Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events Workshop Summary Report Capacity Con

Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events  Workshop Summary Report  Capacity Con www.phwiki.com

Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events1A Series of Regional WorkshopsENA Leadership 2010 ? Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Introduction ? Framing the ProblemConsider the scenariosPandemicBioterrorismNatural disaster/catastrophesRegional IOM workshop descriptionsParticipantsLocationsAgendaGoalsOutcomes2ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Workshop Summary ReportAddresses ?Related work on standards of careCrisis standards of care protocol developmentThe surge capacity continuum of careClinical operationsProvider involvement in addition so that engagementPublic engagement in addition so that educationDeveloping intra in addition so that interstate cooperation in addition so that consistencyRole of the Federal government in addition so that national leadershipEthical considerationsLegal issues in consideration of crisis standards of care3ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Related Work on Standards of CareAgency in consideration of Health Resource in addition so that Quality (AHRQ) Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty EventsMass Casualty Care alongside Scare Resources ? A Community Planning GuideInstitute of Medicine (IOM) Guidance in consideration of Establishing Crisis Standards of Care in Disaster ? A Letter Report 4ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress ?Mass Medical Care alongside Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide? Collaboration between AHRQ in addition so that ASPREthical Considerations in Community Disaster PlanningAssessing the Legal Environment Prehospital CareHospital/Acute CareAlternative Care SitesPalliative CareAvian Influenza Pandemic Case Study5ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Crisis Standards of Care Protocol Development6Who makes the plan NursesPhysician assistantsPhysiciansPharmacistsAdministratorsMorticiansAcademiaGovernmentMany othersENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Capacity Continuum of Care 7 ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Surge Capacity – The Continuum of CareNorth Dakota?s example:Stage 1: Small Outcome ImpactStage 2: Moderate Outcome ImpactStage 3: Severe Outcome Impact8ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Stakeholder – Provider Involvement in addition so that EngagementThose alongside a critical roles includeEMSPhysiciansHospital officialsNursesEngagement challenges cited TimeFundingCulture – resistant so that crisis standards concepts9ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Public Engagement in addition so that Education Engagement challengesPublic is generally uneducatedHistory of distrust Changing the Culture of preparednessUse awareness from recent disaster eventsInclude in educational curriculumElected officials in addition so that media as allies 10ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Developing Intra in addition so that Interstate Cooperation in addition so that ConsistencyReasons in consideration of consistencyApproaches by statesMassachusetts VirginiaRegional applicationsFEMA Region 4Capital region?s ?All-hazards? consortium Interstate Disaster Medical CooperativeVillage-so that-Village Communication11ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Role of the Federal Government in addition so that National LeadershipGuide in addition so that facilitateAHRQ/ASPR?Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events? (AHRQ, 2004)?Mass Medical Care alongside Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide? (AHRQ, 2005)?Guidance in consideration of Establishing Crisis Standards of Care in consideration of Use in Disaster Situations? (IOM, 2009)VHA DOD 12ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Ethical ConsiderationsRequirements in consideration of ethical crisis standards of care planning in addition so that developmentFairnessDuty so that careDuty so that steward resourcesTransparencyProportionalityAccountability13ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Legal Issues in consideration of Crisis Standards of CareLiabilityAddressing the problemDeputizing physiciansEnacting liability protectionsCredentialing Scope-of-practiceEMTALA in addition so that HIPPALegal triageEducation in addition so that training14ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Clinical Operations – ComponentsIndicatorsTriggersTriageAlternate care facilitiesEMS, community health & other componentsResource availability in addition so that distributionPediatrics in addition so that other ?at risk? populationsPalliative careMental healthTraining15ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Who Gets the Resources Hospital outsideIn a Warehouse16ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress ?Crisis Standards? IndicatorsActual or impending resource shortfalls:VentilatorsOxygen in addition so that delivery devicesICU bedsHealthcare providersHospitalsPharmaceuticalsOther17ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress TriggersShould be:ConsistentBased on disaster declarationDriven by front-line providers18ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress TriageTriage in addition so that the Sequential Organ Failure Analysis (SOFA) score.CardiovascularCoagulationHepaticNeurologicalRenalRespiratoryTriage across the health system 19ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Alternate Care FacilitiesCreating surge capacity outside the hospitalPlanning by:North DakotaFacility capabilitiesStaffed by volunteersDelawareModular medical expansionNEHCs ? act as gatewaysLegislation enacted20ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress EMS, Community Health in addition so that Other ComponentsConsiderations in consideration of :EMSCommunity HealthThe private sector21ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Resource Availability in addition so that DistributionIdentifying resourcesResource acquisition 22ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Pediatric in addition so that other ?At Risk? PopulationsPopulationsChildrenElderlyMental health patientsOthersChallenges ? matching resources so that needs23ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Palliative CareExpected Need Despite the best efforts Concern in consideration of lack of palliative care protocols in addition so that standardsReluctance so that discussPlanning in consideration of careNo one left so that dieCare is never withdrawn24ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Mental HealthThe need in consideration of grief managementConsider Ceasing pediatric resuscitationsDiscontinuing (DC?ing) vent assistanceRunning out of life-sustaining medications or oxygenImpact on Care-giversFamily in addition so that individualsPlanning ?Missouri School of Medicine ? Center in consideration of Health Ethics – just-in-time, Pandemic Grief Training course.25ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress TrainingNeed in consideration of effective training in addition so that relationship building across organizational boundaries.Forums includeExercisesActual event responses2009 Presidential inauguration Maryland in addition so that District of Columbia26ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress ConclusionsFour Regional WorkshopsHighlighted work ongoing around the nationMore work needed in consideration of : Palliative care planningMental/behavioral healthVulnerable populationsPublic in addition so that provider engagementConsistencyHow far do we go 27ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress Thank you!Sally Phillips, RN, PhDDirector, Public Health PreparednessAgency in consideration of Health Research in addition so that QualityRockville, MarylandSally.phillips@ahrq.hhs Knox Andress, RN, FAENDesignated Regional CoordinatorLouisiana Region 7 Hospital PreparednessDepartment of Emergency MedicineLSU Health Sciences Center ? ShreveportLouisiana Poison Centerwandr1@lsuhsc 28ENA Leadership 2010 – Chicago Stds of Care in Mass Casualty Events – A Workshop Report; Phillips/Andress

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Toronto, Scarborough CA.

Cross-cutting concepts in science Structure & function Energy and matter Cau

Cross-cutting concepts in science   Structure & function  Energy and matter  Cau www.phwiki.com

Cross-cutting concepts in science Concepts that unify the study of science through their common application across the scientific fieldsThey enhance core ideas in the major disciplines of science. Structure & functionThis is referring so that how the structure of an object fits its function or job.This helps us so that understand phenomenon.The scale makes a huge difference so that structure in addition so that function.The goal is so that move from understanding mechanical function first in addition so that then move on so that complex systems, molecular structure in addition so that then investigating phenomenon.The overall concept is the fact that forms fits function.Energy in addition so that matterMatter is anything that has mass in addition so that takes up space.Energy is what causes change.This focuses on flows, cycles in addition so that conservation.These concepts help us understand systems in addition so that how they work.Matter in addition so that energy often get into in addition so that back out of a system. We call this flow.Cycles are when matter in addition so that energy are recycled over in addition so that over again in a system.The amounts of matter or energy that go into a system will equal the amount that come out of a system ? conservation. Cause in addition so that EffectThis is a basic skill in humans. We always want so that know why something occurs.In Science, this allows us so that explain causal relationships in addition so that make good predictions.There has so that be a chain of interactions that leads from a cause so that an effect.Some cause in addition so that effect relationships are simple in addition so that others are very complex.This is used so that explain the unexpected.This is important so that determine what tests we can run so that find the causes.This leads so that developing good arguments in addition so that eventually forming new theories.Systems & system modelsA system is a portion of the universe that is separate from the universe.It allows us so that understand phenomenon in addition so that improve engineering design.You can focus in on one system in addition so that use that so that do your studies.You have a boundary between your system in addition so that the universe.Systems can be open or closed.A system model is how we understand how the system works. Students should construct system models by drawing in addition so that describing.They should include invisible features, mathematical relationships in addition so that give limitations in addition so that assumptions.PatternsPatterns are everywhere. They initiate questions, because we want so that understand the pattern.This leads so that explanations in addition so that theories.Scientists need so that be able so that recognize in addition so that find patterns.The organizing of patterns leads so that different types of classification.The goal in science class is so that have students recognize, classify in addition so that evaluate patterns.This allows students so that see the patterns in data in addition so that make accurate predictions,. Stability & changeThis is about how things remain the same in addition so that then become different over time.Even things that look inherently stable will change when given enough time.This helps us explain patterns in addition so that learn how so that control systems.This also helps us so that make accurate predictions.A system is going so that have controls that let matter in addition so that energy in in addition so that out.Systems also have feedback loops that help them maintain stability. An example of a feedback loop in your house is the thermostat.Many systems have mechanisms so that maintain equilibrium.The goal in consideration of students is so that develop language, explain patterns, understand feedback loops in addition so that finally so that understand complex systems.Scale, Proportion & quantityThis allows us so that understand phenomenon at different scales.Here we look at three different continuums: size, time in addition so that energy.Proportion is a powerful tool so that understand the meaning of scale.Students need so that be able so that understand comparisons of scale.Students need so that understand quantity by using measurements in addition so that estimation.They need so that be able so that determine what units are best used in consideration of a specific measurement. Students need so that be able so that order objects or events by scale in addition so that dataThey need so that be able so that make predictions from their data.

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Trinity College CA.

