPH-UNC-CH, 2008) Unpublished data, S. Verbiest Dissertation, 2008 You may look at the list in addition so that say that you cover those topics . . .BUT there is a disconnect between what women in addition so that providers believe was addressed during the last visit% ?Yes?Unpublished data from Rosser, Brusati, 2013Strategies in consideration of Working SmartThere are a finite number of minutes in consideration of each clinician-client/patient encounter making efficiency essential. Review the woman?s prenatal in addition so that intrapartum record before the encounter so that special needs can be anticipated.Actively engage women in preparing in consideration of their postpartum encounters by asking them so that complete previsit assessments that will facilitate addressing key topics. These can be completed:Online from home computerOnline in the practice?s waiting roomVia paper in addition so that pencil strategies mailed so that the homeBy a paper in addition so that pencil questionnaire in waiting room Strategies in consideration of Working SmartMake the previsit assessment short alongside a focus on gathering critical information so that enhance the provision of patient-centered care. Examples include:Identification of woman?s top three health concernsCompletion of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)Desired weightWishes about future pregnancies in addition so that, if desired, expected interpregnancy intervalPreferred contraceptive methodStrategies in consideration of Working SmartHave a staff member utilize phone ?check-ins? alongside women in the early postpartum period so that assess in consideration of breastfeeding problems, assure appointment in consideration of the postpartum visit in addition so that prepare them in consideration of that visit ( in consideration of instance, if they will need a glucose test, etc.)Empower every member of your office team so that work so that their full capacity alongside respect so that licensing in addition so that scope of practice. in consideration of instance, identify someone so that be the resource in consideration of women who:Desire information/referrals in consideration of smoking cessation Screen positive in consideration of interpersonal violence Desire strategies/referrals in consideration of weight lossNeed education about the correct use of their chosen contraceptive methodStrategies in consideration of Working SmartReferring women so that appropriately prepared staff members is likely so that decrease the fear that assessing difficult topics will derail the clinic schedule in consideration of the rest of the dayBefore delegating so that other members of your practice, you need assurance that: THEY are appropriately prepared so that counsel on evidence-based approaches in consideration of dealing alongside the specific issues assigned so that them (through professional education, local CE programs or online resources)YOU are knowledgeable of the information in addition so that strategies they are promoting Strategies in consideration of Working SmartRefer so that these staff members liberallyBe sure that all staff members are comfortable in addition so that diligent in recording their assessments in addition so that recommendation/interventions into the medical record so that promote seamless communication in addition so that continuity of careAssure that you in addition so that your staff know the resources in your community that can assist women who need help dealing alongside health risks in addition so that challengesEngage women in home visiting programs where available so that support desired behavior changes (such as tobacco cessation, weight loss, engagement in exercise, etc)Organize the actual postpartum exam so that cover key content areasFocusing on ?10? Core Content Areas: a Useful Strategy in consideration of Organizing The Postpartum VisitThe ?Big 10? in consideration of Every Postpartum Woman1. Attending the Postpartum Visit At the visit, assess in addition so that address:2. Weight in addition so that Nutrient Intake3. Physical Exercise4. Tobacco Avoidance 5. Responsible Alcohol Consumption6. Interpersonal Violence7. Depression in addition so that Other Perinatal Mood Disorders8. Immunizations 9. Desires about Interpregnancy Interval 10. Contraception in addition so that Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Risks Beyond the ?Big 10?Additional considerations in the postpartum care of women alongside Special Risks are covered in Part 2 of ?In Between Time?. Included are examples of care in consideration of :Women alongside chronic diseases Women who experienced maternal complicationsInterconception care following adverse fetal in addition so that neonatal outcomes will be addressed in a subsequent unitExploring Each of the ?Big 10?#1. Attending the Postpartum VisitRequires Active Marketing of the Visit Attending the Postpartum VisitScope of Need: Know Your NumbersWhat percent of the women in consideration of whom you provide prenatal care receive a postpartum exam by 6-8 weeks after giving birth Is the rate the same in consideration of the various subpopulations in your practice (primiparous, multiparous, commercially insured, publicly insured, etc.) Use Your Numbers so that Make a PlanWhat specific strategies could your practice use so that increase utilization of the postpartum visit by all women it serves Attending the Postpartum VisitSome suggestions in consideration of increasing attendance:Market postpartum visit like we market early in addition so that continuous prenatal careMake appointment in consideration of the postpartum visit before discharge from hospitalHave office/clinic staff call each new mother 1-2 weeks after delivery so that check on status in addition so that so that remind of visitEngage public health home visiting in addition so that other outreach activitiesUtilize many avenues so that market the visit:Prenatal careCBE classesPostpartum discharge instructionsAttending the Postpartum VisitMore avenues in consideration of marketing the visit (continued):Home visiting nurses in addition so that community health workersNeonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)Well child providersWomen, Infants, in addition so that Children Supplemental Nutrition programs (WIC)Social marketing strategies (could reach new mothers as well as their support persons such as partners, mothers, etc.)Provide outreach so that all women who fail so that make an appointment or miss it (may involve partnering alongside home visiting programs, etc.) #2. Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeEXPLORING The ?Big 10?Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeScope of Need:43% of pregnant women gain weight in excess of the national recommendationsEpidemiologic studies indicate that substantial weight gain associated alongside childbearing is an important risk factor in consideration of overweight in addition so that obesity in midlife which are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), in addition so that early mortalityIt is unclear whether becoming overweight after pregnancy is most associated alongside high gestational gain, altered postpartum lifestyle habits or a combination of these in addition so that other influences .Gunderson, Childbearing in addition so that Obesity In Women. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, 2009, 34(2): 317-332Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeThe majority of postpartum women desire strategies in consideration of weight loss* but many providers are afraid so that bring the topic up *Ohlendorf J, et. al Weight-management information needs of postpartum women, MCN 17(1), 2012. Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeAmong the reasons providers put forth in consideration of avoiding discussions of weight are:?Women don?t want so that talk about their weights??When I bring up the topic my clients shut down or become very defensive??Overweight in addition so that obese women already know they are overweight or obese?so what?s the point ??There?s nothing I can say that will make a difference so why bother ??I?ve got my own weight problems?why is my client going so that listen so that me ? Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeIs It Possible so that Help Women Successfully Lose Weight Despite common concerns, there are simple strategies which may have favorable impact Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeIntroduce the Postpartum Weight Retention Topic by:Normalizing the topicEmploying patient-centered strategiesExamples of normalizing in addition so that engaging statements in addition so that questions:?Many women carry excess weight after giving birth in addition so that some of the women I see are pretty discouraged when they think about weight loss. What are you thinking about your current weight ? ?One of the things we talk about alongside every woman we see is weight–Have you thought about a weight you think would be a good goal in consideration of you ??Many women I see are unhappy about their weight. Do you have a weight goal you want so that reach ? National Healthy Start Association Interconception Care Toolkit ? Moos, 2015 Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeStrategies so that Sensitively Address Women?s Weight Issues:Do NOT counsel around the Body Mass Index (BMI)The BMI is a clinical tool that alerts you of the woman?s weight status in addition so that whether her status is changingThe BMI is just a number (often an overwhelming number) which isn?t meaningful so that most womenThe BMI does not reflect body fat ( in consideration of instance, women engaged in athletic endeavors may have high BMIs but low body fat)Use strategies that leave the door open so that return so that the conversation at a later visit National Healthy Start Association Interconception Care Toolkit ? Moos, 2015Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeStrategies so that Sensitively Address Women?s Weight Issues:Use language that lacks judgment so reference healthy weight or retained pregnancy weight rather than excess weight, overweight or obeseEncourage reasonable in addition so that achievable goal setting?a good place so that start is losing retained gestational weight gainCongratulate on achievements such as amount of weight she has already lostProvide specific recommendationsMay mean referral so that a nutritionist or member of your staff who has the time in addition so that expertise so that help alongside the development of patient specific strategiesAssess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeResearch Highlights Successful Strategies A meta analysis of high quality research found postpartum women who took part in a diet or diet plus exercise program lost significantly more weight than women entered in no weight loss program or in exercise alone (Nascimento, et al. Int J Obesity, 2014,38 626-635.) A combination of diet in addition so that exercise may be preferable because of cardiorespiratory in addition so that body fat benefitsPostpartum interventions that combined exercise alongside intensive dietary changes in addition so that monitoring resulted in greater postpartum weight loss than dietary counseling or exercise alone Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeComponents of Successful Weight Loss Initiatives:A realistic goal set by the woman which includes specific plans so that achieve her goal including:Strategies in consideration of decreased calorie intake in addition so that in consideration of increased exercise.Strategies in consideration of self or group monitoring of progressOptions include Weight Watchers, Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), smart phone apps, other community programs, etcStrategies so that deal alongside non-adherence alongside plans in addition so that disappointments so that avoid abandoning the goal, altogether National Healthy Start Association Interconception Care Toolkit ? Moos, 2015Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient IntakeNutrient adequacy:A woman?s diet should be quickly assessed in consideration of adequacy of nutrientsWomen who are vegetarians/vegans should be encouraged so that supplement their diet alongside vitamin B12 (available as a single supplement or as part of an OTC multivitamin)Generally, women who are breastfeeding in addition so that eating a varied diet do not need extra supplementationAll women of childbearing age/potential should receive a clear recommendation in consideration of daily folic acid supplementationAssess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient Intake (Folic Acid) The Centers in consideration of Disease Control in addition so that Prevention (CDC) recommend that all women of childbearing age, consume 0.4 mg (400 mcg) of synthetic folic acid daily cdc/ncbddd/folicacid/recommendationsThe United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that all women planning or capable of pregnancy take a daily supplement containing 0.4-0.8 mg of folic acid daily (Grade A) uspreventiveservicestaskforce/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/folic-acid-so that-prevent-neural-tube-defects-preventive-medicationThe National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine recommends that women capable of pregnancy take 400 mcg of synthetic folic acid daily, from fortified foods, or supplements or a combination of the two, in addition so that consuming food alongside folate from a varied diet books.nap/openbook.php isbn=0309065542&page=196#pagetop Some women should be counselled about the need in consideration of higher doses of folic acid prior so that a subsequent pregnancy because of their elevated risk in consideration of a pregnancy complicated by a neural tube defect beforeandbeyond/toolkit/desires-pregnancy/nutrition Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient Intake (Folic Acid) From Recommendation so that Practice:Ask each woman if she is taking any supplements such as multivitaminsAdvise all women of childbearing potential so that begin taking 0.4 mg (400 mcg) of synthetic folic acid daily from supplements in addition so that/or fortified food sources (such as highly-fortified breakfast cereals) IN ADDITION SO THAT so that consume folate-rich foods daily (e.g., green, leafy vegetables) as soon as their prenatal vitamins run out beforeandbeyond/toolkit/desires-pregnancy/nutrition.This amount of folic acid is easily available in OTC multivitamins or in single nutrient supplements Assess in addition so that Address: Weight in addition so that Nutrient Intake (Folic Acid) From Recommendation so that Practice:Counsel women at high risk in consideration of pregnancies complicated by a Neural Tube Defect (NTD) about: Importance of planning their future pregnanciesTo visit their health care provider before attempting so that become pregnant so that additional folic acid can be prescribed (current recommendation is 4.0 mg beginning 1 month prior so that conception in addition so that continued through the first trimester) in consideration of more information about women at high risk in consideration of neural tube defects go so that beforeandbeyond/toolkit/desires-pregnancy/nutrition#3. Physical Exercise NeedsEXPLORING The ?Big 10? Assess in addition so that Address: Exercise NeedsScope of Need:Routine exercise, irrespective of weight status, has been documented so that have major health benefitsThe Federal Physical Activity Guidelines include recommendations in consideration of both aerobic physical activity in addition so that muscle-strengtheningHealthy women should get at least 150 minutes (2 hours in addition so