Huan T. Tran UC Berkeley POLARBEAR: Polarization of Background Radiation Huan T.

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Huan T. Tran UC Berkeley POLARBEAR: Polarization of Background Radiation Huan T.

Clark, Carol, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Huan T. Tran UC Berkeley POLARBEAR: Polarization of Background Radiation Huan T. Tran University of Cali as long as nia at Berkeley Kam Arnold Daniel Flannigan Wlliam Holzapfel Jacob Howard Zigmund Kermish Adrian Lee P.I. Marius Lungu Mike Myers Roger O’Brient Erin Quealy Christian Reichardt Paul Richards Chase Shimmin Bryan Steinbach Huan Tran P.M. Oliver Zahn Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Julian Borrill Christopher Cantalupo Theodore Kisner Eric Linder Helmuth Spieler University of Colorado at Boulder Aubra Anthony Nils Halverson University of Cali as long as nia at San Diego David Boettger Brian Keating George Fuller Nathan Miller Hans Paar Ian Schanning Meir Shimon Imperial College Andrew Jaffe Daniel O’Dea Laboratoire Astroparticule & Cosmologie Josquin Errard Joseph Martino Radek Stompor KEK Masashi Hasumi Haruki Nishino Takayuki Tomaru McGill University Peter Hyl in addition to Matt Dobbs Cardiff University Peter Ade Carole Tucker POLARBEAR Collaboration Large Format Antenna-coupled TES bolometer arrays Frequency-Multiplexed Readout Monochromatic – switch focal planes as long as different frequencies Polarbear concept POLARBEAR Concept HWP Modulator stepped/continuous Low Spurious Polarization Optics Stringent Ground Shielding/monolithic primary Located in Chile as long as Sky Rotation Key designs as long as Systematic Control Test phase in Cali as long as nia- Cedar Flat Key Technologies as long as Sensitivity Eric Chauvin-General Dynamics (Vertex)

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POLARBEAR Telescope 4’ at 150 GHz: Constrain Lensing Large FOV: 2.4 deg Relatively compact Monolithic central primary Flat-telecentric focal plane Cold Lyot Stop 3.5m Clear aperture (2.5m active) Dragone-Gregorian Cold Reimaging Optics POLARBEAR mirrors Primary: RMS 53 micron Secondary: RMS 37 micron

POLARBEAR Receiver Three UHMWPE lenses Cold Lyot Stop Telcentric Focal Plane Cold Reimaging Optics Cryomech Pulse-tube cooler Simon-Chase ‘He10’ refrigerator now demonstrated with APEX/SPT Cryogenics 2m Rotating HWP Skyward of lenses Field Stop POLARBEAR Array 7 Hexagonal wafers in Chile 2 Wafers at Cedar Flat 637 Pixels/1274 bolometers @ 150 GHz Si Lenslet Si Wafer Pixel pair Antenna Filter Bolometer Polarization Purity Receiver Spectrum POLARBEAR Detector per as long as mance Beam map E-Plane

POLARBEAR DfMUX Readout capacitors inductors Bolometer wafer FPGA-based Oscillator-Demodulators NIST squids POLARBEAR HWP rotation mechanism 28cm Drive Idler Pawl Designed as long as both continuous in addition to stepped rotation Ball bearing Belt driven / stepper motor Optical encoder readout ~Arcsec repeatability (stepped) Single plate Sapphire (not shown) AR coated with TMM ~70K Tooth POLARBEAR Groundshielding Goal: Ground must be suppressed by ~109 Cylindrically symmetric Curved panels Extra tall to shield mountains

Systematic errors Atmosphere Ground/sidelobes Polarization Calibration Beam Distortions Foregrounds B in addition to mismatch Telescope flexure Ghost reflections Beam Measurement Scan Strategy Small beam size HWP HWPSS Array Temp stability Scan Strategy Scan in AZ, fixed EL ~ 1 hour Re-center scan each hour Choose centers as long as uni as long as mity Choose HWP stepping scheme Maps ground pickup template each hour Scan Strategy: optimizing polarization uni as long as mity Sky rotation gives some uni as long as mity Continuous HWP is ideal-> null many effects Can choose steps wisely f1 : Measure of quad-pole non-uni as long as mity polarization coverage f2 : dipole in addition to oct-pole non-uni as long as mity Step HWP 3 times, once per day