Estimating Crystallite Size Using XRD Scott A Speakman, Ph.D. 13-4009A speakman@

Estimating Crystallite Size Using XRD Scott A Speakman, Ph.D. 13-4009A speakman@ www.phwiki.com

MIT Center in consideration of Materials Science in addition so that Engineering Warning These slides have not been extensively proof-read, in addition so that therefore may contain errors. While I have tried so that cite all references, I may have missed some? these slides were prepared in consideration of an informal lecture in addition so that not in consideration of publication. If you note a mistake or a missing citation, please let me know in addition so that I will correct it. I hope so that add commentary in the notes section of these slides, offering additional details. However, these notes are incomplete so far. Goals of Today?s Lecture Provide a quick overview of the theory behind peak profile analysis Discuss practical considerations in consideration of analysis Demonstrate the use of lab software in consideration of analysis empirical peak fitting using MDI Jade Rietveld refinement using HighScore Plus Discuss other software in consideration of peak profile analysis Briefly mention other peak profile analysis methods Warren Averbach Variance method Mixed peak profiling whole pattern Discuss other ways so that evaluate crystallite size Assumptions: you understand the basics of crystallography, X-ray diffraction, in addition so that the operation of a Bragg-Brentano diffractometer A Brief History of XRD 1895- R”ntgen publishes the discovery of X-rays 1912- Laue observes diffraction of X-rays from a crystal when did Scherrer use X-rays so that estimate the crystallite size of nanophase materials The Scherrer Equation was published in 1918 Peak width (B) is inversely proportional so that crystallite size (L) P. Scherrer, ?Bestimmung der Gr”sse und der inneren Struktur von Kolloidteilchen mittels R”ntgenstrahlen,? Nachr. Ges. Wiss. G”ttingen 26 (1918) pp 98-100. J.I. Langford in addition so that A.J.C. Wilson, ?Scherrer after Sixty Years: A Survey in addition so that Some New Results in the Determination of Crystallite Size,? J. Appl. Cryst. 11 (1978) pp 102-113. The Laue Equations describe the intensity of a diffracted peak from a single parallelopipeden crystal N1, N2, in addition so that N3 are the number of unit cells along the a1, a2, in addition so that a3 directions When N is small, the diffraction peaks become broader The peak area remains constant independent of N Which of these diffraction patterns comes from a nanocrystalline material These diffraction patterns were produced from the exact same sample Two different diffractometers, alongside different optical configurations, were used The apparent peak broadening is due solely so that the instrumentation Many factors may contribute so that the observed peak profile Instrumental Peak Profile Crystallite Size Microstrain Non-uniform Lattice Distortions Faulting Dislocations Antiphase Domain Boundaries Grain Surface Relaxation Solid Solution Inhomogeneity Temperature Factors The peak profile is a convolution of the profiles from all of these contributions Instrument in addition so that Sample Contributions so that the Peak Profile must be Deconvoluted In order so that analyze crystallite size, we must deconvolute: Instrumental Broadening FW(I) also referred so that as the Instrumental Profile, Instrumental FWHM Curve, Instrumental Peak Profile Specimen Broadening FW(S) also referred so that as the Sample Profile, Specimen Profile We must then separate the different contributions so that specimen broadening Crystallite size in addition so that microstrain broadening of diffraction peaks Contributions so that Peak Profile Peak broadening due so that crystallite size Peak broadening due so that the instrumental profile Which instrument so that use in consideration of nanophase analysis Peak broadening due so that microstrain the different types of microstrain Peak broadening due so that solid solution inhomogeneity in addition so that due so that temperature factors Crystallite Size Broadening Peak Width due so that crystallite size varies inversely alongside crystallite size as the crystallite size gets smaller, the peak gets broader The peak width varies alongside 2q as cos q The crystallite size broadening is most pronounced at large angles 2Theta However, the instrumental profile width in addition so that microstrain broadening are also largest at large angles 2theta peak intensity is usually weakest at larger angles 2theta If using a single peak, often get better results from using diffraction peaks between 30 in addition so that 50 deg 2theta below 30deg 2theta, peak asymmetry compromises profile analysis The Scherrer Constant, K The constant of proportionality, K (the Scherrer constant) depends on the how the width is determined, the shape of the crystal, in addition so that the size distribution the most common values in consideration of K are: 0.94 in consideration of FWHM of spherical crystals alongside cubic symmetry 0.89 in consideration of integral breadth of spherical crystals w/ cubic symmetry 1, because 0.94 in addition so that 0.89 both round up so that 1 K actually varies from 0.62 so that 2.08 in consideration of an excellent discussion of K, refer so that JI Langford in addition so that AJC Wilson, ?Scherrer after sixty years: A survey in addition so that some new results in the determination of crystallite size,? J. Appl. Cryst. 11 (1978) p102-113. Factors that affect K in addition so that crystallite size analysis how the peak width is defined how crystallite size is defined the shape of the crystal the size distribution Methods used in Jade so that Define Peak Width Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) the width of the diffraction peak, in radians, at a height half-way between background in addition so that the peak maximum Integral Breadth the total area under the peak divided by the peak height the width of a rectangle having the same area in addition so that the same height as the peak requires very careful evaluation of the tails of the peak in addition so that the background FWHM Integral Breadth Warren suggests that the Stokes in addition so that Wilson method of using integral breadths gives an evaluation that is independent of the distribution in size in addition so that shape L is a volume average of the crystal thickness in the direction normal so that the reflecting planes The Scherrer constant K can be assumed so that be 1 Langford in addition so that Wilson suggest that even when using the integral breadth, there is a Scherrer constant K that varies alongside the shape of the crystallites Other methods used so that determine peak width These methods are used in more the variance methods, such as Warren-Averbach analysis Most often used in consideration of dislocation in addition so that defect density analysis of metals Can also be used so that determine the crystallite size distribution Requires no overlap between neighboring diffraction peaks Variance-slope the slope of the variance of the line profile as a function of the range of integration Variance-intercept negative initial slope of the Fourier transform of the normalized line profile How is Crystallite Size Defined Usually taken as the cube root of the volume of a crystallite assumes that all crystallites have the same size in addition so that shape in consideration of a distribution of sizes, the mean size can be defined as the mean value of the cube roots of the individual crystallite volumes the cube root of the mean value of the volumes of the individual crystallites Scherrer method (using FWHM) gives the ratio of the root-mean-fourth-power so that the root-mean-square value of the thickness Stokes in addition so that Wilson method (using integral breadth) determines the volume average of the thickness of the crystallites measured perpendicular so that the reflecting plane The variance methods give the ratio of the total volume of the crystallites so that the total area of their projection on a plane parallel so that the reflecting planes Remember, Crystallite Size is Different than Particle Size A particle may be made up of several different crystallites Crystallite size often matches grain size, but there are exceptions Crystallite Shape Though the shape of crystallites is usually irregular, we can often approximate them as: sphere, cube, tetrahedra, or octahedra parallelepipeds such as needles or plates prisms or cylinders Most applications of Scherrer analysis assume spherical crystallite shapes If we know the average crystallite shape from another analysis, we can select the proper value in consideration of the Scherrer constant K Anistropic peak shapes can be identified by anistropic peak broadening if the dimensions of a crystallite are 2x * 2y * 200z, then (h00) in addition so that (0k0) peaks will be more broadened then (00l) peaks. Anistropic Size Broadening The broadening of a single diffraction peak is the product of the crystallite dimensions in the direction perpendicular so that the planes that produced the diffraction peak. Crystallite Size Distribution is the crystallite size narrowly or broadly distributed is the crystallite size unimodal XRD is poorly designed so that facilitate the analysis of crystallites alongside a broad or multimodal size distribution Variance methods, such as Warren-Averbach, can be used so that quantify a unimodal size distribution Otherwise, we try so that accommodate the size distribution in the Scherrer constant Using integral breadth instead of FWHM may reduce the effect of crystallite size distribution on the Scherrer constant K in addition so that therefore the crystallite size analysis Instrumental Peak Profile A large crystallite size, defect-free powder specimen will still produce diffraction peaks alongside a finite width The peak widths from the instrument peak profile are a convolution of: X-ray Source Profile Wavelength widths of Ka1 in addition so that Ka2 lines Size of the X-ray source Superposition of Ka1 in addition so that Ka2 peaks Goniometer Optics Divergence in addition so that Receiving Slit widths Imperfect focusing Beam size Penetration into the sample Patterns collected from the same sample alongside different instruments in addition so that configurations at MIT What Instrument so that Use The instrumental profile determines the upper limit of crystallite size that can be evaluated if the Instrumental peak width is much larger than the broadening due so that crystallite size, then we cannot accurately determine crystallite size in consideration of analyzing larger nanocrystallites, it is important so that use the instrument alongside the smallest instrumental peak width Very small nanocrystallites produce weak signals the specimen broadening will be significantly larger than the instrumental broadening the signal:noise ratio is more important than the instrumental profile Comparison of Peak Widths at 47ø 2q in consideration of Instruments in addition so that Crystallite Sizes Rigaku XRPD is better in consideration of very small nanocrystallites, Fit Peak Profile Right-click Fit Profiles button Right-click Profile Edit Cursor button open Ge103.xrdml overlay PDF reference pattern 04-0545 Demonstrate profile fitting of the 5 diffraction peaks fit one at a time fit using ?All? option Important Options in Profile Fitting Window 1 5 3 2 4 8 6 7 9 1. Profile Shape Function select the equation that will be used so that fit diffraction peaks Gaussian: more appropriate in consideration of fitting peaks alongside a rounder top strain distribution tends so that broaden the peak as a Gaussian Lorentzian: more appropriate in consideration of fitting peaks alongside a sharper top size distribution tends so that broaden the peak as a Lorentzian dislocations also create a Lorentzian component so that the peak broadening The instrumental profile in addition so that peak shape are often a combination of Gaussian in addition so that Lorentzian contributions pseudo-Voigt: emphasizes Guassian contribution preferred when strain broadening dominates Pearson VII: emphasize Lorentzian contribution preferred when size broadening dominates 2. Shape Parameter This option allows you so that constrain or refine the shape parameter the shape parameter determines the relative contributions of Gaussian in addition so that Lorentzian type behavior so that the profile function shape parameter is different in consideration of pseudo-Voigt in addition so that Pearson VII functions pseudo-Voigt: sets the Lorentzian coefficient Pearson VII: set the exponent Check the box if you want so that constrain the shape parameter so that a value input the value that you want in consideration of the shape parameter in the numerical field Do not check the box if you want the mixing parameter so that be refined during profile fitting this is the much more common setting in consideration of this option 3. Skewness Skewness is used so that model asymmetry in the diffraction peak Most significant at low values of 2q Unchecked: skewness will be refined during profile fitting Checked: skewness will be constrained so that the value indicated usually check this option so that constrain skewness so that 0 skewness=0 indicates a symmetrical peak Hint: constrain skewness so that zero when refining very broad peaks refining very weak peaks refining several heavily overlapping peaks an example of the error created when fitting low angle asymmetric data alongside a skewness=0 profile 4. K-alpha2 contribution Checking this box indicates that Ka2 radiation is present in addition so that should be included in the peak profile model this should almost always be checked when analyzing your data It is much more accurate so that model Ka2 than it is so that numerically strip the Ka2 contribution from the experimental data This is a single diffraction peak, featuring the Ka1 in addition so that Ka2 doublet 5. Background function Specifies how the background underneath the peak will be modeled usually use ?Linear Background? ?Level Background? is appropriate if the background is indeed fairly level in addition so that the broadness of the peak causes the linear background function so that fit improperly manually fit the background (Analyze > Fit Background) in addition so that use ?Fixed Background? in consideration of very complicated patterns more complex background functions will usually fail when fitting nanocrystalline materials This linear background fit modeled the background too low. A level fit would not work, so the fixed background must be used. 6. Initial Peak Width 7. Initial Peak Location These setting determine the way that Jade calculates the initial peak profile, before refinement Initial Width if the peak is not significantly broadened by size or strain, then use the FWHM curve if the peak is significantly broadened, you might have more success if you Specify a starting FWHM Initial Location using PDF overlays is always the preferred option if no PDF reference card is available, in addition so that the peak is significantly broadened, then you will want so that manually insert peaks- the Peak Search will not work Result of auto insertion using peak search in addition so that FWHM curve on a nanocrystalline broadened peak. Manual peak insertion should be used instead. 