UJTL – JCA Mapping & Readiness given so that WJTSC 09-2 24-28 August 2009 Steve

UJTL - JCA Mapping & Readiness given so that WJTSC 09-2 24-28 August 2009 Steve www.phwiki.com

UJTL – JCA Mapping & Readiness given so that WJTSC 09-2 24-28 August 2009 Steve Brown Joint Staff J-7, JFDID JCA WG Agenda Time Topic/Subject Briefer 1300 ? 1310 Welcome Remarks LtCol Larry Miller 1310 ? 1330 JCA Status Update Brief LtCol Larry Miller Mr. Steve Brown 1330 ? 1420 UJTL / JCA Mapping, Staffing & JCAMS Staffing Tool Mr. Steve Brown 1430 ? 1530 UJTL / JCA Mapping & Readiness Mr. Steve Brown 1530 ? 1600 Questions LtCol Larry Miller Mr. Steve Brown JCA?s Role in Readiness Reporting Readiness Reporting JCAs ? The Basis in consideration of Further Refinement & Integration Problem is disconnect between MET-based Readiness Reporting in addition so that Capability-based requirements process Proposal is not intended so that replace MET-based assessments at the COCOMs, but rather change the overall aggregation into the JCA bins, allowing other communities so that understand the readiness issue JCA are being incorporated into the C2 system (APEX) in addition so that the GFM system (JCRM) Strategy- so that -task analysis will be possible alongside UJTL so that JCA mapping, but current way of aggregating sub-optimizes feedback loop through Portfolio Managers since ?mission-like tasks? don?t distinguish function that are deficient Capability Role in Strategy- so that -Task Building Partnerships Shape Partner w/ Gov & Inst Cooperative Security Strengthen US Security Posture in Region US Legitimacy is Improved in Region Units / Platforms Units / Platforms Doctrinal & Conceptual Sources Organization of GDF 1. Secretary?s Memo Continue transformation, new efforts in consideration of long-term force development 2. Executive Summary 3. Fiscal Environment Fiscal trends, initial guidance so that begin moving supplemental needs so that base budget 4. Strategic Capability Priorities Overarching guidance in addition so that assumptions so that size in addition so that shape the future force, includes the Department?s force planning construct 5. Guidance Across Capability Portfolios Begins a process so that look at tradeoffs across portfolios 6. Guidance Within Capability Portfolios Establishes priorities in addition so that tradeoffs within each portfolio 7. Analytic Tasks (directed studies, assessments) Two categories: inform POM 10, prepare in consideration of QDR 8. Annexes Global Posture, Joint Experimentation, Science & Technology Priorities Capability Portfolios Force Application Battlespace Awareness Command & Control Net-Centric Force Support Protection Building Partnerships Logistics Corporate Management & Support JMET Readiness ? All COCOMs Combating WMD UJTL in addition so that Missions ?UJTL tasks should detail organizational activities not operations. The UJTL focuses on joint tasks that enable execution of a joint capability required in consideration of a military operation in addition so that avoids including terms that refer so that more global activities such as operations. A military operation, like conducting a blockade or conducting an amphibious assault, is broader than a task in addition so that requires the application of many capabilities in time, space, in addition so that purpose, in addition so that therefore should not be included in the task list.? – UJTL Development Process (pg. G-4 of CJCSM 3500.04D) (U) ST 9 Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Activities in Theater Task Description: so that plan, execute, integrate, in addition so that coordinate CWMD activities at the theater level so that dissuade, deter, in addition so that defeat those that seek so that harm the United States, its Armed Forces, allies, coalition partners, in addition so that interests through WMD use or threat of use. (CJCSI 3110.16A, CJCSI 3125.01A, CJCSI 3214.01C, CJCSI 3500.01D, CJCSI 3520.02A, CJCSI 6731.01B, CJCSM 3122.01A, CJCSM 3122.03C, DODD 2060.02, DODI 2000.18, JP 2-0, JP 2-01, JP 3-0, JP 3-01, JP 3-05, JP 3-07, JP 3-08, JP 3-10, JP 3-11, JP 3-40, JP 3-41, JP 3-68, JP 4-01.5, JP 5-0, JP 6-0, NMS-CWMD) Note: Activities include all actions taken so that : defeat in addition so that deter WMD use in addition so that subsequent use; protect, respond, in addition so that recover from WMD use; defend, dissuade, or deny WMD proliferation; in addition so that so that reduce, destroy, or reverse WMD possession. Theater CWMD activities should be integrated alongside the activities of other USG departments/agencies in addition so that allies in addition so that partners across the spectrum of the 8 CWMD mission areas (offensive operations, elimination, interdiction, active defense, passive defense, WMD CM, security cooperation in addition so that partner activities, in addition so that threat reduction cooperation). What?s Wrong alongside Mission-Type Tasks Same Task Different Problem Different Solution Different Portfolio COCOM METL by JCA CP CM Interdiction & Elimination Detect & Track Active Defense Mission Set Reporting Mission Assessments RA – 1 Mission Essential Task SN 3.8 Conduct Special Operations (SO) Activities Task Description: so that conduct full-spectrum special operations activities so that support or achieve national strategic objectives Mission Set Reporting Mission Assessments RA – 1 Joint Capability Area CWMD NP CP CM FS Global Force Mgmt (Presence), Force Preparation (Org, Train, Exer), BA ISR Collection, Analysis FA Log C2 Plan, Coordinate/Synchronize, NC Prot BP Strategic Communications (IO), CMS FS BA ISR Collection, Analysis FA Engage (Counter-air, Elimination), Maneuver (Blockade, Demo, Show-of-force) Log Harden Key Infrastructure, C2 Plan, Assess, Coordinate/Synchronize, Direct NC Prot Prevent (Active Defense) BP Strategic Communications (IO), Shape, (Secur Assist, Pol-Mil, DTRA) CMS FS Health Readiness BA ISR Collection, Analysis FA Log Deployment & Distribution (Transport, Sustain (Mitigate) C2 Coordinate/Synchronize, Warning & Reporting NC Prot Consequence Mgmt BP Strategic Communications (IO), CMS Possible CWMD Readiness Reporting Template FS Global Force Mgmt (Presence), Force Preparation (Org, Train, Exer), BA ISR Collection, Analysis C2 Plan, Coordinate/Synchronize, BP Strategic Communications (IO), Shape (Mil- so that -Mil, Secur Assist, Assist IA) ST 8.3.1 Arrange Stationing in consideration of US Forces SN 9.3.3.2 – Provide Support so that Defeat Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN), Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), in addition so that Toxic Industrial Materials (TIM) Threats ST 9.1 – Develop Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Programs in Theater 2.1.2.4.5 Chemical / Biological Materials Measurements in addition so that Signatures Collection 2.1.2.4.6 Nuclear Radiation Measurements in addition so that Signatures Collection 2.1.4.1 Intelligence, Surveillance in addition so that Reconnaissance Analysis Integration ST 7.1.5 Determine Theater Warfighting Needs, Solutions, in addition so that Concepts ST 4.2.4 Establish in addition so that Coordinate Training of Joint in addition so that Combined Forces 1.1.2 Force Configuration 1.2.1 Training 1.2.2 Exercising 1.1.3 Global Posture Execution ST 9.3 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Security Cooperation in addition so that Partner Activities in Theater Non-Proliferation BA ISR Collection, Analysis FA Engage (Counter-air, Elimination), Maneuver (Blockade, Demo, Show-of-force) Log Harden Key Infrastructure, C2 Plan, Assess, Coordinate/Synchronize, Direct Prot Prevent (Active Defense) Prevent – BP Strategic Communications (IO), Shape, (Secur Assist, Pol-Mil, DTRA) CMS SN 9.3.4 – Synchronize Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD)/Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Passive Defense Programs SN 9.3.1 – Synchronize Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)/Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Active Defense Programs OP 7.5 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Active Defense Operations in Joint Operations Area (JOA) 2.1.2.4.5 Chemical / Biological Materials Measurements in addition so that Signatures Collection 2.1.2.4.6 Nuclear Radiation Measurements in addition so that Signatures Collection 2.1.4.1 Intelligence, Surveillance in addition so that Reconnaissance Analysis Integration Counterproliferation FS Health Readiness BA ISR Collection, Analysis FA Log Deployment & Distribution (Transport, Sustain (Mitigate) C2 Coordinate/Synchronize, Warning & Reporting NC Prot Consequence Mgmt BP Strategic Communications (IO), SN 9.4 – Synchronize Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Consequence Management (CM) Programs SN 9.4.11 – Support Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)/Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Consequence Management (CM) SN 9.4.3 – Coordinate Disposition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Contaminated Materials, Samples, Residues, Equipment, Animal Remains, in addition so that Waste OP 7.9.1 – Support Domestic Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)/Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Consequence Management (CM) Operations in Joint Operations Area (JOA) OP 7.9.2 – Conduct Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)/Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Foreign Consequence Management (FCM) Operations in Joint Operations Area (JOA) TA 7 – Operate in a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, in addition so that High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE) Environment TA 7.1 – Conduct Mission Operations in a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, in addition so that High-Yield Explosives (CBRNE) Environment Consequence Management Cooperative Security Capabilities – Aligned so that JCAs X Battlespace Awareness Command & Control Force Application Building Partnerships Force Support Net-Centric Corporate Mgmt & Spt Protection Logistics Operational Templates Core Competencies Mil Contribution so that Cooperative Security Homeland Defense & Civil Support Mil Spt so that SSTRO Deterrence Operations Major Combat Operations Core Mission / JOC Irregular Warfare COCOM Units Components COCOM Report Aggregated by JCA CJA Units The Feedback Loop Using JCAs GDF Components COCOMs QDR IPLs Questions The New Strategic Guidance Hierarchy QDR Organization of GDF 1. Secretary?s Memo Continue transformation, new efforts in consideration of long-term force development 2. Executive Summary 3. Fiscal Environment Fiscal trends, initial guidance so that begin moving supplemental needs so that base budget 4. Strategic Capability Priorities Overarching guidance in addition so that assumptions so that size in addition so that shape the future force, includes the Department?s force planning construct 5. Guidance Across Capability Portfolios Begins a process so that look at tradeoffs across portfolios 6. Guidance Within Capability Portfolios Establishes priorities in addition so that tradeoffs within each portfolio 7. Analytic Tasks (directed studies, assessments) Two categories: inform POM 10, prepare in consideration of QDR 8. Annexes Global Posture, Joint Experimentation, Science & Technology Priorities Capability Portfolios Force Application Battlespace Awareness Command & Control Net-Centric Force Support Protection Building Partnerships Logistics Corporate Management & Support Capability Portfolio Management February 7, 2008 Deputy Secretary of Defense Memorandum Capability Portfolios Force Application Battlespace Awareness Command & Control Net-Centric Force Support Protection Building Partnerships Logistics Corporate Management & Support Civilian in addition so that Military leads in consideration of each CPM 4 original ?test cases? now formalized Experiment w/ remaining 5 portfolios Nine portfolios aligned so that Joint Capability Area taxonomy UJTL in addition so that Operations ?UJTL tasks should detail organizational activities not operations. The UJTL focuses on joint tasks that enable execution of a joint capability required in consideration of a military operation in addition so that avoids including terms that refer so that more global activities such as operations. A military operation, like conducting a blockade or conducting an amphibious assault, is broader than a task in addition so that requires the application of many capabilities in time, space, in addition so that purpose, in addition so that therefore should not be included in the task list.? – UJTL Development Process (pg. G-4 of CJCSM 3500.04D) ST 9.7 Conduct Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Offensive Operations in Theater Task Description: so that plan, execute, coordinate, in addition so that integrate WMD offensive operations in theater joint operation plans through lethal or nonlethal operations so that deter, neutralize, or defeat an adversary’s WMD threat or subsequent use. (CJCSM 3122.01A, CJCSM 3122.03C, JP 2-0, JP 2-01, JP 3-0, JP 3-10, JP 3-11, JP 3-16, JP 3-29, JP 3-33, JP 3-40, JP 3-41, JP 3-57, JP 5-0) Note: This task encompasses the integration in addition so that coordination of detection, identification, disruption, in addition so that /or destruction of an adversary’s WMD assets, means of delivery, support facilities, in addition so that other high value targets so that create desired effects. Task also includes incorporating specialized capabilities in addition so that operational concepts, including the capability so that locate, seize, secure, render safe, recapture, recover, in addition so that /or destroy lost or stolen WMD; the capability so that defeat hard in addition so that deeply buried targets; the capability so that defeat or neutralize the chemical or biological agent in addition so that associated weapons in addition so that equipment alongside little so that no collateral effect; the capability so that deter in addition so that defeat a WMD threat or subsequent use of WMD; in addition so that the capacity so that find, fix, track, target, engage, in addition so that assess attacks against WMD targets. Task may also be geared so that disrupt proliferation pathway vulnerabilities. Match the means (lethal or non-lethal), conduct the attack, in addition so that assess damages so that include any consequences from collateral damage. Broadly Written Tasks – CWMD SN 9 – Manage Strategic Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear [CBRN]) Programs SN 9.1 – Enable Strategic Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Programs SN 9.1.7 – Support Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Forensics in addition so that Attribution SN 9.1.9 – Support Chemical Forensics in addition so that Attribution URGENT PROPOSED TASK SN 9.2.3 – Synchronize Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Interdiction Programs SN 9.3 – Synchronize Counterproliferation (CP) Programs SN 9.3.3 – Synchronize Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Offensive Operations Programs SN 9.3.3.1- Coordinate Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Counterforce Operations SN 9.4.1 – Assess Resources in addition so that Logistics in consideration of Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Consequence Management (CM) SN 9.4.2 – Coordinate Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Protection Requirements SN 9.5 – Conduct Arms Control Support Activities ST 9 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Activities in Theater ST 9.2 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD)/Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Threat Reduction Programs in Theater ST 9.4 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Interdiction in Theater ST 9.5 – Conduct Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Active Defense in Theater ST 9.6 – Conduct Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Elimination in Theater ST 9.7 – Conduct Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Offensive Operations in Theater ST 9.8 – Conduct Chemical, Biological, Radiological, in addition so that Nuclear (CBRN) Passive Defense in Theater OP 7 – Execute Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Operations in Joint Operation Area (JOA) OP 7.1 – Enable Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Operations in Joint Operations Area (JOA) OP 7.6 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Elimination Operations in Joint Operations Area (JOA) OP 7.7 – Conduct Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) Offensive Operations in Joint Operations Area (JOA) Readiness Reporting UJTL in addition so that Operations (U) ST 2 – Conduct Theater Intelligence Operations Task Description: so that execute the joint intelligence process so that provide the intelligence required in consideration of planning, developing, executing, in addition so that assessing theater strategy, campaigns, major operations in addition so that command actions. Employ collaborative in addition so that federated intelligence architecture so that integrate Department of Defense, national intelligence community, interagency, ( in addition so that when authorized intergovernmental) multinational, in addition so that theater intelligence capabilities so that sustain continuous operations. Analyze all relevant aspects of the operational environment so that identify adversarial threats, determine adversary capabilities, in addition so that estimate adversary intentions. Fuse national in addition so that theater intelligence into all-source estimates in addition so that assessments in addition so that provide a single, coordinated intelligence picture. Provide theater strategic indications in addition so that warning of adversary activities so that prevent strategic surprise. Synchronize in addition so that integrate intelligence alongside theater plans, operations, targeting, in addition so that assessments based on the commander’s intelligence requirements, decision points, in addition so that desired effects. (JP 2-0, JP 2-01, JP 2-01.2, JP 2-01.3, JP 2-03, JP 3-0, JP 3-09, JP 3-13, JP 3-13.3, JP 3-33, JP 3-60, JP 5-0, JP 6-0) ? DAWG approved the new JCAs in consideration of immediate use as the Department?s capability management language in addition so that framework ? Implementing JCAs as the Common Language JCRM JCIDS FCBs LPTR LOEs IPLs CPMs JP 1-0 SWarFs JOCs Planning Shortfalls / Gaps Concept Development & Experimentation Readiness QDR 01 QRM POM 10 GDF Guidance QDR 06 PEs PPBES Acquisition Requirements Global Force Management DoDAF 2.0 Quadrennial Roles & Missions National Defense Strategy National Military Strategy JCAs Tier 2 Tier 3 Capabilities Deploy & Distribute Core Mission Areas Supply of Capabilities Strategy Based Demand Functions (DoDD 5100.1) Roles (Title 10) Competencies Ground Lift ARMY Ground Lift 6.6.1.2.9 NAVY Strat Sealift 6.6.2.2.9 Sea Lift USAF Air Transport 6.6.3.2.6 Rapid Global Mobility Air Lift USMC Expeditionary Lift Amphib Ops 6.6.2.2.3.1 Core Supporting Sea Lift Tactical Air Lift Air Lift Air Refueling Move the Force Strategically Move the Force Operationally Move the Force Tier 1 Tier 4 HD/CS Irregular Warfare Deterrence MCO Mil Spt so that SSTRO Mil Contrib so that Coop Security Broad so that Specific Responsibilities Core Competencies Functional Lens JOCs in addition so that JCAs are part of DOD?s Existing planning framework JOCs Strategy Strategic End States

To Write this Article, I had done research in Universit?? Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen DZ.