Diff Gain Diff FWHM Diff Pointing Diff Ellipticity Diff Rotation POLARBEAR Parameter Tolerances Instrumental leakage Suppression due to modulation Beam effect Suppression Differential gain Diff Rotation Suppression w/ stepped HWP Suppression With sky rot Diff Beam Width Diff Ellipticity small beams => Peak in leakage at high-l Diff Pointing lensing Beam constrained 10-3 Foregrounds in addition to Scan Regions Scan is targeted at low dust contrast regions as low as ~2uK intensity 150,220 GHz b in addition to s Patches chosen to match QUIET

POLARBEAR Per as long as mance Red error bars: Includes noise increase from subtracting 220 GHz to remove mid lat dust Experiment Summary Polarbear concept POLARBEAR Deployment Testing phase at Cedar Flat Telescope assembly underway First light in months Test stepped vs continuous HWP Test as long as atmospheric removal

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ARO MURI K-b in addition to Spatial Power Combiner Using Active Array Modules LY. Vicki Chen

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ARO MURI K-b in addition to Spatial Power Combiner Using Active Array Modules LY. Vicki Chen

Williams, Linda, Weekend Anchor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal ARO MURI K-b in addition to Spatial Power Combiner Using Active Array Modules LY. Vicki Chen, PengCheng Jia, Robert A. York PA Workshop, San Diego 2002 ARO MURI Presentation Outline Passive System Antenna array, Higher order mode problem, Per as long as mance Amplifier Design Two-stage Amplifier, Flip-Chip IC, CPW-line Power Combiner Design considerations, Per as long as mance Conclusions Spatial Power Combining Tray Approach Tile Approach Normal incident/outgoing waves Limited b in addition to width in general Easier as long as monolithic design Challenge in thermal management Parallel incident/outgoing waves Broadb in addition to characteristics Good heat-sinking property Consuming more substrate area ARO MURI

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System Overview Gradual transition from WR42 to the oversized waveguide Oversized waveguide (TE10,TE20) Active Devices Tapered-Finline Antennas Extended work from the X-B in addition to Spatial Combiner Design Oversized Waveguide Environment – TE10, TE20 from 18 to 22GHz Fin-line to CPW line Transition Monolithic Circuit Design – Flip-Chip IC ARO MURI Antenna Design Reference paper: Design of Waveguide Finline Arrays as long as Spatial Combining. Submitted to IEEE transaction on MTTs Klopfenstein Taper CPW line Design is based on the optimal taper design of the X-b in addition to system. Finline to CPW line transitions – Eliminate the bond-wires. Air-bridges are needed to provide good grounding in the middle ground plane. Use HFSS as long as simulation. Ground Signal AlN substrate Finline to CPW line transitions ARO MURI Ground Ground Signal HFSS Simulation Dielectric Fin-line Et Et PMC PEC PEC air Et Metal Waveguide Wall metal metal PMC PEC Simulate as long as 2×4 system. Simplify the problem by applying the boundary conditions. Impedance & Gamma vs. Gap-size Finline – CPW Transition Reflection coefficient as long as the taper design. By as long as cing the PMC boundary condition, the even mode does not exist in the system. ARO MURI

Effects of Mounting Grooves short circuit grooves The depth of the short circuit grooves has huge effect on the return loss d=/5 d=2/15 d Reflection Coefficient (dB) The mounting grooves affect the optimal values of many parameters: Operating frequency Effective dielectric constant Substrate thickness Single mode unilateral finline d b Small slots are affected more severely than broader slots. ARO MURI Combining Efficiency Symmetrical loading is necessary to avoid TE20 mode in addition to achieve efficient combining. ~ 76% combining efficiency is achieved. 6 cards (4×6 system) 50ohm Termination & Through-line measurement Frequency (GHz) Frequency (GHz) Measurement as long as one card (asymmetrical) in addition to two cards (symmetrical) system ARO MURI Two-Stage Amplifier Design Flip-Chip Technology using CPW-line Design Challenges – Substrate modes are excited easily. Biasing circuitry is complicated. Good grounding should be maintained. Power device Pre-amp ARO MURI Thermal Management – FCIC Gain Enhancement – pre-amplifier Optimal load matching ADS/Momentum Simulations Ground Ground Ground Signal Signal 8.56mm 13.5mm