8. Display Options Check the options in consideration of what visual components you want displayed during the profile fitting Typically use: Overall Profile Individual Profiles Background Curve Line Marker Sometimes use: Difference Pattern Paint Individuals 9. Fitting Results This area displays the results in consideration of profile fit peaks Numbers in () are estimated standard deviations (ESD) if the ESD is marked alongside ( ), then that peak profile function has not yet been refined Click once on a row, in addition so that the Main Display Area of Jade will move so that show you that peak, in addition so that a blinking cursor will highlight that peak You can sort the peak fits by any column by clicking on the column header Other buttons of interest Execute Refinement Autofit All Peaks See Other Options Help Save Text File of Results Clicking Other Options Unify Variables: force all peaks so that be fit using the same profile parameter Use FWHM or Integral Breadth in consideration of Crystallite Size Analysis Select What Columns so that Show in the Results Area Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting a Diffraction Pattern Open the diffraction pattern Overlay the PDF reference Zoom in on first peak(s) so that analyze Open the profile fitting dialogue so that configure options Refine the profile fit in consideration of the first peak(s) Review the quality of profile fit Move so that next peak(s) in addition so that profile fit Continue until entire pattern is fit Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting 1. Open the XRD pattern 2. Overlay PDF reference in consideration of the sample Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting 3. Zoom in on First Peak so that Analyze try so that zoom in on only one peak be sure so that include some background on either side of the peak Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting when you open the profile fitting dialogue, an initial peak profile curve will be generated if the initial profile is not good, because initial width in addition so that location parameters were not yet set, then delete it highlight the peak in the fitting results press the delete key on your keyboard 4. Open profile fitting dialogue so that configure parameter 5. Once parameters are configured properly, click on the blue triangle so that execute ?Profile Fitting? you may have so that execute the refinement multiple times if the initial refinement stops before the peak is sufficiently fit Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting 6. Review Quality of Profile Fit The least-squares fitting residual, R, will be listed in upper right corner of screen the residual R should be less than 10% The ESD in consideration of parameters such as 2-Theta in addition so that FWHM should be small, in the last significant figure Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting 7. Move so that Next Peak(s) In this example, peaks are too close together so that refine individually Therefore, profile fit the group of peaks together Profile fitting, if done well, can help so that separate overlapping peaks Procedure in consideration of Profile Fitting 8. Continue until the entire pattern is fit The results window will list a residual R in consideration of the fitting of the entire diffraction pattern The difference plot will highlight any major discrepancies Instrumental FWHM Calibration Curve The instrument itself contributes so that the peak profile Before profile fitting the nanocrystalline phase(s) of interest profile fit a calibration standard so that determine the instrumental profile Important factors in consideration of producing a calibration curve Use the exact same instrumental conditions same optical configuration of diffractometer same sample preparation geometry calibration curve should cover the 2theta range of interest in consideration of the specimen diffraction pattern do not extrapolate the calibration curve Instrumental FWHM Calibration Curve Standard should share characteristics alongside the nanocrystalline specimen similar mass absorption coefficient similar atomic weight similar packing density The standard should not contribute so that the diffraction peak profile macrocrystalline: crystallite size larger than 500 nm particle size less than 10 microns defect in addition so that strain free There are several calibration techniques Internal Standard External Standard of same composition External Standard of different composition Internal Standard Method in consideration of Calibration Mix a standard in alongside your nanocrystalline specimen a NIST certified standard is preferred use a standard alongside similar mass absorption coefficient NIST 640c Si NIST 660a LaB6 NIST 674b CeO2 NIST 675 Mica standard should have few, in addition so that preferably no, overlapping peaks alongside the specimen overlapping peaks will greatly compromise accuracy of analysis Internal Standard Method in consideration of Calibration Advantages: know that standard in addition so that specimen patterns were collected under identical circumstances in consideration of both instrumental conditions in addition so that sample preparation conditions the linear absorption coefficient of the mixture is the same in consideration of standard in addition so that specimen Disadvantages: difficult so that avoid overlapping peaks between standard in addition so that broadened peaks from very nanocrystalline materials the specimen is contaminated only works alongside a powder specimen External Standard Method in consideration of Calibration If internal calibration is not an option, then use external calibration Run calibration standard separately from specimen, keeping as many parameters identical as is possible The best external standard is a macrocrystalline specimen of the same phase as your nanocrystalline specimen How can you be sure that macrocrystalline specimen does not contribute so that peak broadening Qualifying your Macrocrystalline Standard select powder in consideration of your potential macrocrystalline standard if not already done, possibly anneal it so that allow crystallites so that grow in addition so that so that allow defects so that heal use internal calibration so that validate that macrocrystalline specimen is an appropriate standard mix macrocrystalline standard alongside appropriate NIST SRM compare FWHM curves in consideration of macrocrystalline specimen in addition so that NIST standard if the macrocrystalline FWHM curve is similar so that that from the NIST standard, than the macrocrystalline specimen is suitable collect the XRD pattern from pure sample of you macrocrystalline specimen do not use the FHWM curve from the mixture alongside the NIST SRM Disadvantages/Advantages of External Calibration alongside a Standard of the Same Composition Advantages: will produce better calibration curve because mass absorption coefficient, density, molecular weight are the same as your specimen of interest can duplicate a mixture in your nanocrystalline specimen might be able so that make a macrocrystalline standard in consideration of thin film samples Disadvantages: time consuming desire a different calibration standard in consideration of every different nanocrystalline phase in addition so that mixture macrocrystalline standard may be hard/impossible so that produce calibration curve will not compensate in consideration of discrepancies in instrumental conditions or sample preparation conditions between the standard in addition so that the specimen External Standard Method of Calibration using a NIST standard As a last resort, use an external standard of a composition that is different than your nanocrystalline specimen This is actually the most common method used Also the least accurate method Use a certified NIST standard so that produce instrumental FWHM calibration curve Advantages in addition so that Disadvantages of using NIST standard in consideration of External Calibration Advantages only need so that build one calibration curve in consideration of each instrumental configuration I have NIST standard diffraction patterns in consideration of each instrument in addition so that configuration available in consideration of download from prism.mit/xray/standards.htm know that the standard is high quality if from NIST neither standard nor specimen are contaminated Disadvantages The standard may behave significantly different in diffractometer than your specimen different mass absorption coefficient different depth of penetration of X-rays NIST standards are expensive cannot duplicate exact conditions in consideration of thin films Consider- when is good calibration most essential in consideration of a very small crystallite size, the specimen broadening dominates over instrumental broadening Only need the most exacting calibration when the specimen broadening is small because the specimen is not highly nanocrystalline FWHM of Instrumental Profile at 48ø 2q 0.061 deg Broadening Due so that Nanocrystalline Size Steps in consideration of Producing an Instrumental Profile Collect data from calibration standard Profile fit peaks from the calibration standard Produce FWHM curve Save FWHM curve Set software preferences so that use FHWH curve as Instrumental Profile Steps in consideration of Producing an Instrumental Profile Collect XRD pattern from standard over a long range Profile fit all peaks of the standard?s XRD pattern use the profile function (Pearson VII or pseudo-Voigt) that you will use so that fit your specimen pattern indicate if you want so that use FWHM or Integral Breadth when analyzing specimen pattern Produce a FWHM curve go so that Analyze > FWHM Curve Plot Steps in consideration of Producing an Instrumental Profile 4. Save the FWHM curve go so that File > Save > FWHM Curve of Peaks give the FWHM curve a name that you will be able so that find again the FWHM curve is saved in a database on the local computer you need so that produce the FWHM curve on each computer that you use everybody else?s FHWM curves will also be visible Steps in consideration of Producing an Instrumental Profile 5. Set preferences so that use the FWHM curve as the instrumental profile Go so that Edit > Preferences Select the Instrument tab Select your FWHM curve from the drop-down menu on the bottom of the dialogue Also enter Goniometer Radius Rigaku Right-Hand Side: 185mm Rigaku Left-Hand Side: 250mm PANalytical X?Pert Pro: 240mm Other Software Preferences That You Should Be Aware Of Report Tab Check so that calculate Crystallite Size from FWHM set Scherrer constant Display tab Check the last option so that have crystallite sizes reported in nanometers Do not check last option so that have crystallite sizes reported in Angstroms Using the Scherrer Method in Jade so that Estimate Crystallite Size load specimen data load PDF reference pattern Profile fit as many peaks of your data that you can Scherrer Analysis Calculates Crystallite Size based on each Individual Peak Profile Crystallite Size varies from 22 so that 30  over the range of 28.5 so that 95.4ø 2q Average size: 25  Standard Deviation: 3.4  Pretty good analysis Not much indicator of crystallite strain We might use a single peak in future analyses, rather than all 8 FWHM vs Integral Breadth Using FWHM: 25.1  (3.4) Using Breadth: 22.5  (3.7) Breadth not as accurate because there is a lot of overlap between peaks- cannot determine where tail intensity ends in addition so that background begins Analysis Using Different Values of K in consideration of the typical values of 0.81 < K < 1.03 the crystallite size varies between 22 in addition so that 29  The precision of XRD analysis is never better than ñ1 nm The size is reproducibly calculated as 2-3 nm in consideration of Size & Strain Analysis using Williamson-Hull type Plot in Jade after profile fitting all peaks, click size-strain button or in main menus, go so that Analyze > Size&Strain Plot Williamson Hull Plot y-intercept slope Manipulating Options in the Size-Strain Plot of Jade Select Mode of Analysis Fit Size/Strain Fit Size Fit Strain Select Instrument Profile Curve Show Origin Deconvolution Parameter Results Residuals in consideration of Evaluation of Fit Export or Save 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Analysis Mode: Fit Size Only slope= 0= strain Analysis Mode: Fit Strain Only y-intercept= 0 size= ì Analysis Mode: Fit Size/Strain Comparing Results Integral Breadth FWHM Manually Inserting Peak Profiles Click on the ?Profile Edit Cursor? button Left click so that insert a peak profile Right click so that delete a peak profile Double-click on the ?Profile Edit Cursor? button so that refine the peak Examples Read Y2O3 on ZBH Fast Scan.sav make sure instrument profile is ?IAP XPert FineOptics ZBH? Note scatter of data Note larger average crystallite size requiring good calibration data took 1.5 hrs so that collect over range 15 so that 146ø 2q could only profile fit data up so that 90ø 2q; intensities were too low after that Read Y2O3 on ZBH long scan.sav make sure instrument profile is ?IAP XPert FineOptics ZBH? compare Scherrer in addition so that Size-Strain Plot Note scatter of data in Size-Strain Plot data took 14 hrs so that collect over range of 15 so that 130ø 2q size is 56 nm, strain is 0.39% by comparison, CeO2 alongside crystallite size of 3 nm took 41min so that collect data from 20 so that 100ø 2q in consideration of high quality analysis Examples Load CeO2/BN*.xrdml Overlay PDF card 34-0394 shift in peak position because of thermal expansion make sure instrument profile is ?IAP XPert FineOptics ZBH? look at patterns in 3D view Scans collected every 1min as sample annealed in situ at 500øC manually insert peak profile use batch mode so that fit peak in minutes have record of crystallite size vs time Examples Size analysis of Si core in SiO2 shell read Si_nodule.sav make sure instrument profile is ?IAP Rigaku RHS? show how we can link peaks so that specific phases show how Si broadening is due completely so that microstrain ZnO is a NIST SRM, in consideration of which we know the crystallite size is between 201 nm we estimate 179 nm- shows error at large crystallite sizes We can empirically calculate nanocrystalline diffraction pattern using Jade Load PDF reference card go so that Analyze > Simulate Pattern In Pattern Simulation dialogue box set instrumental profile curve set crystallite size & lattice strain check fold (convolute) alongside instrument profile Click on ?Clear Existing Display in addition so that Create New Pattern? or Click on ?Overlay Simulated Pattern? demonstrate alongside card 46-1212 observe peak overlap at 36ø 2q as peak broaden Whole Pattern Fitting Emperical Profile Fitting is sometimes difficult overlapping peaks a mixture of nanocrystalline phases a mixture of nanocrystalline in addition so that macrocrystalline phase Or we want so that learn more information about sample quantitative phase analysis how much of each phase is present in a mixture lattice parameter refinement nanophase materials often have different lattice parameters from their bulk counterparts atomic occupancy refinement in consideration of Whole Pattern Fitting, Usually use Rietveld Refinement model diffraction pattern from calculations alongside an appropriate crystal structure we can precisely calculate peak positions in addition so that intensities this is much better than empirically fitting peaks, especially when they are highly overlapping We also model in addition so that compensate in consideration of experimental errors such as specimen displacement in addition so that zero offset model peak shape in addition so that width using empirical functions we can correlate these functions so that crystallite size in addition so that strain we then refine the model until the calculated pattern matches the experimentally observed pattern in consideration of crystallite size in addition so that microstrain analysis, we still need an internal or external standard Peak Width Analysis in Rietveld Refinement HighScore Plus can use pseudo-Voigt, Pearson VII, or Voigt profile functions in consideration of pseudo-Voigt in addition so that Pearson VII functions Peak shape is modeled using the pseudo-Voigt or Pearson VII functions The FWHM term, HK, is a component of both functions The FWHM is correlated so that crystallite size in addition so that microstrain The FWHM is modeled using the Cagliotti Equation U is the parameter most strongly associated alongside strain broadening crystallite size can be calculated from U in addition so that W U can be separated into (hkl) dependent components in consideration of anisotropic broadening Using pseudo-Voigt in addition so that Pears VIII functions in HighScore Plus Refine the size-strain standard so that determine U, V, in addition so that W in consideration of the instrumental profile also refine profile function shape parameters, asymmetry parameters, etc Refine the nanocrystalline specimen data Import or enter the U, V, in addition so that W standard parameters In the settings in consideration of the nanocrystalline phase, you can specify the type of size in addition so that strain analysis you would like so that execute During refinement, U, V, in addition so that W will be constrained as necessary in consideration of the analysis Size in addition so that Strain: Refine U in addition so that W Strain Only: Refine U Size Only: Refi