that 30 minutes) per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as brisk walking, during in addition so that after pregnancy. It is best so that spread this activity throughout the week in addition so that it can be broken into ten minute incrementsIn addition, women should participate in muscle-strengthening activities, such as using resistance bands or weights, in addition so that engaging in yoga, 2 times per week cdc/physicalactivity/basics/pregnancy/index.htmAssess in addition so that Address: Exercise NeedsScope of Need (continued):Amongst all women in 2013:50.2% met the aerobic recommendation in consideration of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity each week24.5% met the muscle strengthening guidelines of engagement > 2 times a week17.9% met both guidelinescdc/physicalactivity/downloads/HurleyMMWR-PAwebhighlight4_9_2final.pdfEncouraging all women so that meet the national exercise guidelines will positively impact their health long into the futureAssess in addition so that Address: Exercise NeedsWomen?s attitudes about physical exercise in the first year postpartum are strongly influenced by information they receive at their postpartum visit ncbi.nlm.nih/pmc/articles/PMC2828187/Women should be advised of the national recommendations in addition so that that meeting them can occur in a variety of ways:Brisk walking as an individual or group activityStructured exercise programs such as joining formal or informal groups, exercising so that DVDs, etcPushing a strollerDoing bursts of brisk activity in consideration of at least 10 minutes several times a day #4. Tobacco AvoidanceEXPLORING The ?Big 10?Assess in addition so that Address: Tobacco AvoidanceScope of Need:Tobacco remains the leading cause of premature death in consideration of US women.In 2014, approximately 19.2% of adult women of childbearing age reported smoking. marchofdimes/Peristats/ViewSubtopic.aspx reg=99&top=9&stop=146&lev=1&slev=1&obj=1In 2013, approximately 9% of women smoked during their pregnancy. childtrends/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/11_Mothers_Who_Smoke_While_Pregnant.pdfPostpartum smoking relapse, which is defined as occurring at anytime within one year of giving birth, is reported so that be as high as 85% ncbi.nlm.nih/pmc/articles/PMC2693165/ Assess in addition so that Address: Tobacco AvoidanceTobacco avoidance in addition so that guidance needs so that be included in the postpartum exam because women attending this visit may:Currently smoke (or use smokeless tobacco products)Be at risk in consideration of resuming tobacco useBe exposed so that second hand smoke (which has its own set of health hazards in addition so that also contributes so that former smokers relapsing)Preventing relapse may be facilitated by helping women Develop strategies during prenatal care Reinforce strategies prior so that hospital discharge in addition so that during the postpartum visitUse of telephone follow up, quit lines, in addition so that other encouragements Assess in addition so that Address: Tobacco AvoidanceEach woman should be assessed at each visit, including the postpartum exam, alongside a standardized query such as this: drugabuse/sites/default/files/files/QuickScreen_Updated_2013%281%29.pdf In the past year how often have you used tobacco products (never, once or twice, monthly, weekly, daily or almost daily)Providing encouragement so that women who have remained smoke free is likely beneficialFor those who have resumed tobacco use or who have never stopped, evidence-based interventions have proven successfulAssess in addition so that Address: Tobacco AvoidanceThe ?5-A? model has been shown so that markedly increase cessation rates compared so that no professional engagement around tobacco use. (ACOG Guidelines in consideration of Women?s Health Care, 4thd ed., 2014)The ?5A??s are: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, ArrangeUse of the 5-A?s can take less than 3 minutesThe model can be employed by physicians, nurses, dentists, psychologists, social workers in addition so that others in consideration of more information about the 5A model, go so that:beforeandbeyond/toolkit/does-not-desire-pregnancy/substance-use/ Tobacco Use in addition so that Women?s Health (ACOG Committee Opinion #503) at acog/Resources-In addition so that-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care- in consideration of -Underserved-Women/Tobacco-Use-in addition so that-Womens-Health One of the many nice resources so that help women ?kick the habit? is at helpguide/articles/addiction/how-so that-quit-smoking.htm #5. responsible Alcohol consumptionEXPLORING The ?Big 10?Assess in addition so that Address: Responsible Alcohol ConsumptionScope of Need:Alcohol-related mortality represents the third leading cause of preventable death in consideration of women in the U.S. Based on 2011-2013 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 53.6% of non-pregnant women, aged 18?44 years, used alcohol in the past 30 daysAmong non-pregnant women, the estimated prevalence of binge drinking in the past 30 days was 18.2%Women who discontinue alcohol use before or during pregnancy are likely so that resume use in the postpartum periodbeforeandbeyond/toolkit/does-not-desire-pregnancy/substance-use/ cdc/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6437a3.htm ncbi.nlm.nih/pmc/articles/PMC4435549/ Assess in addition so that Address: Responsible Alcohol ConsumptionObstetricians-gynecologists [in addition so that other providers of women?s primary care] have important opportunities in consideration of at-risk alcohol use interventions in 3 areas:Identifying women who engage in risky drinking behaviorsEncouraging healthy behaviors through brief intervention in addition so that educationReferring women who are alcohol dependent in consideration of professional treatment. ACOG Committee Opinion #496 (reaffirmed 2013). acog/Resources-In addition so that-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care- in consideration of -Underserved-Women/At-Risk-Drinking-in addition so that-Alcohol-Dependence-Obstetric-in addition so that-Gynecologic-Implications Assess in addition so that Address: Responsible Alcohol ConsumptionDrinking levels in consideration of womenModerate drinking is defined as ?up so that 1 drink per day?Binge drinking is defined by a specific blood alcohol concentration which, in consideration of women, usually occurs after consuming 4 drinks over approximately 2 hoursHeavy drinking is defined as drinking 5 or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 daysniaaa.nih/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/moderate-binge-drinking Assess in addition so that Address: Responsible Alcohol ConsumptionWhat is a ?standard drink? niaaa.nih/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/what-standard-drink Assess in addition so that Address: responsible Alcohol ConsumptionThe USPSTF recommends that all adult patients in a primary care setting be screened in consideration of alcohol misuse in addition so that provided counseling in consideration of risky or harmful drinkingACOG recommends the TACE tool ( alongside two additional queries as shown in the next slide) so that identify at-risk drinking behaviors ACOG believes this approach has the following advantages:More likely so that provide appropriate sensitivity in consideration of women in addition so that in consideration of minorities than other common tools (such as CAGE)Using a validated tool is more likely so that avoid false positives in addition so that false negative screening resultsACOG Committee Opinion #496 (reaffirmed 2013). acog/Resources-In addition so that-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care- in consideration of -Underserved-Women/At-Risk-Drinking-in addition so that-Alcohol-Dependence-Obstetric-in