Work – Work (W) is defined as a force moved over a distance – Only the component

Work - Work (W) is defined as a force moved over a distance - Only the component www.phwiki.com

Work – Work (W) is defined as a force moved over a distance – Only the component of the force in the direction of motion does work q Units: N m The cart (above) is pulled at constant speed alongside a force of 20N over a distance of 15m. Determine the work done by the applied force if the handle is pulled a) in a straight line in addition so that b) at an angle of 530 , a) F = 20 N Dd = 15 m W = FH D d W = (20N)(15m) W = 300 Nm 3 4 5 530 370 b) FH / F = 3 / 5 FH = (3 / 5) F = (3 / 5) (20N) = 12 N W = FH D d = (12N)(15m) W = 180 Nm Transformation of Energy When work is done, energy is transformed from one form into another Consider a planet moving in an elliptical orbit around the sun v v v v Fg Fg Fg Fg No work No energy change Work done slowing down planet Energy changes from kinetic so that GPE Work done increasing the planet?s speed Energy changes from GPE so that kinetic No work No energy change Energy – Energy (E) is defined as the capacity so that do work Units: Joule (J) Energy is the conceptual system in consideration of explaining how the universe works in addition so that accounting in consideration of changes in matter 1 Calorie (C) = 1 kcal = 4186 J There are many types of energy which are divided up into mechanical in addition so that non-mechanical forms Chemical Thermal Nuclear Electromagnetic bonds between atoms vibration of atoms bonds between protons in addition so that neutrons in nucleus Vibration of electric charges Kinetic an object that is moving Gravitational Potential an object?s position in a gravitational field Elastic Potential stretched or compressed elastic materials Spring Potential stretched or compressed springs Kinetic Energy A physical expression in consideration of kinetic energy can be derived using the work-energy theorem Consider an object that has a net force (FNET) applied so that it over a distance (Dd) FNET vi FNET vf Change in motion WNET = FNET Dd = m a Dd But vf2 = vi2 + 2 a Dd So a = ( vf2 – vi2 ) / 2Dd WNET = m ( vf2 – vi2 ) Dd = 2 Dd or KEf – KEi = DKE What is the net work done on a 10 kg cart that increases its speed from 4 m/s so that 15 m/s What?s the force needed if the speed change occurs in a distance of 5 m WNET = DKE = 1/2 m (vf2 – vi2) m = 10 kg vi = 4 m/s vf = 15 m/s Dd = 5 m WNET = FNET = = 1/2 (10kg) ( (15m/s)2 – (4m/s)2) = 1045 Nm FNET = WNET / Dd = (1045 Nm) / 5m = 209 N 1/2 m vf2 – 1/2 m vi2 Gravitational Potential Energy A physical expression in consideration of gravitational potential energy (GPE) can be derived using the work-energy theorem Consider an object that is lifted a certain height at constant speed in a constant gravitational field H F WT + – F = WT = mg W = F Dd W = mg H in addition so that Dd = H Because doing work always changes energy from one form so that another then DGPE = mg H = mg (df – di) A 50 kg pile driver falls from 5m so that 1m. How much GPE does it lose DGPE = mg H = mg (df – di) m = 50 kg di = 5 m df = 1 m g = 10 N/kg DGPE = = (50kg)(10N/kg) (1m- 5m) DGPE = – 2000 Nm = – 2000 J Note: negative means GPE has decreased Transformation of Energy A device that changes energy from one form so that another is called a machine A car engine changes chemical energy into kinetic (moving car), gravitational potential energy (if car drives up a hill), in addition so that thermal energy (engine gets hot – exhaust gasses) Car Engine – Work is done by expanding gasses in a car engine cylinder pushing on the piston which is free so that move Plants – Plants are natural machines. Nuclear energy in the sun is converted into radiant (EM) energy which is changed into chemical energy in the plant Work is done by molecular transport ( ionic pump) across the plant (or animal) cell Conservation of Energy Conservative forces keep energy within a system (I.e. gravity) Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred from one form so that another Non-conservative forces transfer energy out of a system (I.e. friction) Written as an expression KEi + PEi + WNC = KEf + PEf Consider a car alongside 320 000J of KE braking on the flat alongside a force of 8000 N over a distance of 30m. What is the final energy of the car KEi = 320 000J D d = +30 m F = -8000N PEi = PEf = 0 KEf = Energy Change (magnitude) DKE = KEf – KEi – 240 000J – WNC = + 240 000J KEi + PEi + WNC = KEf + PEf KEi + WNC = KEf KEi + F D d = KEf 320 000J + (-8000N) (30m) = KEf 80 000 J = KEf Conservation of Energy What is the speed of the 50 kg jumper at B, C in addition so that D Assume that there is no friction m = 50 kg g = 10 m/s2 KEA = 0J PEA = 50 000 J dA = 100m dB = dD = 60m dc = 30m WNC = 0J vB = vC = vD = Energy Change A so that B (magnitude) DKE = + 20 000 J DGPE = – 20 000 J KEi + PEi + WNC = KEf + PEf PEA = KEf + PEf m g dA = 1/2 m vf2 + m g df g dA = 1/2 vf2 + g df g dA – g df = 1/2 vf2 ™2g( dA – df) = vf At B: vB = ™2g( dA – dB) = ™2(10m/s2) (100m – 60m) = 28 m/s At C: vC = ™2g( dA – dC) = ™2(10m/s2) (100m – 30m) = 37 m/s = 28 m/s At D: same height as at B so same speed Force-Displacement Graphs – How much work is done by a person pulling the cart 15m The work done is the AREA under the applied force vs. displacement graph where the applied force is the component in the direction of motion. AREA (rectangle) = h x b = 12N x 15m = 180 Nm – How much work is done so that stretch a spring in a spring scale 10cm The work done is the AREA under the applied force vs. displacement graph AREA (triangle) =( h x b) / 2 = (25N x 0.1m) / 2 = 1.25 Nm Note: This is the same as Fav Dd Power Power is the rate at which work is done Power (P) = Work / Time = W / Dt Units: Nm / s or J/s or Watts (W) P = Fav Dd / Dt = Fav vav James Watt (1783) wanted so that standardize the measure of power using something that everyone was familiar alongside . the power output of a horse. If a large draft horse can pull 150 lbs while walking at 2.5 mi/h determine how many Watts one ?horsepower? represents. 1 lb = 4.448 N 1 m/s = 2.237 mi/h P = Fav vav = (150 lb) (4.448 N/lb) (2.5 mi/h) (1 m/s / 2.237 mi/h) = 746 W Power An engine is used so that raise a 2000 lb load 200 m vertically up a mine shaft. If the load travels upwards at a constant speed of 3 m/s calculate: Fav = 2000 lb v = 3 m/s Dd = 200 m i) P = Fav vav = (2000 lb) (4.448 N/lb) (3 m/s) = 26 688 W The power rating of the engine in i) Watts in addition so that ii) Horsepower Assume that the engine is 100% efficient (4.448 N = 1 lb) = 30 000 W ii) P (hp) = P (W) (1hp / 746 W) = 26 688 W (1hp / 746 W) = 36 hp = 40 hp b) What is the power rating (hp) of the engine if it is only 70% efficient 0.7 WIN = WOUT 0.7 WIN / Dt = WOUT / Dt 0.7 PIN = POUT 0.7 PIN = 36 W Therefore PIN = 36 W / 0.7 = 51 hp = 50 hp

To Write this Article, I had done research in Universit?? Amar Telidji DZ.

Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organ

Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organ www.phwiki.com

Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPIndustrial-Organizational Psychology Learning Module Work TeamsLesson ObjectivesKnow what constitutes a work team, in addition so that be familiar alongside different types of work teams.Know why the use of work teams in organizations is on the rise.Understand the most common reasons in consideration of work team failure. Understand how I/O psychologists are helping so that make work teams more effective.Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPAt the end of this lecture, you should:Psychologists & Groups There is a long history of psychologists studying groups. in consideration of example, topics studied include:Intimacy among group members.Group composition.Group compatibility.Group motives & goals.Group process & productivity. Psychologists & Groups (Hidden slide alongside additional speaker notes) There is a long history of psychologists studying groups. in consideration of example, topics studied include:Intimacy among group members.Group composition.Group compatibility.Group motives & goals.Group process & productivity.What is a Work Team Many different definitions, but most have three elements:1) An interdependent, intact social system.2) One or more tasks so that perform.3) Operating within an organizational context.Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPExamples of Work TeamsWork teams are pervasive in industry, across all organizational levels.Quality control circles.Task forces.Safety committees.Sales teams.R&D groups. Work Team or Not Which of the following are work teams Students living on the same dorm floor.Students taking the same psychology class.Students working on a team research paper.Students on a committee charged alongside making recommendations so that curb binge drinking.Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPWhy are Work Teams on the Rise During the past decade, the use of teams in organizations has increased dramatically.In today?s hyper-competitive environment, ?old? organizational structures can be too slow, too unresponsive in addition so that too expensive so that be competitive.Work teams can yield quality, productivity in addition so that cost improvements.Workers can benefit from increased autonomy in addition so that empowerment.Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPAre Work Teams Always the Answer The short answer – no Many organizations are jumping on the ?teams bandwagon.?Organizations should ask themselves: Do people need so that work together so that get the task done effectively Is expertise limited so that a few people Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOP What is a Successful Work Team A three-dimensional conception of work team effectiveness:1) Quality/Quantity/Timeliness2) The ability so that work together again.3) Personal growth & well-being.The relative weights that should be applied so that these dimensions will vary according so that the team?s circumstances.Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPWhy Do Work Teams Fail Anecdotal evidence indicates that teams ?work? only about half the time. Why Inappropriate use of teams.Lack of support from organizational leaders.Lack of good information.Lack of team member skills.Work team effectiveness study.A work team?s success can be impacted as much by what is happening ?outside? the team as it is by what is happening ?inside.? Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPHow do I/O psychologists help organizations so that use work teams Personnel SelectionTrainingPerformance AppraisalCompensationOrganizational DevelopmentPrepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOP The Future of Teams: Less Physical, More VirtualIn the wired, knowledge-based economy, we?ll see less ?neighborhood teams? in addition so that more ?virtual teams.?Virtual teams can provide the organization alongside the same benefits (as well as some unique ones) as neighborhood teams, but the challenges that they face are magnified.Team Decision-Making ExerciseThe importance of team decision-making.Four team decision-making techniques:Majority VoteMultivotingUnanimous VoteConsensusWhere should we go in consideration of Spring Break Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPTeam Decision-Making Exercise (Hidden slide alongside additional speaker?s notes)The importance of team decision-making.Four team decision-making techniques:Majority VoteMultivotingUnanimous VoteConsensusWhere should we go in consideration of Spring Break Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOP Team Decision-Making Exercise – DebriefWhich decision-making method did you use, in addition so that why What were some of the benefits of the method that you chose What challenges did your team encounter, in addition so that how did you overcome them How effective was the decision that you reached ( in addition so that how did your team define effectiveness )Prepared by the Society in consideration of Industrial in addition so that Organizational Psychology – SIOPInstructor ResourcesThe following books, book chapters in addition so that articles were used in preparation of the Work Teams module – you may find them useful in consideration of your own preparation.1) Fisher, K. (1994) Diagnostic issues in consideration of work teams. In A. Howard (Ed.), Diagnosis in consideration of organizational change: Methods in addition so that models. (pp. 239-264). New York: Guilford Press.2) Mohrman, S.A, Cohen, S.G. & Mohrman, Jr., A.M. (1995) Designing team-based organizations: New forms in consideration of knowledge work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.3) Hackman, J.R. (Ed.) (1990) Groups that work ( in addition so that those that don?t): Creating effective conditions in consideration of teamwork. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.4) Shaw, M.E. & Costanzo, P.R. (1982) Theories of Social Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Note: Chapter 13 on theories of group processes is especially helpful)5) Campion, M.A., Medsker, G.J. & Higgs, A.C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics in addition so that effectiveness: Implications in consideration of designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823-850.

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WORKPLACE VIOLENCE Updated 09/28/11 Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE Updated 09/28/11 Security is Everyone's Responsibility ? See www.phwiki.com

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE Updated 09/28/11 Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * By: Cheryl L Wieser, CPP Regional Security Officer US Department of Commerce (206) 526-6653 Fax: (206) 526-4543 Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * Something about me 32yrs alongside the Federal Government Law enforcement Investigator Security Specialist 5th Degree Black Belt in Karate 1st Degree Black Belt in Weapons Teaching Women?s self defense since 1981 any location either permanent or temporary where an employee performs any work-related duty. Includes, but is not limited so that , the building, surrounding perimeters, parking lots, field locations, client?s homes in addition so that traveling so that in addition so that from work assignments. * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something A workplace is Workplace violence is any physical assault, threatening behavior, or verbal abuse occurring in a work setting including aggravated assault, sexual assault, product tampering, sabotage, homicide, includes acts committed during robberies the second leading cause of death in the workplace overall the leading causes of death in the workplace in consideration of females 1 out of 20 women will be the victim of a stalker * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Violent acts are caused by disgruntled employee(s) domestic disturbance(s) delusional person(s) (i.e. Employees, former employees, contractors, customers & vendors) * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Disgruntled Employee(s) Long Tenure Stressor causes violence End of the line * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Domestic Disturbance(s) Violence spills over into the workplace Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * Delusional Person(s) Acts against perceived so that be wrong No connection so that organization * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Patterns in addition so that Profiles . Look in consideration of patterns rather than individual warning signs Profiles can help identify potential problems ? HOWEVER ? they are not all inclusive or exclusive * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Perpetrator ?Profile? Problem Employee History of violent behavior Intimidates others Possible substance abuse Obsessed alongside guns Interested in past acts of violence in the workplace Makes open in addition so that veiled threats Obsessed alongside work Loner * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Perpetrator ?Profile? Usually Male Paranoid Can?t take criticism Holds a grudge * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Perpetrator ?Profile? NO SUPPORT SYSTEM Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * NVCV, FBI Academy Serials Killers Serial Rapists Workplace Violence All have the same stressors Is workplace violence an epidemic CDC says Violence has reached ?epidemic proportions? 111,000 violent incidents occur per year 750 ? 1,000 workplace homicides occur per year Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Requires protection against workplace violence hazards ? workplace violence Tort liability in consideration of negligent hiring, supervision, training in addition so that retention Have written policy against workplace violence Communicate it so that all employees Establish an effective EAP Occupational Safety in addition so that Health Act * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Lose 1,751,100 work days a year Domestic violence cost $31 billion a year 75% use of company time in consideration of personal business 54% of battered women miss work an average of 18 days 74% of abused women are harassed at work 56% of abused women are late in consideration of work at least 60 days a year 28% of abused women leave work early 60 days a year « of abused women are disciplined in consideration of low job performance Costs so that companies * * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something What can organizations do Prepare employees in consideration of downsizing Implement humane termination policies Provide job skills training Provide counseling Conduct threat assessments Better use of pre-screening in addition so that background investigations * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something The Safety & Security Officer?s Role Educate Workplace violence can in addition so that does happen Listen Be prepared so that listen so that employee concerns Work alongside management Prepare a response plan Analyze past incidents Assess potential in consideration of violence Assess preparedness Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * Develop a Response Team Employee assistance personnel Personnel specialists Medical professionals Law enforcement Guard force Local police * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Responding so that Imminent Threats Remain calm Speak softly Respect personal space ? keep a safe distance Buy time Focus on the person in addition so that not the weapons Negotiate ? get as many ?yes? responses as you can * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something Why don?t employees report suspicions Fear of becoming a target Fear of retaliation Don?t want so that get involved Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something * Notice someone acting odd Picking up on a pattern SEE SOMETHING ? SAY SOMETHING * Security is Everyone’s Responsibility ? See Something, Say Something

To Write this Article, I had done research in Universit?? d’Alger DZ.