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Design Landscape Elements of Design Elements of Design Element of Design Ele

Design Landscape  Elements of Design  Elements of Design  Element of Design  Ele www.phwiki.com

Design Landscape Remember elements, principles, components/ measurements in addition so that symbols used so that develop plans John M. Hess Elements of Design Design Elements create moods or feeling of the Observer: Form- Geometric shape or combination of shapes Elements of Design Line ? Continuity of a landscape .Flow of the landscape Straight lines = direction change Curved lines= relaxed movement Element of Design Texture: Coarse or fine materials used. Examples. Size differences of leaves stones brick bark Elements of Design: Overview The five elements of landscape design include: ? Color – It is important so that use a complementing color scheme throughout the yard. ? Line – Linear patterns are used so that direct physical movement in addition so that so that draw attention so that areas in your garden. ? Form – Form can be expressed through trees in addition so that shrubs of various shapes in addition so that sizes which create natural patterns. ? Texture – Plants alongside varying textures can add so that the atmosphere of your outdoor area. ? Scale – Your outdoor design should balance the size of the buildings it surrounds, while maintaining a comfortable environment in consideration of the individuals who will use the area. Principles of Design Principles of design- Standards by which designs can be created, measured, discussed in addition so that evaluated. Principles of Design Balance: Even distribution of materials on opposite sides of a central axis. Symmetric ? both sides are identical (mirror image). Asymmetric ? visual weight on opposite sides is the same, but materials used in addition so that their placement may vary. Proximal/Distal ? Same as asymmetric alongside depth in the field of vision added. Balance: Symmetric: Formal Balance Asymmetric: Informal Balance Proximal / Distal: Principles of Design: Focalization ? Selects in addition so that positions visually strong items into landscape. Catchs in addition so that draws viewer so that key feature in landscape. Hardscapes Color movement Unique plant or Specimen plant Principles of Design: Simplicity ? Seeks so that make the viewer feel comfortable within the landscape. Principles of Design: Proportion ? Concerned alongside size relationship between all the features of the landscape. Principles of Design: Rhythm in addition so that Line: When something repeats itself enough times alongside a standard distance between repetitions, rhythm is established. Principles of Design: Unity ? The master principle combining all other principles. Total design Methods of Grouping Plants Corner Planting ? Planting is placed at the corner of a landscape. One of the more natural locations in consideration of a focal point. Bench Specimen plant Hardscape Methods of Grouping Plants Foundation Planting ? Plants lining walls or walkways so that soften edges. Can be used so that draw attention so that entrances or openings. Methods of Grouping Plants: Line Planting ? Creates a wall or line in the landscape. Used as screening or privacy. Helps so that create outdoor living area. Methods of Grouping Plants: Mass Planting ? A group of [plants that fill a large area or cluster in the landscape. Methods of Grouping Plants: Accent Plant ? Creates a particular beauty or interest in the landscape. Used so that draw viewer?s eye so that an area, or so that create an illusion that area is larger than it appears. Accent plants should not be placed in middle of lawn area. Accent Plant : Examples Criteria in consideration of Lettering/Numbering Plans in addition so that in consideration of using scales. Use single strokes when forming letters/numbers. Always use all CAPITAL (upper case) letters. Use light strokes when lettering/numbering so that avoid smudges. Draw letters/numbers vertically. Use appropriate spacing when lettering/numbering. Use guidelines always. Show uniformity in letters/numbers. Examples of Lettering: 1 Lettering Examples: 2 Using Scales: Architect / engineering scales may be used so that represent actual dimensions of land / objects on paper. The scale is NOT used as a straight edge. It is a measuring device only. Architect scales hold several units of measure in consideration of sizing so that paper. NOTICE** Rulers are kings in addition so that queens, not items in consideration of drawing or measuring. Irrigation System Components: Sprinkler Irrigation ? Applies water under pressure over the tops of plants. Irrigation System Components Drip /Trickle Irrigation ? Supplies water directly so that the root system of the plant. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Spray head ? Water is distributed in a set pattern over a fixed area. No moving parts normally. Propels water 14 -16 ft, before wind affects pattern. Most commonly use in consideration of shrubs in addition so that flower beds. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Rotary Sprinklers ? Have moving parts, Some are pop ? ups. Move in full circle or partial circles. Throw water up so that 110 ft. Gear or impact driven. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Pop ? up Sprinklers ? Sprinkler heads rise above ground when water pressure is applied, Return so that ground level when pressure is released. Positive retract use a spring so that return nozzle so that ground level. May be rotary sprinklers or fix spray heads. Pop ? up Sprinklers: Examples Types of Sprinkler Heads: Emitters ? A device so that take the place of a sprinkler head in consideration of trickle irrigation. Types of Sprinkler Heads: Microspray ? Low volumeemission device that waters the entire hydrozone in addition so that operates similarly so that conventional spray heads, but at much lower flow rates. Drip irrigation uses up so that 50 % less water than sprinkler systems. Uses 150 -200 micron mesh filter so that prevent clogging. Other Irrigation Components: Back Flow Preventer ? Device that ensures water from irrigation system does not return back so that main water source. This is required in some counties if on city water. Other Irrigation Components: Remote Control Valves ? Devices that open in addition so that close so that allow water flow through pipes. Placed in the water line in addition so that controlled by an electrical contact alongside the irrigation system controller. Other Sprinkler Components: Controller ? The device that automatically opens/ closes the valves in the irrigation system according so that the preset program. Sold based on the number of valves so that be controlled. Controllers are programable. Other Sprinkler Components Program ? A set of instructions in consideration of the controller so that follow : Days in consideration of watering, water flow & length. (Some will skip days based of rain). Zone ? Area or grouping of sprinklers, operating on a certain control valve. Cycle ? One complete run of a controller through its programmed stations/ zones. Other Sprinkler Components: Main Line ? Main source of water in an irrigation system, has water flow or pressure at all times. Lateral Line ? Secondary line of an irrigation system that has water flow / pressure when valve is open. Irrigation Measurements: GPM ? Gallons per minute. Rate of water flow through an irrigation system, time = 1 minute. GPH ? Gallons per hour. Rate of water flow through an irrigation system, time = 1 hour. PSI ? Pounds per square inch. Measure of force at which water moves through the irrigation system. Symbols in consideration of diagrams/ Layouts Evergreen Tree: Symbols in consideration of Diagrams / Layouts Deciduous Tree: Shrub Symbols Evergreen: Deciduous: Ground Cover Symbols Ground Cover: Annual Plant Symbols: On a landscape plan, annuals do not have a symbol. One must simply draw an arrow on the plan so that the area where annuals are so that be planted in addition so that put the word ?Note?. Then in the listing of plants, the annuals are listed by the word note. Symbols: Paver- Brick: Symbols: Water feature: Depending on the feature the symbol normally takes the relative bird?s eye view of the feature, shape outline. Small water feature are normally symbolized as a circle alongside a center dot ( circle should be so that scale of feature). Symbols: Lighting: Lighting symbols are based on design of lighting, lights can be represented by filled squares, circles, triangles. Symbols in a series should be connected by a line so that represent circuit in addition so that power source. Triangles represent hanging light fixtures. Circles in addition so that squares normally represent fixed lights of the approximate shape of symbol. Symbols: Patios, Decks, Drives Concrete, Wood, Brick in addition so that Stone Irrigation Symbols: Irrigation Symbols are normally a universal system, some symbols may differ based on designer or design program. Check out the site below so that see a auto – cad system?s symbols. Softwarerepublic Miscellaneous Symbols North Arrow: Scale: ¬? = 1? Scale is located in title box Title Box: Holds all vendor /client in addition so that drawing information. Legal in addition so that binding.