addition so that-Gynecologic-Implications Assess in addition so that Address: responsible Alcohol ConsumptionTACE Screening Tool as Recommended by ACOGT ? Tolerance: How many drinks does it take so that make you feel high (More than 2 drinks = 2 points) A ? Annoyed: Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drinking (Yes = 1 point) C ? Cut down: Have you ever felt you ought so that cut down on your drinking (Yes = 1 point) E ? Eye-opener: Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning so that steady your nerves or get rid of a hangover (Yes = 1 point) A total score of 2 points or more indicates a positive screen in consideration of at-risk drinking Additional Queries Recommended by ACOG: In a typical week, how many drinks do you have that contain alcohol (Positive in consideration of at-risk drinking if more than 7 drinks) In the past 90 days, how many times have you had more than 3 drinks on any one occasion (Positive in consideration of at-risk drinking if more than one)Assess in addition so that Address: responsible Alcohol ConsumptionIf at risk drinking behaviors are identified, brief office interventions have been demonstrated so that be effectiveWomen who, following brief office interventions, continue so that drink at risky levels or who exhibit signs of alcohol dependence require referral so that a substance abuse specialistFor more information about brief interventions go so that:beforeandbeyond/toolkit/does-not-desire-pregnancy/substance-use/ACOG Committee Opinion #496 (reaffirmed 2013). acog/Resources-In addition so that-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care- in consideration of -Underserved-Women/At-Risk-Drinking-in addition so that-Alcohol-Dependence-Obstetric-in addition so that-Gynecologic-ImplicationsAssess in addition so that Address: responsible Alcohol ConsumptionApply screening tool so that ALL women equallyAssumptions about who so that screen can miss large populations of at-risk womenA 2011 study found that the highest prevalence of late pregnancy alcohol use was reported by white women who were non-Hispanic, college-educated in addition so that at least 35-years-old Cheng D, Kettinger L, Uduhiri K, Hurt L. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy: prevalence in addition so that provider assessment. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:212?7. It can be assumed that these same women will be using alcohol in the postpartum period Assess in addition so that Address: responsible Alcohol ConsumptionAlcohol Use in addition so that BreastfeedingBreastfeeding women who use alcohol despite education/counseling so that stop, should be advised so that minimize the infant?s exposure so that alcohol by waiting 3-4 hours after a single drink before breastfeedingResearch findings consistently report negative consequences of maternal alcohol consumption on breast feeding infants:Altered growthAffected sleep patternsChanges in psychomotor functioningACOG Committee Opinion #496 (reaffirmed 2013). acog/Resources-In addition so that-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care- in consideration of -Underserved-Women/At-Risk-Drinking-in addition so that-Alcohol-Dependence-Obstetric-in addition so that-Gynecologic-Implications#6. Intimate Partner ViolenceEXPLORING The ?Big 10?Assess in addition so that Address: Intimate Partner ViolenceIntimate partner violence (IPV) is defined by the CDC as ?physical, sexual or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse? cdc/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/ Beyond actual violence it can take the form of isolation, intimidation in addition so that stalking as well as reproductive coercionReproductive coercion involves behaviors that

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Prince Edward Island CA.

Density, Mass, & Volume Mass Volume Volume of a regular shaped object Densit

Density, Mass, & Volume  Mass  Volume  Volume of a regular shaped object  Densit www.phwiki.com

Density, Mass, & Volume Concepts & Equations Mr. Abud Mass Measurement of the amount of matter, or stuff, an object has Measured in grams (g) Volume Measurement of the amount of space an object takes up Measured in milliliters (mL) or cm3 Volume of a regular shaped object Rectangular Prism Length x width x height Cylinder Area of circular base (pi x radius2) x height Density Measurement of the amount of mass an object has per its volume Derived unit: g/mL Comes from units of mass per units of volume Measuring Volume INDIRECTLY Some objects are irregularly shaped So it?s hard so that find out their volume We need a method of getting their volume though. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT Water displacement Put an irregular shaped object in water, measure how much the water rises, in addition so that that?s the object?s volume What is density Density is a comparison of how much matter there is in a certain amount of space. Which one is more dense Demonstration: People in a square How about this: Which square is more dense Which one is more dense Demonstration: People in a square How about this: Which square is more dense More dense Which one is more dense Now which one is more dense Which one is more dense Now which one is more dense More dense Ways so that Affect Density Change mass IN ADDITION SO THAT keep volume same Change volume IN ADDITION SO THAT keep mass same Change Mass IN ADDITION SO THAT Keep Volume Same Increase the mass … increase density Decrease the mass … decrease in density Which container has more density A B Change Volume IN ADDITION SO THAT Keep Mass Same Increase the volume … decrease density Decrease the volume … increase density Which container has more density A B What 2 ways will INCREASE density What 2 ways will INCREASE density Keep the same mass IN ADDITION SO THAT decrease the volume Keep the same volume IN ADDITION SO THAT increase the mass What 2 ways will DECREASE density Keep the same mass IN ADDITION SO THAT INcrease the volume Keep the same volume IN ADDITION SO THAT DEcrease the mass

To Write this Article, I had done research in Vancouver Community College CA.

Natural Language Processing for Information Retrieval Roadmap What do We Mean

Natural Language Processing for Information Retrieval  Roadmap  What do We Mean www.phwiki.com

Oard College of Information Studies Roadmap IR overview NLP in consideration of monolingual IR NLP in consideration of cross-language IR What do We Mean by ?Information ? Information is data in context Databases contain data in addition so that produce information IR systems contain in addition so that provide information How is it different from ?Knowledge? Knowledge is a basis in consideration of making decisions Many ?knowledge bases? contain decision rules What Do We Mean by ?Retrieval ? Find something that you are looking in consideration of 3 general categories: Known item search Find the class home page Answer seeking Is Lexington or Louisville the capital of Kentucky Directed exploration Who makes videoconferencing systems Retrieval System Model Query Formulation Detection Delivery Selection Examination Index Docs User Indexing Query Formulation Query Formulation Detection User Detection Searches the index Not the web! Looks in consideration of words Desired Required (+) Together (?.?) Ranks the results Goal is ?best first? Query Formulation Detection Selection Index Docs Selection Detection Selection Examination Docs User About 7381 documents match your query. 