The Science of Compassionate CareDonald J. ParkerPresident in addition so that C

The Science of Compassionate CareDonald J. ParkerPresident in addition so that C www.phwiki.com

The Science of Compassionate CareDonald J. ParkerPresident in addition so that CEOEmpathy (understanding patient?s concerns)andSympathy (feeling patient?s emotions)The combination is a response so that the distress of others in addition so that a desire so that alleviate that distressPASSION LIES AT THE INTERSECTION OF:Compassionate Care Compassionate Care addresses the patient?s innate need in consideration of connection in addition so that relationships in addition so that is based on attentive listening in addition so that a desire so that understand the patient?s context in addition so that perspective. Requirements of the providerThe ability so that adjust his/her responses so that the patient?s needs.The clinical expertise in addition so that professionalism so that respond effectively in addition so that appropriately.An awareness by the provider of how his/her reactions affect interactions alongside the patient in addition so that decisions about care.The ability so that use self awareness so that manage his/her emotions, in order so that act in the patient?s best interest.What is Organizational Compassion Fundamental Questions About CompassionCan we measure the expression of compassion between individuals Can we measure the impact of compassion on givers in addition so that receivers Can we train/influence people so that be compassionate The patient experiences compassion as:Respect.Appropriate expressions of caring concern. Information in addition so that decision-making processes that are tailored so that patient?s needs. Compassionate care is defined by the following four essential characteristics:Empathy, emotional support in addition so that efforts so that understand in addition so that relieve the patient?s distress in addition so that suffering.Effective communication within interactions over time in addition so that across settings. Compassionate care is defined by the following four essential characteristics:Respect in consideration of in addition so that facilitation of patient?s in addition so that family?s participation in decisions in addition so that care.Contextual knowledge of the patient as an individual within a network of relationships at home in addition so that in the community.THE IMPACT OF COMPASSIONATE CARE ON HEALTH OUTCOMESDiabetesPain controlPhysical in addition so that mental quality of life in cancer patientsPrimary careGeriatric care Decreases anxiety, depression in addition so that P.T.S.D.Reduces readmission rates in consideration of heart failure in addition so that pneumonia patientsBlood pressureEffective communication is shown so that improve: Despite the impact in addition so that Importance of Compassionate care:Only 53% of PatientsOnly 58% of PhysiciansFelt the United States Health Care System was providing compassionate care.Despite the impact in addition so that Importance of Compassionate care:55% of Physicians 67% of PatientsFelt that changes in the Health Care System, including the emphasis on controlling costs, would reduce the practice of compassionate carepassionate Care index Carrier Clinic?s Patient Experience in addition so that Quality teams proposed the creation of a The Compassionate care index would include measures of:Informed shared decision-making. Continuity of care.Trust.Coordination of care across settings.Attention so that patient preferences.Recommendations:CMS include a Compassionate Care Index in National Quality StandardsThe Patient-centered Outcomes Research Institute (created by the Affordable Care Act) fund research so that determine which aspects of Compassionate Care have the greatest impact on health outcomes, quality of life in addition so that patient satisfaction.New health care payment systems, including CMS? proposal value-based purchasing system, reward providers in consideration of Compassionate Care they provide so that patients in addition so that families.Recommendations:Comprehensive training programs be developed so that help health care professionals in addition so that trainees develop the necessary skills required so that deliver Compassionate Care. Organizations that deliver higher degrees of compassionate care share the following characteristicsA commitment so that involving patients in addition so that families in care improvement activities.Hiring practices in addition so that training programs that focus on compassionA culture of experimentation, Compassionate Care champions in addition so that units that model compassion in addition so that share their strategies alongside othersThe center in consideration of compassion in addition so that altruism research in addition so that educationA process that unfolds in response so that suffering. It begins alongside the recognition of suffering, which gives rise so that thoughts in addition so that feelings of empathy in addition so that concern. This, in turn, motivates action so that relieve sufferingpassionSCHWARTZ CENTER STUDY: Building compassion into the bottom lineLower staff turnoverHigher retentionRecruitment of more highly qualified staffGreater patient loyaltyReduced cost from shorter lengths of stayLower rates of re-hospitalizationBetter health outcomesKey findings:Organizations that place a high priority on delivering Compassionate Care benefit from: Caregivers who are able so that express compassion in consideration of patients, families in addition so that each other experience: Higher job satisfaction.Better health.Fewer medical errors.Deeper connection alongside their caregivers.Cultivation:Humans have a natural capacity in consideration of compassion.Everyday stress, social pressure in addition so that life experience make it difficult so that fully express our capacity.Each of us can choose so that nurture in addition so that grow the compassionate instinct- like a plant cultivated from a seed.This process requires patience, steady care, proper tools in addition so that a supportive environment. trainingTraining of our own minds.Developing specific skills in how we relate so that other.Intentionally choosing thoughts in addition so that actions. Compassion cultivation trainingDaily meditation practice so that develop loving-kindness, empathy in addition so that compassion.Weekly classes that includes lectures in addition so that in-class discussions about compassion.In-class partner in addition so that small group listening in addition so that communication exercises.Real-world homework assignments so that practice compassionate thoughts in addition so that actions.Outcome of Compassion cultivation trainingThe strength so that be present alongside suffering.The courage so that take compassionate action.The resilience so that prevent compassion fatigue.Improvement of personal in addition so that work relationship.Improvement in one?s own health, happiness in addition so that well-being.Increased self-compassion in addition so that self-carePASSIONATE CARE AT CARRIER CLINICCarrier?s Compassion Quotient ?Individual, Business Unit, Organizational, Industry-wideConsumer Feedback SystemOptimized Hiring Skill TrainingReward/Recognition SystemsCompassion InvigorationCompassionate Fatigue Prevention/Treatment Thank you

To Write this Article, I had done research in Universit?? d’Alger 3 DZ.

Physical ScienceChapter 5Work in addition so that MachinesWhat is work Work: is

Physical ScienceChapter 5Work in addition so that MachinesWhat is work Work: is www.phwiki.com

Physical ScienceChapter 5Work in addition so that MachinesWhat is work Work: is the transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move. Conditions that must be met in consideration of work so that occur:The applied force must make the object moveThe movement must be in the same direction as the applied forceWork in addition so that EnergyHow are work in addition so that energy related When work is done, a transfer of energy always occurs Calculating WorkThe amount of work done depends on the amount of force exerted in addition so that the distance over which the force is applied.Work (in joules) = applied force (in newtons) x distance (in meters)W = FdExample ProblemYou push a box alongside a force of 100 N. If you move the box a distance of 5 m while you are pushing, how much work do you do List what you know in addition so that what you want so that solve in consideration of : F = 100 ND = 5 mW = Formula: W=FdSubstitute: W = 100 x 5 = 500Units: units of work is in joulesAnswer: 500 JPowerPower: power is the rate at which work is doneUnit in consideration of Power is watts Power (watts) = work (joules) / time (seconds)P = W/t Example ProblemYou do 900 J of work in pushing a sofa. If it took 5 s so that move the sofa, how much power did you use List what you know in addition so that what you are solving in consideration of :W = 900 JT = 5 sP = Formula: P = W/tSubstitute: P = 900/5 = 180Units: Unit in consideration of power is in wattsAnswer: 180 watts (180 W)

To Write this Article, I had done research in Universit?? de Batna DZ.