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A Mathematical Model of Motion 5.1 Graphing Motion in One Dimension Parts of a

A Mathematical Model of Motion  5.1 Graphing Motion in One Dimension  Parts of a www.phwiki.com

A Mathematical Model of Motion CHAPTER 5 PHYSICS 5.1 Graphing Motion in One Dimension Interpret graphs of position versus time in consideration of a moving object so that determine the velocity of the object Describe in words the information presented in graphs in addition so that draw graphs from descriptions of motion Write equations that describe the position of an object moving at constant velocity Parts of a Graph X-axis Y-axis All axes must be labeled alongside appropriate units, in addition so that values. 5.1 Position vs. Time The x-axis is always ?time? The y-axis is always ?position? The slope of the line indicates the velocity of the object. Slope = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) d1-d0/t1-t0 ?d/?t Uniform Motion Uniform motion is defined as equal displacements occurring during successive equal time periods (sometimes called constant velocity) Straight lines on position-time graphs mean uniform motion. Given below is a diagram of aÿball rolling along a table. Strobe pictures reveal the position of the object at regular intervals of time, in this case, once each 0.1 seconds. Notice that the ball covers an equal distance between flashes. Let’s assume this distance equals 20 cm in addition so that display the ball’s behavior on a graph plotting its x-position versus time. The slope of this line would equal 20 cm divided by 0.1 sec or 200 cm/sec. This represents the ball’s average velocity as it moves across the table. Since the ball is moving in a positive direction its velocity is positive. That is, the ball’s velocity is a vector quantity possessing both magnitude (200 cm/sec) in addition so that direction (positive). Steepness of slope on Position-Time graph Slope is related so that velocity Steep slope = higher velocity Shallow slope = less velocity Different Position. Vs. Time graphs Constant positive velocity (zero acceleration) Constant negative velocity (zero acceleration) Increasing positive velocity (positive acceleration) Decreasing negative velocity (positive acceleration) Uniform Motion Accelerated Motion Different Position. Vs. Time Changing slope means changing velocity!!!!!! Decreasing negative slope = Increasing negative slope = A Starts at home (origin) in addition so that goes forward slowly B Not moving (position remains constant as time progresses) C Turns around in addition so that goes in the other direction quickly, passing up home During which intervals wasÿhe traveling in a positive direction During which intervalsÿwas he traveling in a negative direction During which intervalÿwas he resting in a negative location During which intervalÿwas he resting in a positive location During which two intervals did he travel at the same speed A) 0 so that 2 sec B) 2 so that 5 sec C) 5 so that 6 sec D)6 so that 7 sec E) 7 so that 9 sec F)9 so that 11 sec Graphing w/ Acceleration x A Start from rest south of home; increase speed gradually B Pass home; gradually slow so that a stop (still moving north) C Turn around; gradually speed back up again heading south D Continue heading south; gradually slow so that a stop near the starting point You try it . Using the Position-time graph given so that you, write a one or two paragraph ?story? that describes the motion illustrated. You need so that describe the specific motion in consideration of each of the steps (a-f) You will be graded upon your ability so that correctly describe the motion in consideration of each step. Tangent Lines t x On a position vs. time graph: Increasing & Decreasing Increasing Decreasing On a position vs. time graph: Increasing means moving forward (positive direction). Decreasing means moving backwards (negative direction). Concavity On a position vs. time graph: Concave up means positive acceleration. Concave down means negative acceleration. Special Points P Q R S 5.2 Graphing Velocity in One Dimension Determine, from a graph of velocity versus time, the velocity of an object at a specific time Interpret a v-t graph so that find the time at which an object has a specific velocity Calculate the displacement of an object from the area under a v-t graph 5.2 Velocity vs. Time X-axis is the ?time? Y-axis is the ?velocity? Slope of the line = the acceleration Different Velocity-time graphs Different Velocity-time graphs Velocity vs. Time Horizontal lines = constant velocity Sloped line = changing velocity Steeper = greater change in velocity per second Negative slope = deceleration Acceleration vs. Time Time is on the x-axis Acceleration is on the y-axis Shows how acceleration changes over a period of time. Often a horizontal line. All 3 Graphs v t a t Real life a t v t Note how the v graph is pointy in addition so that the a graph skips. In real life, the blue points would be smooth curves in addition so that the orange segments would be connected. In our class, however, we?ll only deal alongside constant acceleration. Constant Rightward Velocity Constant Leftward Velocity Constant Rightward Acceleration Constant Leftward Acceleration Leftward Velocity alongside Rightward Acceleration Graph Practice Try making all three graphs in consideration of the following scenario: 1. Newberry starts out north of home. At time zero he?s driving a cement mixer south very fast at a constant speed. 2. He accidentally runs over an innocent moose crossing the road, so he slows so that a stop so that check on the poor moose. 3. He pauses in consideration of a while until he determines the moose is squashed flat in addition so that deader than a doornail. 4. Fleeing the scene of the crime, Newberry takes off again in the same direction, speeding up quickly. 5. When his conscience gets the better of him, he slows, turns around, in addition so that returns so that the crash site. Area Underneath v-t Graph If you calculate the area underneath a v-t graph, you would multiply height X width. Because height is actually velocity in addition so that width is actually time, area underneath the graph is equal so that Velocity X time or Vút Remember that Velocity = ?d ?t Rearranging, we get ?d = velocity X ?t So .the area underneath a velocity-time graph is equal so that the displacement during that time period. Area Note that, here, the areas are about equal, so even though a significant distance may have been covered, the displacement is about zero, meaning the stopping point was near the starting point. The position graph shows this as well. Velocity vs. Time The area under a velocity time graph indicates the displacement during that time period. Remember that the slope of the line indicates the acceleration. The smaller the time units the more ?instantaneous? is the acceleration at that particular time. If velocity is not uniform, or is changing, the acceleration will be changing, in addition so that cannot be determined ? in consideration of an instant?, so you can only find average acceleration 5.3 Acceleration Determine from the curves on a velocity-time graph both the constant in addition so that instantaneous acceleration Determine the sign of acceleration using a v-t graph in addition so that a motion diagram Calculate the velocity in addition so that the displacement of an object undergoing constant acceleration 5.3 Acceleration Like speed or velocity, acceleration is a rate of change, defined as the rate of change of velocity Average Acceleration = change in velocity Elapsed time Units of acceleration Rearrangement of the equation Finally This equation is so that be used so that find (final) velocity of an accelerating object. You can use it if there is or is not a beginning velocity Displacement under Constant Acceleration Remember that displacement under constant velocity was alongside acceleration, there is no one single instantaneous v so that use, but we could use an average velocity of an accelerating object. ?d = vt or d1 = d0 + vt Average velocity of an accelerating object V = « (v0 + v1) Average velocity of an accelerating object would simply be « of sum of beginning in addition so that ending velocities So . Key equation Some other equations 2 This equation is so that be used so that find final position when there is an initial velocity, but velocity at time t1 is not known. If no time is known, use this so that find final position . 2 2 Finding final velocity if no time is known 2 2 The equations of importance 2 2 2 2 2 Practical Application Velocity/Position/Time equations Calculation of arrival times/schedules of aircraft/trains (including vectors) GPS technology (arrival time of signal/distance so that satellite) Military targeting/delivery Calculation of Mass movement (glaciers/faults) Ultrasound (speed of sound) (babies/concrete/metals) Sonar (Sound Navigation in addition so that Ranging) Auto accident reconstruction Explosives (rate of burn/expansion rates/timing alongside det. cord) 5.4 Free Fall Recognize the meaning of the acceleration due so that gravity Define the magnitude of the acceleration due so that gravity as a positive quantity in addition so that determine the sign of the acceleration relative so that the chosen coordinate system Use the motion equations so that solve problems involving freely falling objects Freefall Defined as the motion of an object if the only force acting on it is gravity. No friction, no air resistance, no drag Acceleration Due so that Gravity Galileo Galilei recognized about 400 years ago that, so that understand the motion of falling objects, the effects of air or water would have so that be ignored. As a result, we will investigate falling, but only as a result of one force, gravity. Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 Galileo?s Ramps Because gravity causes objects so that move very fast, in addition so that because the time-keepers available so that Galileo were limited, Galileo used ramps alongside moveable bells so that ?slow down? falling objects in consideration of accurate timing. Galileo?s Ramps Galileo?s Ramps So that keep ?accurate? time, Galileo used a water clock. in consideration of the measurement of time, he employed a large vessel of water placed in an elevated position; so that the bottom of this vessel was soldered a pipe of small diameter giving a thin jet of water, which he collected in a small glass during the time of each descent. the water thus collected was weighed, after each descent, on a very accurate balance; the difference in addition so that ratios of these weights gave us the differences in addition so that ratios of the times. Displacements of Falling Objects Looking at his results, Galileo realized that a falling ( or rolling downhill) object would have displacements that increased as a function of the square of the time, or t2 Another way so that look at it, the velocity of an object increased as a function of the square of time, multiplied by some constant. Galileo also found that all objects, no matter what slope of ramp he rolled them down, in addition so that as long as the ramps were all the same height, would reach the bottom alongside the same velocity. Galileo?s Finding Galileo found that, neglecting friction, all freely falling objects have the same acceleration. Hippo & Ping Pong Ball In a vacuum, all bodies fall at the same rate. When there?s no air resistance, size in addition so that shape matter not! If a hippo in addition so that a ping pong ball were dropped from a helicopter in a vacuum (assuming the copter could fly without air), they?d land at the same time. Proving Galileo Correct Galileo could not produce a vacuum so that prove his ideas. That came later alongside the invention of a vacuum machine, in addition so that the demonstration alongside a guinea feather in addition so that gold coin dropped in a vacuum. Guinea Feather in addition so that Coin/NASA demonstrations Acceleration Due so that Gravity Galileo calculated that all freely falling objects accelerate at a rate of 9.8 m/s2 This value, as an acceleration, is known as g Acceleration Due so that Gravity Because this value is an acceleration value, it can be used so that calculate displacements or velocities using the acceleration equations learned earlier. Just substitute g in consideration of the a Example problem A brick is dropped from a high building. What is it?s velocity after 4.0 sec. How far does the brick fall during this time The Church?s opposition so that new thought Church leaders of the time held the same views as Aristotle, the great philosopher. Aristotle thought that objects of different mass would fall at different rates makes sense huh All objects have their ?natural position?. Rocks fall faster than feathers, so it only made sense (so that him) Galileo, in attempting so that convince church leaders that the ?natural position? view was incorrect, considered two rocks of different mass. Falling Rock Conundrum Galileo presented this in his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems(1632) as a discussion between Simplicio (as played by a church leader) in addition so that Salviati (as played by Galileo) Two rocks of different masses are dropped Massive rock falls faster Rocks continued Now consider the two rocks held together by a length of string. If the smaller rock were so that fall slower, it would impede the rate at which both rocks would fall. But the two rocks together would actually have more mass, in addition so that should therefore fall faster. A conundrum The previously held views could not have been correct. Galileo had data which proved Aristotle in addition so that the church wrong, but church leaders were hardly moved in their position that all objects have their ?correct position in the world? Furthermore, the use of Simplicio (or simpleton) as the head of the church in his dialog, was a direct insult so that the church leaders themselves.