1. MAHEC Videoconference Systems. Major Category. Product Type. Product. Network System. Multipoint Conference Server (MCS) PictureTel Prism – 8 port. . – size 5K – 6-Jun-97 – English – 2. VIDEOCONFERENCING PRODUCTS. Aethra offers a complete product line of multimedia in addition so that videocommunications products so that meet all the applications needs of. – size 4K – 1-Jul-97 – English – Index Relevance Feedback Query refinement based on search results Examination Delivery Selection Examination User Docs Aethra offers a complete product line of multimedia in addition so that videocommunications products so that meet all the applications needs of users. The standard product line is augmented by a bespoke service so that solve customer specific functional requirements. Standard Videoconferencing Product Line Vega 384 in addition so that Vega 128, the improved Aethra Set-top systems, can be connected so that any TV monitor in consideration of high quality videoconferencing up so that 384 Kbps. A compact in addition so that lightweight device, VEGA is very easy so that use in addition so that can be quickly installed in any officeand work environment. Voyager, is the first Videoconference briefcase designed in consideration of journalist, reporters in addition so that people on-the-go. It combines high quality video-communication (up so that 384 Kbps) alongside the necessary reliability in a small in addition so that light briefcase. Delivery Bookmark a page in consideration of later use Email as a URL or as HTML Cut in addition so that paste into a presentation Print a hardcopy in consideration of later review Delivery Examination Docs User Human-Machine Synergy Machines are good at: Doing simple things accurately in addition so that quickly Scaling so that larger collections in sublinear time People are better at: Accurately recognizing what they are looking in consideration of Evaluating intangibles such as ?quality? Humans in addition so that machines are pretty bad at: Mapping concepts into search terms Detection Component Model Comparison Function Representation Function Query Formulation Human Judgment Representation Function Retrieval Status Value Utility Query Information Need Document Query Representation Document Representation Query Processing Document Processing Controlled Vocabulary Retrieval A straightforward concept retrieval approach Works equally well in consideration of non-text materials Assign a unique ?descriptor? so that each concept Can be done by hand in consideration of collections of limited scope Assign some descriptors so that each document Practical in consideration of valuable collections of limited size Use Boolean retrieval based on descriptors Controlled Vocabulary Example Canine IN ADDITION SO THAT Fox Doc 1 Canine IN ADDITION SO THAT Political action Empty Canine OR Political action Doc 1, Doc 2 The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog?s back. Document 1 Document 2 Now is the time in consideration of all good men so that come so that the aid of their party. Volunteerism Political action Fox Canine 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Descriptor Doc 1 Doc 2 [Canine] [Fox] [Political action] [Volunteerism] Challenges Thesaurus design is expensive Shifting concepts generate continuing expense Manual indexing is even more expensive In addition so that consistent indexing is very expensive User needs are often difficult so that anticipate Challenge in consideration of thesaurus designers in addition so that indexers End users find thesauri hard so that use Codesign problem alongside query formulation ?Bag of Words? Representation Simple strategy in consideration of representing documents Count how many times each term occurs A ?term? is any lexical item that you chose A fixed-length sequence of characters (an ?n-gram?) A word (delimited by ?white space? or punctuation) Some standard ?root form? of each word (e.g., a stem) A phrase (e.g., phrases listed in a dictionary) Counts can be recorded in any consistent order Bag of Words Example The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog?s back. Document 1 Document 2 Now is the time in consideration of all good men so that come so that the aid of their party. the quick brown fox over lazy dog back now is time in consideration of all good men so that come jump aid of their party 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 Indexed Term Document 1 Document 2 Stopword List Why Boolean Retrieval Works Boolean operators approximate natural language Find documents about a good party that is not over IN ADDITION SO THAT can discover relationships between concepts good party OR can discover alternate terminology excellent party NOT can discover alternate meanings Democratic party Proximity Operators More precise versions of IN ADDITION SO THAT ?NEAR n? allows at most n-1 intervening terms ? ALONGSIDE ? requires terms so that be adjacent in addition so that in order Easy so that implement, but less efficient Store a list of positions in consideration of each word in each doc Stopwords become very important! Perform normal Boolean computations Treat ALONGSIDE in addition so that NEAR like IN ADDITION SO THAT alongside an extra constraint Ranked Retrieval Paradigm Exact match retrieval often gives useless sets No documents at all, or way too many documents Query reformulation is one ?solution? Manually add or delete query terms ?Best-first? ranking can be superior Select every document within reason Put them in order, alongside the ?best? ones first Display them one screen at a time Similarity-Based Queries Treat the query as if it were a document Create a query bag-of-words Find the similarity of each document Using the coordination measure, in consideration of example Rank order the documents by similarity Most similar so that the query first Surprisingly, this works pretty well! Especially in consideration of very short queries Document Similarity How similar are two documents In particular, how similar is their bag of words 1 1 1 1: Nuclear fallout contaminated Siberia. 2: Information retrieval is interesting. 3: Information retrieval is complicated. 1 1 1 1 1 1 nuclear fallout siberia contaminated interesting complicated information retrieval 1 1 2 3 Coordination Measure Example 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 nuclear fallout siberia contaminated interesting complicated information retrieval 1 1 2 3 Query: complicated retrieval Result: 3, 2 Query: information retrieval Result: 2, 3 Query: interesting nuclear fallout Result: 1, 2 Incorporating Term Frequency High term frequency is evidence of meaning In addition so that high IDF is evidence of term importance Recompute the bag-of-words Compute TF * IDF in consideration of every element TF*IDF Example 4 5 6 3 1 3 1 6 5 3 4 3 7 1 nuclear fallout siberia contaminated interesting complicated information retrieval 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 0.50 0.63 0.90 0.13 0.60 0.75 1.51 0.38 0.50 2.11 0.13 1.20 1 2 3 0.60 0.38 0.50 4 0.301 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.602 0.301 0.000 0.602 Unweighted query: contaminated retrieval Result: 2, 3, 1, 4 Weighted query: contaminated(3) retrieval(1) Result: 1, 3, 2, 4 IDF-weighted query: contaminated retrieval Result: 2, 3, 1, 4 Document Length Normalization Long documents have an unfair advantage They use a lot of terms So they get more matches than short documents In addition so that they use the same words repeatedly So they have much higher term frequencies Cosine Normalization Example 0.29 0.37 0.53 0.13 0.62 0.77 0.57 0.14 0.19 0.79 0.05 0.71 1 2 3 0.69 0.44 0.57 4 4 5 6 3 1 3 1 6 5 3 4 3 7 1 nuclear fallout siberia contaminated interesting complicated information retrieval 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 0.50 0.63 0.90 0.13 0.60 0.75 1.51 0.38 0.50 2.11 0.13 1.20 1 2 3 0.60 0.38 0.50 4 0.301 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.602 0.301 0.000 0.602 1.70 0.97 2.67 0.87 Length Unweighted query: contaminated retrieval, Result: 2, 4, 1, 3 (compare so that 2, 3, 1, 4) Summary So Far Find documents most similar so that the query Optionally, Obtain query term weights Given by