Two-Stage Amplifier Design CPW-line Substrate Mode ARO MURI Quasi-TEM eff AlN AlN > eff > Air Substrate mode is excited easily! Increasing the substrate thickness or reducing the width of the CPW-line could reduce the effect of the substrate mode. S21(dB) of the Two-stage Amplifier Pout Gain PAE Two-Stage Amplifier Per as long as mance ARO MURI Return loss <-10dB as long as the operating frequencies. 27.3dBm output power with 20% PAE in addition to 9.5dB power gain was obtained. Thin film (on-chip) in addition to chip capacitors were both needed as long as biasing circuitry. Combiner Per as long as mance Two Cards Measurement Small Signal Per as long as mance & Power Measurement @ 18GHz Two cards system (8 amplifiers) with 34dBm output power. 12.5% PAE – 62% Combining Efficiency (optimal: 76%) Phase difference between cards degrades the output per as long as mance the most. ARO MURI Pout (dBm) Gain (dB) PAE Measurement ARO MURI Statistical Errors in Arrays Ref: R. York, “Some considerations as long as Optimal Efficiency in addition to Low Noise in Large Power Combiners”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. Phase errors in addition to device failures are most important in large combiners ARO MURI Splitter Combiner G1 G2 GN A Bout Output voltage: Output Power: ri = 0 or 1 Probability of device survival Change in power due to errors: Ensemble average: Combiner Per as long as mance 6 Cards Measurement ARO MURI Six Cards System (6x4) – 2 devices failed. 10dB small signal gain. Absorbing material were added to prevent the in-b in addition to oscillations. Each cards was biased individually. Improper grounding could result in oscillations. Some chip resistors were added to prevent bias-line oscillations. Absorbing Material Signal cross-talk between bond-wires could induce in-b in addition to oscillations Phase Noise Reduction ARO MURI Splitter Combiner G G G Amplifiers degrade phase noise due to internal nonlineariities which up convert low-frequency amplitude in addition to phase noise to the carrier Noise contributed by the ensemble is reduced by 1/N (-13.4dB) compared with a single amplifier Power Measurement ARO MURI Non-uni as long as m excitation profile 37.3dBm output power @18GHz was obtained. Non-uni as long as m excitation. Chip resistors were added as long as bias-line stabilization. Combining Efficiency: 53.7%. Conclusion ARO MURI Passive combiner achieved 76% combining efficiency. 34dBm output power has been obtained as long as 2-tray system. 62% combining efficiency was obtained. 37.3dBm output power has been obtained as long as 6-tray system. 53.7% combining efficiency was obtained. Phase noise reduction compared with single amplifier. Stabilization should be maintained as long as all frequencies. Williams, Linda Fox 10 News at 5:30 PM Weekend - KSAZ-TV Weekend Anchor www.phwiki.com

Williams, Linda Weekend Anchor

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The Pathway so that SuccessPre-CollegeGoal 1 ? Initiative 11aAccomplishment

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The Pathway so that SuccessPre-CollegeGoal 1 ? Initiative 11aAccomplishment

University of Oregon, OR has reference to this Academic Journal, The Pathway so that SuccessPre-CollegeGoal 1 ? Initiative 11aAccomplishments Since 2013-14 ReportTuition assistance in consideration of high school teachers (9 teachers, 54 credit hours)College+You early outreach website soft rollout (Phase II updates in progress adding more pictures, video, in addition to interactive features)Early prospecting mailing planned in consideration of AprilBenchmark Table

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Benchmark Progress DetailIncrease College Challenge Enrollment- Projected so that reach 1,950 (goal 1,900)Increase College Challenge Credits- projected at 5,300 (goal 5,219)Increase Freshman Enrollment- 26% increase since 2008Early Outreach Events- 10 events on campus by June 1.Budget SummaryTotal funding allocation in consideration of 2014-15: $66,816Expenses as of report dateExpenditures- tuition assistance: $17,708, website: $93.02Encumbered costs- website: $5000, tuition assistance: $13,000, early pros. mailing $31,000Anticipated remainder June 30, 2015: $14.00Accomplishments Since Plan InceptionCollege+You website targeting 12-14yoCollege Challenge class visits- 388 attendeesNew marketing materials, mailings, in addition to e-communications Expansion of College Challenge partnerships by offering teacher tuition assistance