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Northern British Columbia CA.

Customary Units of Capacity and Weight Customary Units of Capacity The most co

Customary Units of Capacity and Weight  Customary Units of Capacity  The most co www.phwiki.com

* Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight * Customary Units of Capacity The most commonly used customary units of capacity are the ounce, cup, pint, quart, in addition so that gallon. * Customary Units of Capacity 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 gallon = 128 ounces 1 quart = 2 pints 1 pint = 2 cups 1 cup = 8 ounces * Abbreviations in consideration of Customary Units of Capacity gallon = gal quart = qt pint = pt cup = c ounces = oz * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity gallon * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity gallon * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 gallon = 4 quarts gallon * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity quart quart quart quart 1 gallon = 4 quarts * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 quart = 2 pints * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gal = 8 pt pint pint pint pint pint pint pint pint * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 pint = 2 cups * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 pint = 2 cups 1 gal = 8 pt cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup cup 1 gal = 16 c * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 cup = 8 ounces * Relationship of Customary Units of Capacity 1 cup = 8 ounces 1 gal = 8 pt 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 8 oz. 1 gal = 16 c 1 gal = 128 oz. * Customary Units of Weight The most commonly used customary units of weight are ounce, pound, in addition so that ton. * Customary Units of Weight 1 ton = 2000 pounds 1 pound = 16 ounces * Abbreviations in consideration of Customary Units of Weight ton = T pound = lb ounce = oz * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 1 ton 2000 pounds * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 1 ton 2000 pounds * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 16 ounces 1 pound * Relationship of Customary Units of Weight 1 pound 16 ounces * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight So that change from a large customary unit of capacity or weight so that a small unit of capacity or weight ? use a bridge map. Think about equivalent units * as (just like) Relating factor * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 2 gallons = ____ quarts 1 gallon = 4 quarts 2 x 4 = 8 8 1 gallon 4 quarts 2 gallons ___quarts 8 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 4 Tons = ____ pounds 1 Ton = 2000 pounds 4 x 2000 = 8000 8000 1 Ton 2000 pounds 4 Tons _____pounds 8000 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 5 cups = ___ ounces 1 cup = 8 ounces 5 x 8 = 40 40 1 cup 8 ounces 5 cups _____ounces 40 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 8 pounds = ___ ounces 1 pound = 16 ounces 8 x 16 = 128 128 1 pound 16 ounces 8 pounds _____ounces 128 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 2 « Tons = ____ pounds 5000 1 Ton 2000 pounds 2 « Tons _____pounds 5000 1 Ton = 2000 pounds 2 x 2000 = 4000 « Ton = 1000 pounds +1000 = 5000 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight So that change from a small customary unit of capacity or weight so that a large unit of capacity or weight ? use a bridge map. Think about equivalent units * as (just like) Relating factor * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 24 quarts = ____ gallons 4 qt = 1 gal 24 ö 4 = 6 6 4 quarts 1 gallon 24 quarts ___gallons 6 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 64 ounces = ___ pounds 16 ounces = 1 pound 64 ö 16 = 4 4 16 ounces 1 pound 64 ounces ___pound 4 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 10 pints = ___ quarts 2 pints = 1 quart 10 ö 2 = 5 5 2 pints 1 quart 10 pints ___quarts 5 * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 500 pounds = ___ ton 1 ton = 2000 pounds 500 = 2000 2000 pounds 1 ton 500 pounds ___ton * Changing Customary Units of Capacity in addition so that Weight 32 cups = ___ gallons 16 cups = 1 gallon 32 ö 16 = 2 2 16 cups 1 gallon 32 cups ___gallons 2

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Western Ontario CA.

Units and Key Constants Important Constants for Air Useful Equivalents Thermo

Units and Key Constants  Important Constants for Air  Useful Equivalents  Thermo www.phwiki.com