the user, or computed from IDF Compute document term weights Some combination of TF in addition so that IDF Normalize the document vectors Cosine is one way so that do this Compute inner product of query in addition so that doc vectors Multiply corresponding elements in addition so that then add Passage Retrieval Another approach so that long-document problem Break it up into coherent units Recognizing topic boundaries is hard But overlapping 300 word passages work fine Document rank is best passage rank In addition so that passage information can help guide browsing Advantages of Ranked Retrieval Closer so that the way people think Some documents are better than others Enriches browsing behavior Decide how far down the list so that go as you read it Allows more flexible queries Long in addition so that short queries can produce useful results Ranked Retrieval Challenges ?Best first? is easy so that say but hard so that do! Probabilistic retrieval tries so that approximate it How can the user understand the ranking It is hard so that use a tool that you don?t understand Efficiency may become a concern More complex computations take more time Evaluation Criteria Effectiveness Set, ranked list, user-machine system Efficiency Retrieval time, indexing time, index size Usability Learnability, novice use, expert use What is Relevance Relevance relates a topic in addition so that a document Duplicates are equally relevant by definition Constant over time in addition so that across users Pertinence relates a task in addition so that a document Accounts in consideration of quality, complexity, language, Utility relates a user in addition so that a document Accounts in consideration of prior knowledge We seek utility, but relevance is what we get! IR Effectiveness Evaluation System-centered strategy Given documents, queries, in addition so that relevance judgments Try several variations on the retrieval system Measure which ranks more good docs near the top User-centered strategy Given several users, in addition so that at least 2 retrieval systems Have each user try the same task on both systems Measure which system works the ?best? Measures of Effectiveness Good measures: Capture some aspect of what the user wants Have predictive value in consideration of other situations Different queries, different document collection Are easily replicated by other researchers Can be expressed as a single number Allows two systems so that be easily compared IR Test Collections Documents Representative quantity Representative sources in addition so that topics Topics Used so that form queries Relevance judgments in consideration of each document, alongside respect so that each topic This is the expensive part! Some Assumptions Unchanging, known queries The same queries are used by each system Binary relevance Every document is either relevant or it is not Unchanging, known relevance The relevance of each doc so that each query is known But only used in consideration of evaluation, not retrieval! Focus on effectiveness The Contingency Table Relevant Retrieved Irrelevant Retrieved Irrelevant Rejected Relevant Rejected Relevant Not relevant Retrieved Not Retrieved Doc Action The Precision-Recall Curve R R R R Relevant Retrieved Irrelevant Retrieved Irrelevant Rejected Relevant Rejected Relevant=4 Not relevant=6 Retrieved Not Retrieved Doc=10 Action Precision at recall=0.1 Precision at 10 docs Average Precision Breakeven Point Single-Number MOE Weaknesses Precision at 10 documents Pays no attention so that recall Precision at constant recall A specific recall fraction is rarely the user?s goal Breakeven point Nobody ever searches at the breakeven point Average precision Users typically operate near an extreme of the curve So the average is not very informative Why Choose Average Precision It is easy so that trade between recall in addition so that precision Adding related query terms improves recall But naive query expansion techniques kill precision Limiting matches by part-of-speech helps precision But it almost always hurts recall Comparisons should give some weight so that both Average precision is a principled way so that do this Rewards improvements in either factor How Much is Enough The maximum average precision is 1.0 But inter-rater reliability is 0.8 or less So 0.8 is a practical upper bound at every point Precision ¯ 0.8 is sometimes seen at low recall Two goals Achieve a meaningful amount of improvement This is a judgment call, in addition so that depends on the application Achieve that improvement reliably across queries This can be verified using statistical tests Obtaining Relevance Judgments Exhaustive assessment can be too expensive TREC has 50 queries in consideration of >1 million docs each year Random sampling won?t work either If relevant docs are rare, none may be found! IR systems can help focus the sample Each system finds some relevant documents Different systems find different relevant documents Together, enough systems will find most of them Pooled Assessment Methodology Each system submits top 1000 documents Top 100 documents in consideration of each are judged All are placed in a single pool Duplicates are eliminated Placed in an arbitrary order so that avoid bias Evaluated by the person that wrote the query Assume unevaluated documents not relevant Overlap evaluation shows diminishing returns Compute average precision over all 1000 docs Lessons From TREC Incomplete judgments are useful If sample is unbiased alongside respect so that systems tested Different relevance judgments change absolute score But rarely change comparative advantages when averaged Evaluation technology is predictive Results transfer so that operational settings) Adapted from a presentation by Ellen Voorhees at the University of Maryland, March 29, 1999 What Query Averaging Hides Roadmap IR overview NLP in consideration of monolingual IR NLP in consideration of cross-language IR Machine Assisted Indexing Automatically suggest controlled vocabulary Better consistency alongside lower cost Typically use a rule-based expert system Design thesaurus by hand in the usual way Design an expert system so that process text String matching, proximity operators, Write rules in consideration of each thesaurus/collection/language Try it out in addition so that fine tune the rules by hand Text Categorization Fully automatic controlled vocabulary Typically based on machine learning Assign descriptors manually in consideration of a ?training set? Design a learning algorithm find in addition so that use patterns Bayesian classifier, neural network, genetic algorithm, Present new documents System assigns descriptors like those in training set Representing Electronic Texts A character set specifies semantic units Characters are the smallest units of meaning Abstract entities, separate from their representation A font specifies the printed representation What each character will look like on the page Different characters might be depicted identically An encoding is the electronic representation What each character will look like in a file One character may have several representations An input method is a keyboard representation Language/Character Set Identification Can be specified using metadata Included in HTTP in addition so that HTML Can be determined using word-scale features Which dictionary gets the most hits Can be determined using subword features Letter n-grams, in consideration of example 24 Units of Meaning Topical retrieval is a search in consideration of concepts But what we index are character strings What strings best represent concepts In English, words are a good starting point But stems in addition so that well chosen phrases can be better In German, compounds may need so that be split Otherwise queries using constituent words would fail In Chinese, word boundaries