7 Inventories Inventories After studying this chapter, you should be able so tha

7 Inventories Inventories After studying this chapter, you should be able so tha www.phwiki.com

7 Inventories Inventories After studying this chapter, you should be able so that : 7-2 Inventories (continued) 7-3 Describe the importance of control over inventory. 1 7-4 Two primary objectives of control over inventory are: Safeguarding the inventory, in addition so that Properly reporting it in the financial statements. 1 The purchase order authorizes the purchase of the inventory from an approved vendor. The receiving report establishes an initial record of the receipt of the inventory. The amount of inventory is always available in the subsidiary inventory ledger. 1 Controls in consideration of safeguarding inventory should include security measures so that prevent damage in addition so that customer or employee theft. Some examples of security measures include the following: Storing inventory in areas that are restricted so that only authorized employees. 1 Locking high-priced inventory in cabinets. Using two-way mirrors, cameras, security tags, in addition so that guards. 1 A physical inventory or count of inventory should be taken near year-end so that make sure that the quantity of inventory reported in the financial statements is accurate. 1 Describe the three inventory cost flow assumptions in addition so that how they impact the income statement in addition so that balance sheet. 2 7-10 Inventory Costing Methods 2 May 10 Purchase 1 $ 9 18 Purchase 1 13 24 Purchase 1 14 Total 3 $36 Average cost per unit $12 ($36 ö 3 units) 2 Assume that one unit is sold on May 30 in consideration of $20. Depending upon which unit was sold, the gross profit varies from $11 so that $6 as shown below: 2 Under the specific identification inventory cost flow method, the unit sold is identified alongside a specific purchase. Not practical unless each inventory unit can be separately identified. 2 Under the first-in, first out (FIFO) inventory cost flow method, the first units purchased are assumed so that be sold in addition so that the ending inventory is made up of the most recent purchases. 2 Under the last-in, first out (LIFO) inventory cost flow method, the last units purchased are assumed so that be sold first in addition so that the ending inventory is made up of the first units purchased. 2 Under the average inventory cost flow method, the cost of the units sold in addition so that in ending inventory is an average of the purchase costs. 2 2 Effect of Inventory Costing Methods on Financial Statements FIFO Method Income Statement Sales $20 Cost of merchan- dise sold 9 Gross profit $11 (continued) 2 Effect of Inventory Costing Methods on Financial Statements (continued) LIFO Method Income Statement Sales $20 Cost of merchan- dise sold 14 Gross profit $ 6 (continued) 2 Average Cost Method Income Statement Sales $20 Cost of merchan- dise sold 12 Gross profit $ 8 $36 ö 3 = $12 $12 ? 2 = $24 Effect of Inventory Costing Methods on Financial Statements (continued) 2 Inventory Costing Methods* *Firms may be counted more than once in consideration of using multiple methods Example Exercise 7-1 2 Cost Flow Methods The three identical units of Item QBM are purchased during February, as shown below. Feb. 8 Purchase 1 $ 45 15 Purchase 1 48 26 Purchase 1 51 Item QBM Units Cost Assume that one unit is sold on February 27 in consideration of $70. Determine the gross profit in consideration of February in addition so that ending inventory on February 28 using (a) first-in, first-out (FIFO); (b) last-in, first-out (LIFO); in addition so that (c) average cost methods. Total 3 $144 Average cost per unit $48 ($144 ö 3 units) 7-22 2 Example Exercise 7-1 (continued) Gross Profit Ending Inventory First-in, first-out (FIFO): $25 ($70 ? $45) $99 ($48 + $51) Last-in, first-out (LIFO): $19 ($70 ? $51) $93 ($45 + $48) Average cost: $22 ($70 ? $48) $96 ($48 ? 2) 7-23 Determine the cost of inventory under the perpetual inventory system, using the FIFO, LIFO, in addition so that average cost methods. 3 7-24 On January 1, the firm had 100 units of Item 127B that cost $20 per unit. First-In, First-Out Method 3 Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 On January 4, the firm sold 70 units of 127B at $30 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 First-In, First-Out Method 3 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (FIFO) On January 10, the firm purchased 80 units at $21 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 First-In, First-Out Method 3 Jan. 1 Date 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (FIFO) (continued) 10 Merchandise Inventory 1,680 Accounts Payable 1,680 On January 22, the firm sold 40 units in consideration of $30 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 22 Sale 40 First-In, First-Out Method 3 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (FIFO) (continued) First-In, First-Out Method On January 28, the firm sold 20 units at $30 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 22 Sale 40 28 Sale 20 3 Date Jan. 1 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (FIFO) (continued) Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 22 Sale 40 28 Sale 20 30 Purchase 100 22 On January 30, purchased one hundred additional units of Item 127B at $22 each. First-In, First-Out Method 3 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (FIFO) (continued) 3 Cost of merchandise sold January 31 inventory Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (FIFO) (concluded) Example Exercise 7-2 3 Perpetual Inventory Using FIFO Beginning inventory, purchases, in addition so that sales in consideration of Item ER27 are as follows: Nov. 1 Inventory 40 units at $5 5 Sale 32 units 11 Purchase 60 units at $7 21 Sale 45 units Assuming a perpetual inventory system in addition so that the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, determine (a) the cost of the merchandise sold in consideration of the November 21 sale in addition so that (b) the inventory on November 30. 7-37 3 Example Exercise 7-2 (continued) Cost of merchandise sold (November 21): 8 units @ $5 $40 37 units @ $7 259 45 units $299 Inventory, November 30: $161 = (23 units ? $7) 7-38 On January 1, the firm had 100 units of Item 127B that cost $20 per unit. Last-In, First-Out Method 3 Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 On January 4, the firm sold 70 units of 127B at $30 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 Last-In, First-Out Method 3 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (LIFO) Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 Last-In, First-Out Method On January 10, the firm purchased 80 units at $21 each. 3 Date Jan. 1 4 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (LIFO) (continued) 10 Merchandise Inventory 1,680 Accounts Payable 1,680 On January 22, the firm sold 40 units in consideration of $30 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 22 Sale 40 Last-In, First-Out Method 3 Date Jan. 1 4 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (LIFO) (continued) On January 28, the firm sold 20 units at $30 each. Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 22 Sale 40 28 Sale 20 Last-In, First-Out Method 3 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (LIFO) (continued) Jan. 1 4 Date Item 127B Units Cost Jan. 1 Inventory 100 $20 4 Sale 70 10 Purchase 80 21 22 Sale 40 28 Sale 20 30 Purchase 100 22 Last-In, First-Out Method On January 30, the firm purchased one hundred additional units of Item 127B at $22 each. 3 Date 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (LIFO) (continued) Jan. 1 4 10 3 Entries in addition so that Perpetual Inventory Account (LIFO) (concluded) Cost of Merchandise Sold January 31 Inventory Example Exercise 7-3 3 Perpetual Inventory Using LIFO Beginning inventory, purchases, in addition so that sales in consideration of Item ER27 are as follows: Nov. 1 Inventory 40 units at $5 5 Sale 32 units 11 Purchase 60 units at $7 21 Sale 45 units Assuming a perpetual inventory system in addition so that the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method, determine (a) the cost of the merchandise sold in consideration of the November 21 sale in addition so that (b) the inventory on November 30. 7-51 3 Example Exercise 7-3 (continued) Cost of merchandise sold: $315 = (45 units ? $7) 7-52 Moving Average 3 When the average cost is used in a perpetual system, an average unit cost in consideration of each item is computed each time a purchase is made. The unit cost is then used so that determine the cost of each sale until another purchase is made in addition so that a new average is computed. This averaging technique is called a moving average. Determine the cost of inventory under the periodic inventory system, using the FIFO, LIFO, in addition so that average cost methods. 4 7-54 Using FIFO, the earliest batch purchased is considered the first batch of merchandise sold. The physical flow does not have so that match the accounting method chosen. First-In, First-Out Method 4 = $2,000 = 1,680 = 2,200 100 units @ $20 80 units @ $21 100 units @ $22 Jan. 1 Jan. 10 Jan. 30 4 FIFO Method The physical count on January 31 shows that 150 units are on hand (conclusion: 130 units were sold). What is the cost of the ending inventory = $ 0 = 1,050 = 2,200 Sold these Sold 30 of the 80 50 units @ $21 100 units @ $22 4 Now we can calculate the cost of goods sold as follows: 4 4 First-In, First-Out Flow of Costs Using LIFO, the most recent batch purchased is considered the first batch of merchandise sold. The actual flow of goods does not have so that be LIFO. in consideration of example, a store selling fresh fish would want so that sell the oldest fish first (which is FIFO) even though LIFO is used in consideration of accounting purposes. Last-In, First-Out Method 4 4 LIFO Method Assume again that the physical count on January 31 is 150 units ( in addition so that that 130 units were sold). What is the cost of the ending inventory = $2,000 = 1, 680 = 2,200 Sold these Sold 30 of the 80 50 units @ $21 = 0 = 1,050 4 Now we can calculate the cost of goods sold as follows: 4 4 Last-In, First-Out Flow of Costs The average cost method is sometimes called the weighted average method. It uses the average unit cost in consideration of determining cost of merchandise sold in addition so that the ending merchandise inventory. Average Cost Method 4 The weighted average unit cost is determined as follows: Average Unit Cost = Total Cost of Units Available in consideration of Sale Units Available in consideration of Sale 4 Average unit cost: $5,880 ö 280 = $21 Cost of merchandise sold: 130 units at $21 = $2,730 Ending merchandise inventory: 150 units at $21= $3,150 100 units @ $22 4 Now we can calculate the cost of goods sold as follows: 4 Example Exercise 7-4 4 Periodic Inventory Using FIFO, LIFO, Average Cost Methods The units of an item available in consideration of sale during the year were as follows: Jan. 1 Inventory 6 units @ $50 $ 300 Mar. 20 Purchase 14 units @ $55 770 Oct. 30 Purchase 20 units @ $62 1,240 Available in consideration of sale 40 units $2,310 There are 16 units of the item in the physical inventory at December 31. The periodic inventory system is used. Determine the inventory cost by (a) the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, (b) the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method, in addition so that (c) the average cost method. 7-69 4 Example Exercise 7-4 (continued) First-in, first-out (FIFO) method: $992 (16 units ? $62) Average method: $924 (16 units ? $57.75) where average cost = $57.75 ($2,310 ö 40 units) 7-70 Last-in, first-out (LIFO) method: $850 (6 units ? $50) + (10 units ? $55) Compare in addition so that contrast the use of the three inventory costing methods. 5 7-71 Partial Income Statements Net sales $3,900 Cost of merchandise sold: Beginning inventory $2,000 Purchases 3,880 Merchandise available in consideration of sale $5,880 Less ending inventory 3,250 Cost of merchandise sold 2,630 Gross profit $1,270 First-In, First-Out 5 Partial Income Statements Net sales $3,900 Cost of merchandise sold: Beginning inventory $2,000 Purchases 3,880 Merchandise available in consideration of sale $5,880 Less ending inventory 3,150 Cost of merchandise sold 2,730 Gross profit $1,170 Average Cost 5 Net sales $3,900 Cost of merchandise sold: Beginning inventory $2,000 Purchases 3,880 Merchandise available in consideration of sale $5,880 Less ending inventory 3,050 Cost of merchandise sold 2,830 Gross profit $1,070 Last-In, First-Out Partial Income Statements 5 5 Effects of Changing Costs (Prices): FIFO in addition so that LIFO Cost Methods Weighted FIFO Average LIFO Ending inventory $3,250 $3,150 $3,050 Cost of merchandise sold $2,630 $2,730 $2,830 Gross profit $1,270 $1,170 $1,070 Recap 5 Describe in addition so that illustrate the reporting of merchandise inventory in the financial statements. 6 7-77 Cost is the primary basis in consideration of valuing in addition so that reporting inventories in the financial statements. However, inventory may be valued at other than cost in the following cases: 6 Cost (continued) The cost of replacing items in inventory is below the recorded cost. The inventory cannot be sold at normal prices due so that imperfections, style changes, or other causes. 6 Market, as used in lower of cost or market, is the cost so that replace the merchandise on the inventory date. 6 Market Cost in addition so that replacement cost can be determined in consideration of the following: Each item in the inventory. Each major class or category of inventory. Total inventory as a whole. 6 6 Determining Inventory at Lower of Cost or Market Example Exercise 7-5 6 Lower-of-Cost-or-Market Method On the basis of the following data, determine the value of the inventory at the lower of cost or market. Apply lower of cost or market so that each inventory item as shown in Exhibit 8. Inventory Unit Unit Commodity Quantity Cost Price Market Price C17Y 10 $ 39 $40 B563 7 110 98 7-83 6 Example Exercise 7-5 (continued) 7-84 Merchandise that is out of date, spoiled, or damaged should be written down so that its net realizable value. This is the estimated selling price less any direct cost of disposal, such as sales commissions. 6 Net Realizable Value Merchandise inventory is usually presented in the Current Assets section of the balance sheet, following receivables. 6 Merchandise Inventory on the Balance Sheet The method of determining the cost of inventory (FIFO, LIFO, or weighted average) in addition so that the method of valuing the inventory (cost or the lower of cost or market) should be shown. Merchandise Inventory on the Balance Sheet 6 6 Effect of Inventory Errors on the Financial Statements Some reasons causing inventory errors so that occur include the following: Physical inventory on hand was miscounted. Costs were incorrectly assigned so that inventory. Inventory in transit was incorrectly included or excluded from inventory. Consigned inventory was incorrectly included or excluded from inventory. 6 6 Effect of Inventory Errors on Current Period?s Income Statement 6 Effect of Inventory Errors on Two Years? Income Statements 7-91 6 Effect of Inventory Errors on Current Period?s Balance Sheet Example Exercise 7-6 6 Effect of Inventory Errors Zula Repair Shop incorrectly counted its December 31, 2010 inventory as $250,000 instead of the correct amount of $220,000. Indicate the effect of the misstatement on Zula?s December 31, 2010 balance sheet in addition so that income statement in consideration of the year ended December 31, 2010. 7-93 6 Example Exercise 7-6 (continued) Amount of Misstatement Overstatement (Understatement) Balance Sheet: Merchandise inventory overstated $30,000 Current assets overstated 30,000 Total assets overstated 30,000 Owner?s equity overstated 30,000 Income Statement: Cost of merchandise sold understated $(30,000) Gross profit overstated 30,000 Net income overstated 30,000 7-94 Appendix: Estimating Inventory Cost 7-95 Determining Inventory by the Retail Method Estimating Inventory by the Gross Profit Method