* Units in addition so that Key Constants * Conventional Units Parameter English Units SI Units Distance Feet, Inches Meters, M Time Seconds Seconds, s Force Pounds (force), lbf 4.448 Newton, N Pressure psf, psi Pascal, Pa (1N/1m2) bar (105Pa) 1 ft H2O 2.989 kPa Mass Pounds (mass), lbm 0.4536 kilogram Energy Btu Joule, J Power 1 Hp 0.7457 kWatt * Equivalent Systems of Units * Important Constants in consideration of Air * Useful Equivalents * in consideration of Liquid Water : U.S. Standard Atmosphere – 1976 * Standard Atmosphere Stratosphere >65,000 ft 59 F Temperature Altitude 3.202 psia 14.696 psia Pressure 36,089 ft Altitude 36,089 ft * * * Thermodynamics Review * Thermodynamics Review Thermodynamic views microscopic: collection of particles in random motion. Equilibrium refers so that maximum state of disorder macroscopic: gas as a continuum. Equilibrium is evidenced by no gradients 0th Law of Thermo [thermodynamic definition of temperature]: When any two bodies are in thermal equilibrium alongside a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium alongside each other. Correspondingly, when two bodies are in thermal equilibrium alongside one another they are said so that be at the same temperature. * Thermodynamics Review 1st Law of Thermo [Conservation of energy]: Total work is same in all adiabatic processes between any two equilibrium states having same kinetic in addition so that potential energy. Introduces idea of stored or internal energy E dE = dQ – dW dW = Work done by system [+]=dWout= – pdV Some books have dE=dQ+dW [where dW is work done ON system] dQ = Heat added so that system [+]=dQin Heat in addition so that work are mutually convertible. Ratio of conversion is called mechanical equivalent of heat J = joule * Review of Thermodynamics Stored energy E components Internal energy (U), kinetic energy (mV2/2), potential energy, chemical energy Energy definitions Introduces e = internal energy = e(T, p) e = e(T) ? de = Cv(T) dT thermally perfect e = Cv T calorically perfect 2nd law of Thermo Introduces idea of entropy S Production of s must be positive Every natural system, if left undisturbed, will change spontaneously in addition so that approach a state of equilibrium or rest. The property associated alongside the capability of systems in consideration of change is called entropy. * Review of Thermodynamics Extensive variables ? depend on total mass of the system, e.g. M, E, S, V Intensive variables ? do not depend on total mass of the system, e.g. p, T, s, r (1/v) Equilibrium (state of maximum disorder) ? bodies that are at the same temperature are called in thermal equilibrium. Reversible ? process from one state so that another state during which the whole process is in equilibrium Irreversible ? all natural or spontaneous processes are irreversible, e.g. effects of viscosity, conduction, etc. * Thermodynamic Properties Primitive Derived * 1st Law of Thermodynamics in consideration of steady flow, defining: We can write: in addition so that * 1st Law of Thermodynamics Substituting back into 1st law: Height term often negligible (not in consideration of hydraulic machines) Defining total or stagnation enthalpy: The first law in consideration of open systems is: * Equation of State The relation between the thermodynamic properties of a pure substance is referred so that as the equation of state in consideration of that substance, i.e. F(p, v, T) = 0 Ideal (Perfect) Gas Intermolecular forces are neglected The ratio pV/T in limit as p ? 0 is known as the universal gas constant (R). p u /T ? R = 8.3143e3 At sufficiently low pressures, in consideration of all gases pu/T = R or Real gas: intermolecular forces are important * Real Gas * Real Gas * 1st & 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Gibbs Eqn. relates 2nd law properties so that 1st law properties: * Gibbs Equation Isentropic form of Gibbs equation: in addition so that using specific heat at constant pressure: * Thermally & Calorically Perfect Gas Also, in consideration of a thermally perfect gas Cp[T]: Calorically perfect gas – Constant Cp * Isentropic Flow in consideration of Isentropic Flow [if dQ=0, Adiabatic Gas Law]: Precise gas tables available in consideration of design work Thermally Perfect Gas good flows at moderate temperature. * Common Gases monatomic diatomic polyatomic * Important Constants in consideration of Air * Gibbs Equation Rewriting Gibbs Equation: * Gibbs Equation Rewriting Gibbs Equation: * Isobars are not parallel * Mollier in consideration of Static / Total States Ds Poin Poout V2/2 h02i h02 h01 We will soon see

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Ontario Institute of Technology CA.

Simple Harmonic Motion Do Now Damping and Resonance Damping and Resonance D

Simple Harmonic  Motion  Do Now  Damping and Resonance  Damping and Resonance  D www.phwiki.com

Simple Harmonic MotionDo Now5 min ? Explain why a pendulum oscillates using words in addition so that pictures. Work INDIVIDUALLY.5 min ? Share alongside your table partner add/make changes so that your answer if necessary. Vocab Review!What does the word oscillation mean back in addition so that forth movementWhen is oscillatory motion is called periodic motion If the motion repeatsIf the motion follows the same path in the same amount of timeWe refer so that these repeating units of periodic motion motion as The time it takes so that complete one cycle is called the cyclesperiod (T)Example:Earth?s rotation has a period of 24 hours, or 86,400 s. Simple Harmonic MotionPendulums in addition so that springs are special examples of motion that not only oscillatory in addition so that periodic, but also simple harmonic.Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion in which the force that brings the object back so that equilibrium is proportional so that the displacement of the object. e.g. greater displacement = greater force Restoring Force – CFUsIn which position(s) is the restoring force Of the pendulum greatest zero angled downward in addition so that towards the right In which position(s) is the restoring force of the spring greatest zero directed upwards A B C D E F GA, GDG, F, EGAB, C, D, E, F, GSprings can also be compressed! Any elastic (stretchable) material will act somewhat like a spring.Calculating restoring (net) forceIn pendulums Look at the diagram. What forces cancel out What is the net force In springs Fspring = kx where k is spring constant, x = displacementT in addition so that mgcos? cancel out we know because there is no a in that direction mgsin? We do: Calculating restoring (net) forceAn engineer measured the force required so that compress a spring. Based on the data, what is the spring constant Predict the force required so that compress the spring by 3.5 mm.k = 2 N/mm = 0.002 N/mF = 7 N Use the simulator!How do the spring constants of spring 1 in addition so that spring 2 compare Calculate the spring constant in consideration of spring 1.Calculate the spring constant in consideration of spring 3.Predict how far the spring will stretch alongside a 250 g weight.Determine the weight of each cylinder.Calculating periodIn pendulums In springs Period only depends on length & gravity Longer string = longer period Weaker gravity = longer period Period only depends on mass in addition so that spring constant. Higher mass = longer period Looser spring / smaller k = longer periodNOTE:Period is NOT affected by the amplitude of motion!Period CFUs ? Turn & TalkIf you stretch in addition so that release a slinky, you will notice that the amplitude of its motion decreases over time (why ). How does this decrease in amplitude affect the period of motion Will a grandfather clock run slower or faster if placed on the moon Why How does doubling the mass affect the period of a pendulum How does doubling the mass affect the period of a spring It doesn?t! Amplitude of motion does NOT affect period.The grandfather clock will run slow (have a longer period) because as acceleration due so that gravity decreases, the period increases.Doubling the mass has NO affect on the period of a pendulum.Doubling the mass of a spring increases the period by a factor of û2 Conservation of energyIn pendulums In springs Ideally, pendulums in addition so that springs both conserve energy. (Realistically, they lose energy over time due so that friction).In both cases, PE is maximum at maximum displacement. PE gradually converts so that KE, in addition so that reaches zero at the equilibrium point. KE shows the opposite trend ? it is maximum at equilibrium in addition so that reaches zero at maximum displacement.TEWe have a simple formula in consideration of the PE in a spring.PEspring = « kx2Conservation of energy CFUA in addition so that G have equal heights.D is equilibrium positionFill in the following table: Conservation of energy CFUA in addition so that G have equal heights.D is equilibrium positionFill in the following table: You Do Problems – 1) A spring stretches by 18 cm when a bag of potatoes weighing 56 N is suspended from its end.Determine the spring constant, kHow much EPE does the spring have when it is stretched this far Damping in addition so that ResonanceDamping is the decrease in amplitude of a wave.All real pendulums in addition so that springs have damping. Energy is lost due so that frictionAmplitude of motion becomes smaller, until it ceasesSome systems are designed so that heavily damped, such as shock absorbers on a carDamping mechanisms in the foundations of buildings in earthquake zonesHeavy damping Damping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingDamping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Damping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Shattering glass alongside your voice Damping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Shattering glass alongside your voiceShattering a kidney stone alongside ultrasoundTacoma ? Narrows BridgeDamping in addition so that ResonanceResonance is the increase of amplitude of oscillation of a system that occurs when an external force pushes the system at its natural frequency ? the frequency it would naturally oscillate at if hit once.Examples:Pushing a child on a swingVibration of the strings that differ by one or more octaves (in addition so that so that a lesser extent, other harmonic intervals) when a note is played on a stringed instrument.Shattering glass alongside your voiceShattering a kidney stone alongside ultrasoundTacoma ? Narrows Bridge animation

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Windsor CA.

Statistics & Data Analysis Class #1 Outline Professor Balkin?s Info What is S

Statistics & Data Analysis  Class #1 Outline  Professor Balkin?s Info  What is S www.phwiki.com