are not marked This segmentation problem is similar so that that of speech Stemming Suffix removal allows word variants so that match In English, word roots often precede modifiers Roots often convey topicality better Boolean systems often allow manual truncation limit -> limit, limits, limited, limitation, Stemming does automatic truncation Much cheaper than complete morphology On average, just as effective in consideration of retrieval Porter Stemmer Nine step process, 1 so that 21 rules per step Within each step, only the first valid rule fires Rules rewrite suffixes. Example: static RuleList step1a_rules[] = { 101, “sses”, “ss”, 3, 1, -1, NULL, 102, “ies”, “i”, 2, 0, -1, NULL, 103, “ss”, “ss”, 1, 1, -1, NULL, 104, “s”, LAMBDA, 0, -1, -1, NULL, 000, NULL, NULL, 0, 0, 0, NULL, }; Phrase Formation Two types of phrases Compositional: composition of word meanings Noncompositional: idiomatic expressions e.g., ?kick the bucket? or ?buy the farm? Three sources of evidence Dictionary lookup Parsing Cooccurrence Semantic Phrases Same idea as longest substring match But look in consideration of word (not character) sequences Compile a term list that includes phrases Technical terminology can be very helpful Index any phrase that occurs in the list Most effective in a limited domain Otherwise hard so that capture most useful phrases Syntactic Phrases Automatically construct sentence diagrams Fairly good parsers are becoming available Index the noun phrases Assumes that queries will focus on objects Sentence Noun Phrase The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog?s back Noun phrase Det Adj Adj Noun Verb Adj Noun Adj Det Prepositional Phrase Prep Statistical Phrases Compute observed occurrence probability in consideration of each single word in addition so that each word n-gram ?buy? 10 times in 1000 words yields 0.01 ?the? 100 times in 1000 words yields 0.10 ?farm? 5 times in 1000 words yields 0.005 ?buy the farm? 4 times in 1000 words yields 0.004 Compute n-gram probability if truly independent 0.01*0.10*0.005=0.000005 Compare alongside observed probability Keep phrases that occur more often than expected Phrase Indexing Lessons Poorly chosen phrases hurt effectiveness In addition so that some techniques can be slow (e.g., parsing) Better so that index phrases in addition so that words Want so that find constituents of compositional phrases Better weighting schemes benefit less Negligible improvement in some TREC-6 systems Very helpful in consideration of cross-language retrieval Noncompositional translation, less ambiguity Longest Substring Segmentation A greedy segmentation algorithm Based solely on lexical information Start alongside a list of every possible term Dictionaries are a handy source in consideration of term lists in consideration of each unsegmented string Remove the longest single substring in the list Repeat until no substrings are found in the list Can be extended so that explore alternatives Longest Substring Example Possible German compound term: washington List of German words: ach, hin, hing, sei, ton, was, wasch Longest substring segmentation was-hing-ton Word n-grams might recognize this as bad Roughly translates so that ?What tone is attached ? Model-Based Segmentation Choose a model (or set of models) Possible segmentation points, in consideration of example Assemble evidence Lexicons, corpora, algorithms, user knowledge Choose a preference criterion Longest substring, in consideration of example Choose a search strategy Greedy, exhaustive, dynamic programming Segmentation Models Unique segmentation Decide whether so that put a boundary at each point Plausible segmentation Produce all plausible substrings Plausible interpretation Produce all plausible implied substrings Contractions, alternate transliterations, etc. Sources of Evidence Lexicons Dictionaries, term lists, name lists, gazeteers Corpus statistics Segmented or unsegmented Within-document, within-collection, general use Algorithms Transliteration rules, name cues, syntax analysis User knowledge Forced join, forced split Preference Criterion A basis in consideration of optimization Single-valued, automatically computed Integrates multiple desiderata Longest substrings Unknown word identification Out of vocabulary, transliteration Consistent usage User knowledge Search Strategy Greedy Choose one search order, decide as you go Fast, but suboptimal Exhaustive Check all alternatives, choose the best Generally too slow so that be practical Dynamic programming Use limited lookahead so that generate several options Allows you so that balance speed in addition so that accuracy Synonymy in addition so that Homonymy Word matching suffers from two problems Synonymy: many words alongside similar meanings Homonymy: one word has dissimilar meanings Disambiguation seeks so that resolve homonymy By indexing word senses rather than words Synonymy can be addressed by Thesaurus-based query expansion Latent semantic indexing Word Sense Disambiguation Context provides clues so that word meaning ?The doctor removed the appendix.? in consideration of each occurrence, note surrounding words Typically +/- 5 non-stopwords Group similar contexts into clusters Based on overlaps in the words that they contain Separate clusters represent different senses Disambiguation Example Consider four example sentences The doctor removed the appendix The appendix was incomprehensible The doctor examined the appendix The appendix was removed What clusters can you find Can you find enough word senses this way Might you find too many word senses Why Disambiguation Hurts Bag-of-words techniques already disambiguate When more words are present, documents rank higher So a context in consideration of each term is established in the query Same reason that passages are better than documents Formal disambiguation tries so that improve precision But incorrect sense assignments would hurt recall Average precision balances recall in addition so that precision But the possible precision gains are small In addition so that present techniques substantially hurt recall Latent Semantic Indexing Term vectors can reveal term dependence Look at the matrix as a ?bag of documents? Compute term similarities using cosine measure Reduce the number of dimensions Assign similar terms so that a single composite Map the composite term so that a single dimension LSI Transformation d1 d2 d3 d4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 k1 k2 k3 k4 0.15 -0.16 0.44 0.63 0.02 -0.27 0.45 0.33 -0.26 0.05 0.45 0.18 -0.10 -0.39 0.45 0.33 -0.26 0.05 0.11 0.39 0.07 0.45 0.44 0.13 0.12 0.15 -0.16 0.44 0.45 0.11 0.39 0.07 0.11 0.39 0.07 0.44 0.18 -0.10 -0.39 0.11 0.39 0.07 0.11 0.39 0.07 0.15 -0.16 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12 t13 t14 t15 t16 t17 t18 t19 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12 t13 t14 t15 t16 t17 t18 t19 Computing Similarity First choose k Never greater than the number of docs or terms Add the weighted vectors in consideration of each term Multiply each vector by term weight Sum each element separately Do the same in consideration of query or second document Compute inner product Multiply corresponding elements in addition so that add LSI Example d2 d3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 k1 k2 k3 k4 0.15 -0.16 0.44 0.63 0.02 -0.27 0.33 -0.26 0.05 0.18 -0.10 -0.39 0.33 -0.26 0.05 0.44 0.13 0.12 0.15 -0.16 0.44 0.44 0.18 -0.10 -0.39 0.15 -0.16 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12 t13 t14 t15 t16 t17 t18 t19 t3 t4 t8 t9 t12 t14 t16 t18 t19 0.44 0.13 0.12 t9 0.33 -0.26 0.05 t12 0.33 -0.26 0.05 t16 0.63 0.02 -0.27 t18 k1 k2 k3 k4 0.63 0.02 -0.27 t18 2.72 -0.55 -1.10 Sum2 2.18 -0.85 1.26 Sum3 Removing Dimensions k1 in addition so that k2 = 6.40 k1 alone = 5.92 Benefits of LSI Removing dimensions can improve things Assigns similar