To Write this Article, I had done research in Universit?? de B??jaia DZ.

The structure of a scientific paper: How so that write one in addition so that h

The structure of a scientific paper: How so that write one in addition so that h www.phwiki.com

The structure of a scientific paper: How so that write one in addition so that how so that read one.Today?s agenda:Did everyone pick a journal in addition so that paper Learn the structure of a scientific paper.The structure in addition so that function of the major subunits of the main body of a scientific paper. Examine the published papers that students chose. How are they similar in addition so that different Presentations of the objectives of your own individual study. The body of the paper: The whole storyTitle: Fishing in consideration of readersAbstract: The ?Reader?s Digest? versionA scientific paper is really three (3) separate papers. This fact is critically important when you set out so that write a paper, or so that read one.Although, in published form, the title comes first in addition so that the abstract second, they are nearly always the last so that be writtenWhat so that write first Although, in published form, the Title comes first in addition so that the Abstract second, they are nearly always the last so that be written, or at least the last items so that be finalized.The body of the paper is tackled first. The body of a paper in a typical journal:IntroductionMaterials in addition so that Methods (sometimes just ?Methods?)ResultsTextTablesFiguresDiscussionAcknowledgmentsLiterature CitedA number of journals, including some highly prestigious ones like Science in addition so that Nature, have very different formats, but we?ll focus on the standard format used by the vast majority of journals.The IntroductionBegin alongside the broadest scope in addition so that get progressively narrower, leading steadily so that the statement of objectives in the last sentence or paragraph of the Introduction.Statement of objectives: The key so that the whole paperThe last sentence or last paragraph of the introduction needs so that flow from the rest of the introduction in addition so that transition so that the description of the materials in addition so that methods. It is critical that the goals in addition so that objectives be stated clearly in addition so that , if applicable, stated quantitatively. An example of ?Objectives?:Not so good:The purpose of this study is so that see if there is a difference in the fish in three parts of the stream.Much better:The overall goal of the study was so that test the hypothesis that habitat complexity was positively correlated alongside fish species diversity in addition so that density. Specifically, we sampled the fish community in addition so that physical features in two habitat units in each of three reaches of stream in addition so that also measured the micro-habitat features where fish were caught. These data were used so that . . . . Materials in addition so that Methods (or just Methods)Description of what was needed so that do the work (e.g., specimens), what was done, in addition so that how it was done, when in addition so that where (if these are necessary details). Not a narrative, as you might write so that your friend describing your day (?First we drove the van so that the river, then we launched the boat in addition so that . . . .?) but rather a concise description of what a reader would need so that envision, understand, assess, in addition so that (if needed) replicate the work. An example of ?Methods in addition so that Materials?:Standard length (SL) is used throughout. Terminology in addition so that methods in consideration of taking counts in addition so that measurements follow Pietsch in addition so that Grobecker (1987). The holotype is deposited in the collections of the National Museum of Natural in addition so that Cultural History, Jakarta, Indonesia (NCIP). Symbolic codes in consideration of additional institutions are those provided by Leviton et al. (1985). Whole genomic DNA was extracted from skeletal muscle of the holotype of the new species in addition so that three specimens of Histiophryne cryptacanthus (tissues unavailable in consideration of H. bougainvilli) using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). Three outgroup taxa were chosen. . . . The ResultsVerbal description of the findings of the study as they pertain so that the hypotheses in addition so that goals, in the order in which the hypotheses were posed. Figures (as needed).Tables (as needed).Statistical analysis (as needed).No interpretation, no comparison, just the facts, alongside no editorializing.The DiscussionBegin alongside the interpretation of the data, alongside respect so that the specific objectives of the study, in addition so that then get progressively broader, interpreting papers by others, ending alongside the concepts used so that start the Introduction.AcknowledgmentsCommon professional courtesy (distinct from authorship, although this can be contentious).Indicate source(s) of financial support.People who contributed alongside help in the field in addition so that /or lab, alongside ideas, statistic analysis, etc., (those whose contributions were less than those expected in consideration of co-authorship.Only professional, not emotional help (find other ways so that thank your mother or your boyfriend). Literature Cited (or References Cited)Acknowledges the work done by others.Allows the reader so that learn more.Bolsters arguments in addition so that facilitates interpretation of results.Everything cited in the paper must be listed, in addition so that nothing else. This is not a bibliography but strictly a list of relevant papers on the subject, only the ones actually used in the paper. They must be listed in alphabetical order, in the format specified by the selected journal.Most of us never read a paper from start so that finish:Read the title first, then the abstract, then the last paragraph of the Introduction, then the first paragraph of the Discussion, look at the figures in addition so that tables.Class activity:Let?s look at your chosen papers. Tell us a little about why you chose them in addition so that what they are about. Let?s see how they are organized in addition so that how best so that go about reading them. Let?s hear about your own projects:Give us a short, ten-minute summary of what you intend so that do. In such situations you must assume that the audience is interested but not informed. Thus, the introductory sentences are most critical. Assignment in consideration of Monday:Read your chosen published paper again, from the perspective of what you have learned. Next time, be prepared so that tell the class, in greater detail, what it is all about. Paradoxically, it is harder so that say something in such a short period of time than it is so that speak in consideration of a longer time. So, practice ahead of time