Statistics & Data Analysis Course Number B01.1305 Course Section 60 Meeting Time Monday 6-9:30 pm CLASS #1 Class #1 Outline Introduction so that the instructor Introduction so that the class Review of syllabus Introduction so that statistics Class Goals Types of data Graphical in addition so that numerical methods in consideration of univariate series Minitab Tutorial Professor Balkin?s Info Ph.D. in Business Administration, Penn State Masters in Statistics, Penn State Mathematics/Economics in addition so that Music, Lafayette College Employment Pfizer Inc. Management Science Group; Sept. 2001 ? current Ernst & Young Quantitative Economics in addition so that Statistics Group; June 1999 ? August 2001 What is Statistics STATISTICS: A body of principles in addition so that methods in consideration of extracting useful information from data, in consideration of assessing the reliability of that information, in consideration of measuring in addition so that managing risk, in addition so that in consideration of making decisions in the face of uncertainty. POPULATION: set of measurements corresponding so that the entire collection of units SAMPLE: set of measurements that are collected from a population OBJECTIVES: So that make inferences about a population from a sample, including the extent of uncertainty Design the data collection process so that facilitate drawing valid inferences Reasons in consideration of Sampling Typically due so that prohibitive cost of contacting millions of people or performing costly experiments Election polls query about 2,000 voters so that make inferences regarding how all voters cast their ballots Sometimes the sampling process is destructive Sampling wine quality Statistics in Everyday Life Monthly Unemployment Rates (BLS) Consumer Price Index Presidential Approval Rating Quality in addition so that Productivity Improvement Scientific Inquiry Training effectiveness Advertising impact Interesting Statistical Perspectives ?Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary in consideration of efficient citizenship as the ability so that read in addition so that write?. (H. G. Wells) ?There are three kinds of lies — Lies, damn lies, in addition so that statistics?. (Benjamin Disraeli) ?You?ve got so that know when so that hold ?em, know when so that fold ?em.? (Kenny Rogers, in The Gambler) ?The average U. S. household has 2.75 people in it.? (U. S. Census Bureau, 1980) ?4 out of 5 dentists surveyed recommended Trident Sugarless Gum in consideration of their patients who chew gum.? (Advertisement in consideration of Trident) Semester Overview Understanding data Intro so that descriptive statistics, interpreting data, in addition so that graphical methods Dealing alongside in addition so that quantifying uncertainty Random variables in addition so that probability Using samples so that make generalizations about populations Assessing whether a change in data is beyond random variation Modeling relationships in addition so that predicting Using sample data so that create models that give predictions in consideration of all values of a population Goals in consideration of this Class So that gain an understanding of descriptive statistics, probability, statistical inference, in addition so that regression analysis so that it may be applied so that your job So that be able so that identify when statistical procedures are required so that facilitate your business decision making So that be able so that identify both good in addition so that poor use of statistics in business Goals in consideration of Me So that teach you statistics in addition so that data analysis effectively So that improve my effectiveness as an instructor My Promise So that You I will not teach you anything in this class that is not regularly used in business in addition so that industry If you ask, ?Where is this used ? I will have a real example in consideration of you Types of Data Example: Data Types Business Horizons (1993) conducted a comprehensive survey of 800 CEOs who run the country’s largest global corporations. Some of the variables measured are given below. Classify them as quantitative or qualitative. State of birth Age Educational Level Tenure alongside Firm Total Compensation Area of Expertise Gender How Much Data CHAPTER 2 Summarizing Data about One Variable Introduction Unorganized mass of numbers is difficult so that interpret First task in understanding data is summarizing it Graphically Numerically Chapter Goals Distinguish between qualitative in addition so that quantitative variables Learn graphic representations of univariate data Learn numerical representations of univariate data Investigate data acquired over time Distribution of Values Distribution is essentially how many times each possible data values occur in a set of data. Methods in consideration of displaying distributions Qualitative data Frequency table Bar charts Quantitative data Histograms Stem-Leaf diagrams Boxplots Example: Qualitative Data Background: A question on a market research survey asked 17 respondents the size of their households Data: 1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,6 Frequency Table Example: Qualitative Data (cont.) Barchart: Plot of frequencies each category occurs in the data set Example: Quantitative Data Background: Forbes magazine published data on the best small firms in 1993. These were firms alongside annual sales of more than five in addition so that less than $350 million. Firms were ranked by five-year average return on investment. The data are the annual salary of the chief executive officer in consideration of the first 60 ranked firms. Data (in thousands): 145 621 262 208 362 424 339 736 291 58 498 643 390 332 750 368 659 234 396 300 343 536 543 217 298 1103 406 254 862 204 206 250 21 298 350 800 726 370 536 291 808 543 149 350 242 198 213 296 317 482 155 802 200 282 573 388 250 396 572 Example: Quantitative Data (cont.) Histograms are constructed in the same way as bar charts except: User must create classes so that count frequencies Bars are adjacent instead of separated alongside space Example: Quantitative Data (cont.) Example: Quantitative Data (cont.) Questions: What is the typical value of CEO salary How much variability is there around this value What is the general shape of the data Histogram characteristics: Central tendency Variability Skewness Modality Outliers Skewnesss Modality Outliers Example: Stem-Leaf Diagram Background: Telecom company wants so that analyze the time so that complete new service orders measured in hours Data: 42 21 46 69 87 29 34 59 81 97 64 60 87 81 69 77 75 47 73 82 91 74 70 65 86 87 67 69 49 57 55 68 74 66 81 90 75 82 37 94 Diagram: 2 19 3 47 4 2679 5 579 6 045678999 7 0344557 8 111226777 9 0147 Measures of Central Tendency Mode: Value or category that occurs most frequently Median: Middle value when the data are sorted Mean: Sum of measurements divided by the number of measurements Example: Mode Background: A question on a market research survey asked 17 respondents the size of their households Data: 1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,6 Frequency Table Mode Example: Median Background: A question on a market research survey asked 17 respondents the size of their households Data: 1,1,1,2,2,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,6 Since the n=17 observations, Median is the (n+1)/2 = 9th observation Median Example: Mean Background: Cable company wants so that know how long an installer spends at each stop. One employee performed five installations in one day in addition so that recorded how many minutes she was at each location. Data: 45, 23, 36, 29, 52 Mean = (45+23+36+29+52) / 5 = 37 minutes Example: Back so that the CEO?s Salaries Mean = 404.1695 Median = 350 WHY THE DIFFERENCE Measures of Variation A primary reason in consideration of using statistics is due so that variability If there was no variability, we would not nee statistics Examples: Worker productivity Stock market Promotional expenditures Measures Standard deviation: variation around the mean Range: distance between smallest in addition so that largest observations Standard Deviation Standard Deviation: summarizes how far away from the mean the data value typically are. Calculation Find the deviations by subtracting the mean from each data value Square these deviations, add them up, in addition so that divide by n-1 Take the square root of this number Example: Standard Deviation Background: Your firm spends $19 Million per year on advertising, in addition so that management is wondering if that figure is appropriate. Other firms in your industry have a mean advertising expenditure of $22.3 Million per year. Example: Standard Deviation (cont.) Example: Standard Deviation (cont.) Difference from peer group average is $3.3 Million This difference is smaller than the industry standard deviation of $9.18 Million Conclusion: You advertising budget, while slightly below the industry average, is typical compared alongside your industry peers Empirical Rule If the histogram in consideration of a given sample is unimodal in addition so that symmetric (mound-shaped), then the following rule-of-thumb may be applied: Let represent the sample mean in addition so that s the sample standard deviation. Then Example: Stock Market Volatility Description: Stock market returns are supposed so that be unpredictable. Let?s see if the empirical rule holds true Data: S&P-500 Daily returns; Jan 01, 1998 ? May 17, 2002 Mean = 0.0002 St. Dev. = 0.0128 72.8% (95.3%) of the returns fall between the sample mean plus in addition so that minus one (two) st.dev. Inter-Quartile Range Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) provides an alternative approach so that measuring variability Computation: Sort the data in addition so that find the median Divide the data into top in addition so that bottom halves Find the median of both halves. These are the 25th in addition so that 75th percentiles IQR = 75th percentile ? 25th percentile Outlier Measure ? Any value outside the inner fences is an outlier candidate Lower inner fence = 25th percentile ? 1.5 IQR Upper inner fence = 75th percentile + 1.5 IQR Box-Plot ? S&P-500 Example Data: S&P-500 Daily returns; Jan 01, 1998 ? May 17, 2002 Median 75th percentile 25th percentile Upper inner fence Lower inner fence Outliers Minitab Tutorial Why Use Minitab Goal of course is so that learn statistical concepts Most statistical analyses are performed using computers Each company may use a different statistical package YES Minitab is used in business! Typically in quality control in addition so that design of experiments EXCEL has very limited statistical functionality in addition so that is considerably more difficult so that use than Minitab There are many stat packages (SAS, SPSS, Systat, Splus, R, Statistica, Mathematica, etc.) Minitab is the easiest program so that use right away Excellent Help facilities Statistical glossary built-in Minitab Tutorial ? Case Study 1 A hotel kept records over time of the reasons why guest requested room changes. The frequencies were as follows Room not clean 2 Plumbing not working 1 Wrong type of bed 13 Noisy location 4 Wanted nonsmoking 18 Didn?t like view 1 Not properly equipped 8 Other 6 Minitab Tutorial ? Case Study 2 Exercise 2.8 in book Produce graphics Produce descriptive statistics Minitab Tutorial ? Case Study 3 Diversification Data: S&P-500 in addition so that IBM daily returns from Jan 01, 1998 through May 17, 2002 Next Time Probability in addition so that Probability Distributions

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Ottawa CA.

Importance of Demographics 2014Presentation so that CANEConning March 23, 2015Pu

Importance of Demographics 2014Presentation so that CANEConning March 23, 2015Pu www.phwiki.com

Importance of Demographics 2014Presentation so that CANEConning March 23, 2015Publications in addition so that ServicesExperience/ResourcesConning Insurance Research17 professionals, including marketingDedicated property?casualty in addition so that life/health-annuity groupsBackgrounds include actuarial, strategic planning, equity research, underwriting, investment bankingAverage experience of over 20 yearsConning LibraryOver 200 publications annually, 2,000+ in archiveSubscription service?Clients include insurers, professional services firms, investor communityAlso provide proprietary research: strategic planning, business development, peer analysesIn-depth insurance expertise supports asset management business in addition so that is key differentiator in consideration of Conning2THE HARTFORD AT A GLANCECOMPANYFounded: 1810Employees: Approximately 17,500Headquarters: Hartford, Conn2013 Revenues: $26.2BShareholder equity: $18.9BMARKET RANKINGSNo. 4 commercial multi-peril carrier, based on direct written premiumsNo. 2 workers? compensation insurer, based on direct written premiumsNo. 7 in P&C commercial insuranceNo. 11 in total personal lines (4th largest direct player)No. 3 in fully insured disability in forcenotable:The Hartford serves more than one million small businesses.The Hartford is a founding partner of U.S. Paralympics.The Hartford?s trademark logo echoes the majestic stag depicted in Sir Edwin Landseer?s 1851 painting Monarch of the Glen. A hart fording a stream is a natural symbol in consideration of a company named The Hartford.The Hartford provided insurance in consideration of the only home Abraham Lincoln ever owned3Source: www,Hartford, IR Section Why Do Demographics Matter The Changing Consumer: Long-Term in addition so that Short-TermPopulation GrowthGeographic ShiftsChanging Age ProfileIncreasing Racial/Ethnic DiversitySocioeconomic ChangesCurrent Market Trends: Consumer BehaviorOwnershipMigrationDrivingNew Approaches in consideration of Market SegmentsHNW, NSA, Senior, HispanicNew Approaches in consideration of Customer Contact4The Changing insurance Consumer5Five Critical Trends Reshaping Consumer Markets6 Tomorrow?s Consumer Market Will Not Look Like Today?sSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Harvard University Joint Center in consideration of Housing Studies, Bureau of Labor StatisticsU.S. Population Characteristics7Population Growth Has Been an Important Growth DriverU.S. Population by Decade (Ending)(in millions)Source: U.S. Census Bureau8U.S. Population Growth by Decade (Ending)Population Growth Will Not Be Uniform Across the StatesSource: U.S. Census Bureau0%-1%1%-3%3%-4%4%-5%5%9State Population Growth 2010-2014 Recent Migration Patterns Support Longer-Term TrendsSource: U.S. Census Bureau10-0.1% so that -0.3%0.0% so that 0.1%0.2%0.3% so that 0.4%<= -0.4%>= 0.5%Migration Magnets, 2011-2012Birth Rates Are Also Highly Variable Across the StatesBirths per 1,000 womenSource: National Center in consideration of Health Statistics11State Birth Rate, 2013

To Write this Article, I had done research in University of Winnipeg CA.