vectors so that similar terms Queries in addition so that new documents easily added ?Folding in? as weighted sum of term vectors Gets the same cosines alongside shorter vectors Weaknesses of LSI Words alongside several meanings confound LSI Places them at the midpoint of the right positions LSI vectors are dense Sparse vectors (tf*idf) have several advantages The required computations are expensive But T matrix in addition so that doc vectors are done in advance Query vector in addition so that cosine at query time The cosine may not be the best measure Pivoted normalization can probably help Roadmap IR overview NLP in consideration of monolingual IR NLP in consideration of cross-language IR Cross-Language IR Allow anyone so that find information that is expressed in any language Widely Spoken Languages Source: g11n/faq Web Content Source: Network Wizards Jan 99 Internet Domain Survey Machine Translation Cross-Language Browsing Cross-Language Search English Query English Document Select Examine Access Use Multilingual Retrieval Architecture Language Identification English Term Selection Chinese Term Selection Cross- Language Retrieval Monolingual Chinese Retrieval 3: 0.91 4: 0.57 5: 0.36 1: 0.72 2: 0.48 Chinese Query Chinese Term Selection Document-Language Retrieval Monolingual English Retrieval 3: 0.91 4: 0.57 5: 0.36 Query Vector Translation Chinese Query Terms English Document Terms Query-Language Retrieval Monolingual Chinese Retrieval 3: 0.91 4: 0.57 5: 0.36 Chinese Query Terms English Document Terms Document Vector Translation Query vs. Document Translation Query translation Very efficient in consideration of short queries Not as big an advantage in consideration of relevance feedback Hard so that resolve ambiguous query terms Document translation May be needed by the selection interface In addition so that supports adaptive filtering well Slow, but only need so that do it once per document Poor scale-up so that large numbers of languages 23 Interlingual Retrieval Interlingual Retrieval 3: 0.91 4: 0.57 5: 0.36 Query Vector Translation Chinese Query Terms English Document Terms Document Vector Translation Cognate-Based Retrieval Cognate Matching 3: 0.91 4: 0.57 5: 0.36 Chinese Query Terms English Document Terms Three Key Challenges oil petroleum probe survey take samples oil petroleum probe survey take samples cymbidium restrain goeringii Which translation No translation! Wrong segmentation 11 Term-aligned Sentence-aligned Document-aligned Unaligned Parallel Comparable Knowledge-based Corpus-based Controlled Vocabulary Free Text Cross-Language Text Retrieval Query Translation Document Translation Text Translation Vector Translation Ontology-based Dictionary-based Thesaurus-based Translation Knowledge A lexicon e.g., extract term list from a bilingual dictionary Corpora Parallel or comparable, linked or unlinked Algorithmic e.g., transliteration rules, cognate matching The user Types of Lexicons Ontology Representation of concepts in addition so that relationships Thesaurus Ontology specialized in consideration of retrieval Bilingual lexicon Ontology specialized in consideration of machine translation Bilingual dictionary Ontology specialized in consideration of human translation Multilingual Thesauri Adapt the knowledge structure Cultural differences influence indexing choices Use language-independent descriptors Matched so that a unique term in each language Three construction techniques Build it from scratch Translate an existing thesaurus Merge monolingual thesauri Machine Readable Dictionaries Based on printed bilingual dictionaries Becoming widely available Used so that produce bilingual term lists Cross-language term mappings are accessible Sometimes listed in order of most common usage Some knowledge structure is also present Hard so that extract in addition so that represent automatically The challenge is so that pick the right translation Measuring Lexicon Coverage Lexicon size Vocabulary coverage of the collection Term instance coverage of the collection Term weight coverage of the collection Term weight coverage on representative queries Retrieval performance on a test collection Accommodating Lexical Gaps Corpora Parallel (translation equivalent) Comparable (topically related) Algorithmic Transliteration rules, cognate matching The user Choice based on reverse translations Hieroglyphic Demotic Greek Types of Bilingual Corpora Parallel corpora: translation-equivalent pairs Document pairs Sentence pairs Term pairs Comparable corpora Content-equivalent document pairs Unaligned corpora Content from the same domain Learning From Document Pairs Count how often each term occurs in each pair Treat each pair as a single document E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 S1 S2 S3 S4 Doc 1 Doc 2 Doc 3 Doc 4 Doc 5 4 2 2 1 8 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 English Terms Spanish Terms Similarity-Based Dictionaries Automatically developed from aligned documents Terms E1 in addition so that E3 are used in similar ways Terms E1 & S1 (or E3 & S4) are even more similar in consideration of each term, find most similar in other language Retain only the top few (5 or so) Performs as well as dictionary-based techniques Evaluated on a comparable corpus of news stories Stories were automatically linked based on date in addition so that subject Generalized Vector Space Model ?Term space? of each language is different But the ?document space? in consideration of a corpus is the same Describe new documents based on the corpus Vector of cosine similarity so that each corpus document Easily generated from a vector of term weights Multiply by the term-document matrix Compute cosine similarity in document space Excellent results when the domain is the same Cross-Language LSI Designed so that reduce term choice effects Works just as well across languages Cross-language is just a type of term choice variation Train using aligned document pairs Concatenate both languages in each document Map queries in addition so that documents into LSI space Cooccurrence-Based Translation Align terms using cooccurrence statistics How often do a term pair occur in sentence pairs Weighted by relative position in the sentences Retain term pairs that occur unusually often Useful in consideration of query translation Excellent results when the domain is the same Also practical in consideration of document translation Term usage reinforces good translations Exploiting Unaligned Corpora Documents about the same set of subjects No known relationship between document pairs Easily available in many applications Two approaches Use a dictionary in consideration of rough translation But refine it using the unaligned bilingual corpus Use a dictionary so that find alignments in the corpus Then extract translation knowledge from the alignments Feedback alongside Unaligned Corpora Pseudo-relevance feedback is fully automatic Augment the query alongside top ranked documents Improves recall ?Recenters? queries based on the corpus Short queries get the most dramatic improvement Two opportunities: Query language: Improve the query Document language: Suppress translation error Context Linking Automatically align portions of documents in consideration of each query term: Find translation pairs in corpus using dictionary Select a ?context? of nearby terms e.g., +/- 5 words in each language Choose translations from most similar contexts Based on cooccurrence alongside other translation pairs Choosing the Right Translation(s) Apply known constraints Part-of-speech, syntactic dependency, Maximize the retrieval status value Exploits context provided by other query terms Use explicit statistical information Translation probability, n-gram frequencies, Perform pseudorelevance feedback Unconstr

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Qu??bec CA.