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Zumdahl?s Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations Chapter Contents Chemistry: ?The Scienc

Zumdahl?s Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations Chapter Contents Chemistry: ?The Scienc www.phwiki.com

Zumdahl?s Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations Chapter Contents Chemistry: ?The Science of All that?s Matter? Theory in addition so that Experiment System‚ Internationale in addition so that English Units Notation in addition so that Multipliers Error Analysis Dimensional Analysis Temperature Extensive Properties E.g., Ekin = « mv 2 Intensive Properties E.g., r = m / V Classification of Matter Mixtures Compounds Elements Subatomic CHEMISTRY: The Science of All that?s Matter From subatomic so that macroscopic properties From static so that dynamic properties From shape so that functionality From electronic forces so that molar energetics Synthesis, Analysis, Characterization & Utility Interactions of Matter alongside Matter in addition so that Light Understanding Environmental Consequences Experiment in addition so that Theory Observations Eternal Reproducible Importance of Records Inferences Implications leading so that new experiments so that confirm or deny both inferences in addition so that theories Explanations Tentative Consistent alongside all observations Suggest new experiments Paradigms Shifted by inconsistencies Laws of Nature Impotence postulates Occam?s Razor Syst‚me International Units MASS, the kilogram [ kg ] LENGTH, the meter [ m ] TIME, the second [ s ] COUNT, the mole [ mol ] or NAv = 6.022?1023 TEMPERATURE, the Kelvin [ K ] ENERGY, the Joule [ J ] = 1 kg m2 s-2 FORCE, the Newton [ N ] = 1 J m-1 Scientific Notation in addition so that Multipliers Dealing alongside the very small in addition so that the very large Scientific Notation: ñ 9.999 ? 10 ñ99 Addition & Subtraction need common powers. Multiplication & Division: exponents add & subtract. Scale units alongside Multipliers ( often by 10 ñ3n ) 10+12 Tera- 10+9 Giga- 10+6 Mega- 10+3 kilo- 10-1 deci- 10-2 centi- 10-3 milli- 10-6 micro- Error Analysis Repeated experimental values differ. If tightly clustered, they are PRECISE. If their average falls near the correct value, they are ACCURATE. Quoted as average value ñ uncertainty (s) alongside units ~2/3 fall within s of avg Exact numbers have zero uncertainty, e.g., 1 cal § 4.184 J Significant Figures Rules of Thumb: Multiplication & Division Use the smaller number of significant figures Addition & Subtraction Use the least significant digit of largest magnitude Zeroes count as significant figures Captive & trailing zeroes count; leading don?t. y = f(x1,x2, ) in addition so that sy2 = S sXn2 (df / dxn)2 Dimensional Analysis Add in addition so that subtract common units only Under multiplication in addition so that division, units accumulate alongside + in addition so that ? powers, respectively. Solution sought must have units identical alongside that accumulation, or it is not correct. Factor method of unit conversion chains: [ 102 cm / 1 m ]3 ? [ 1 L / 103 cm3 ] or 1 m3 = 103 L Temperature SI unit the Kelvin [ K ] Because 0 K is absolute 0øC = + 273.15 K 0 K = ? 273.15øC Different origin but the same size units. TF = 32øF + (9øF/5øC) TC 0 K = ? 459.67 øF 98.6 øF = øC Extensive Properties Scale alongside the AMOUNT or COUNT Mass in addition so that number of moles are obviously extensive. Volume in addition so that energies so scale extensive. Temperature is not extensive 2 hot bricks have twice the energy but not twice the temperature of one Intensive Properties Remain the same under increases in amount or count. Temperature is intensive. Density, r = m / V, is the ratio of two extensive variables; so the amount cancels in addition so that r is intensive. Phases of Matter Condensed Phases ?incompressible? SOLID, maximally compacted & immobile LIQUID, molecules not fixed but fluid yet still adjacent so that one another; of fixed density Rarified Phases ?compressible? GAS, fluid but nonadjacent molecules expand so that fill containers completely (by varying density) PLASMA, hot, ionized gas of charged atoms & electrons Classifications of Matter MIXTURES Separable by physical means E.g., filtration or chromatography Heterogeneous Components in different phases or domains Homogeneous Components in same phase in addition so that domain COMPOUNDS Compounded of different elements, but these can be separated chemically ELEMENTS Identical building blocks, atoms, react identically. SUBATOMIC MATTER Protons, neutrons, in addition so that electrons

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Topic 1 Physical quantities in addition so that unitsPhysics in addition so that

Topic 1 Physical quantities in addition so that unitsPhysics in addition so that www.phwiki.com

Topic 1 Physical quantities in addition so that unitsPhysics in addition so that Physical Measurement Learning outcomes(a) show an understanding that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude in addition so that a unit(b) recall the following SI base quantities in addition so that their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K), amount of substance (mol)(c) express derived units as products or quotients of the base units in addition so that use the named units listed in this syllabus as appropriate(d) use base units so that check the homogeneity of physical equations(f) use the following prefixes in addition so that their symbols so that indicate decimal submultiples or multiples of both base in addition so that derived units: pico (p), nano (n), micro (?), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T)(g) make reasonable estimates of physical quantities included within the syllabusFor your notesAll physical quantities have a magnitude in addition so that a unitBase units are:mass (kg)length(m)time (s)current (A)temperature (K)amount of substance (mol)Express derived units in terms of the base units Use the SI units Standards of MeasurementSI units are those of the SystŠme International d?Unit‚s adopted in 1960 Used in consideration of general measurement in most countriesScientists in addition so that engineers need so that make accurate measurements so that they can exchange information so that be useful a standard of measurement must be Invariant, Accessible in addition so that Reproducible Fundamental dimensionsThere are seven fundamental dimensions.A base unit is accurately defined in consideration of each quantity. They are:Length metre m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Electric current ampere A Thermodynamic temp Kelvin K Amount of a substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela CdDerived QuantitiesSpeed, force , energy etc. are not base quantities.Derived units allow us so that measure any quantity.Derived quantities are combinations of the fundamentalse.g. speed average speed = distance/timeSo the derived unit is meters per secondWe write derived units in the form ms-1 not m/s Figuring out derived unitsWrite out an equation in consideration of the quantity you want so that know the units of. ( The defining equation is best)eg Pressure = F/ARewrite the equation substituting units in consideration of quantitiesEg [Pa]=[N] / [m2] or [N] [m-2]Check if units are base unitsm-2 ™Repeat process in consideration of any none base units F=ma [N] = [kg] [m] [s-2] all base unitsSo . [Pa]= [N] [m-2] = [kg] [m] [s-2] [m-2] Simplified [Pa]= [kg] [s-2] [m-1] PractiseTry theseVelocityDensityWorkPowerResistanceWriting Units two examplesA car has a velocity of 10ms-1Notes Do not use m/sMeters in addition so that seconds are SI unitsA metal has a density of 5Kgm-3NotesKg not g is the SI unitPer m3 is written m-3 Some Derived UnitsAcceleration ms-2 Angular acceleration rad s-2 Momentum kgms-1 or Ns Others have specific names in addition so that symbols Force kg ms-2 or NPressure kgm-1s-2or PaResistance kgm2A-2s-3 or ?Of course there are so many things out there so that measure there are many more.Summary questionsWhat are the base quantities What are the base units Give 5 derived unitsWhat is a volume of 1m3 in cm3 What is a pressure of 1Ncm-2 in Pa State 2 problems alongside this reading in addition so that rewrite it correctly: Speed= 39 mphCan you State the fundamental units in the SI system.Distinguish between fundamental in addition so that derived unitsGive examples of derived units.Convert between different units of quantities. State units in the accepted SI format.

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