Looking Ahead – RecommendationsContinue tuition assistance in consideration of teachersCOLLEGE+YOU marketing plan in consideration of roll-out of phase II of new website Early Prospect Mailing should be base lined so that Admissions alongside a budget allocationDevelop curriculum use in consideration of COLLEGE+YOU website in addition to additional content developmentForeseeable RoadblocksBudget fundingEvolving technology in addition to the ways students connect in addition to gather informationChanging perceptions in how information pushed out by the University is perceived by young studentsNew points of emphasisCollaboration alongside school administrators so that advance curricular development in addition to integrate COLLEGE+YOU website in addition to other tools into daily school activitiesPartner alongside statewide initiative so that develop county based college success coalitions

Recovery of Function Mechanisms of Motor Learning Recovery of Function Theories of the Recovery of Function Cellular Response so that Injury Regenerative Synaptogenesis Reactive Synaptogenesis Cortical Reorganization 1/2 Cortical Reorganization 2/2 Alternate Pathways Transneuronal Lesion Effects Synaptogenesis Clinical Implications Recovery vs Compensation Stages of Recovery Factors Contributing so that Recovery of Function Factors Contributing so that Recovery of Function Factors Contributing so that Recovery of Function Factors Contributing so that Recovery of Function Factors Contributing so that Recovery of Function ?Best Practice? The End

Missed opportunitiesDevelop plan so that include pre-college initiatives in the annual Counselor Day on Campus event. Great opportunity so that engage, collaborate, in addition to get input from elementary, secondary in addition to high school guidance counselors on our target population. Baseline Recommendation The Early Prospect Mailing should be integrated into the operation of Admissions alongside a budget allocation so that support its continued use. It has been funded through Initiative 11a in consideration of 3 consecutive years.Opportunities in consideration of CollaborationsThere is potential so that collaborate alongside Initiative 4- Parents in addition to Families, so that expand our impact on younger children and/or friends of our ISU parents in addition to families.

Questions?Initiative 11a- Pre CollegeJill Blunk- Jill.Blunk@indstate Rich Toomey- Richard.Toomey@indstate

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A famous quotation from RFC 791 Routing

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A famous quotation from RFC 791 Routing

University of Oregon, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Routing Jennifer Rexford Advanced Computer Networks cs.princeton /courses/archive/fall08/cos561/ Tuesdays/Thursdays 1:30pm-2:50pm Goals of Today?s Lecture Routing Routing vs. forwarding Properties of routing protocols Internet routing architecture Separation of intradomain in addition to interdomain Intra: metric-based in addition to router level Inter: policy-based at Autonomous System level Measuring the routing system Challenges of measuring a decentralized, heterogeneous system Discussion of Paxson97 (Labovitz98 next time) Routing

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What is a Route? A famous quotation from RFC 791 ?A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how we get there.? Jon Postel Forwarding vs. Routing Forwarding: data plane Directing a data packet so that an outgoing link Individual router using a forwarding table Routing: control plane Computing paths the packets will follow Routers talking amongst themselves Individual router creating a forwarding table Why Does Routing Matter? End-to-end performance Quality of the path affects user performance Propagation delay, throughput, in addition to packet loss Use of network resources Balance of the traffic over the routers in addition to links Avoiding congestion by balancing load Transient disruptions during changes Failures, maintenance, in addition to load balancing Limiting packet loss in addition to delay during changes Realizing business objectives Maximizing revenue or minimizing cost Avoiding paths going through untrusted parties

Choosing a Routing Protocol Who is in charge of selecting the path? The network or the end host? How complex are the path-selection goals? Shortest-path vs. policy-based routing Are participants willing so that cooperate? Willing so that share information? Have a common goal in selecting paths? Is large-scale behavior a concern? Stability of the network topology State in addition to message overhead Disruptions during routing convergence Many Kinds of Routing Protocols Link-state routing (Dijkstra) Routers flood topology information And compute (shortest) paths Distance-vector routing (Bellman-Ford) Routers learn path costs from their neighbors And select the neighbor along shortest path Policy-based path-vector routing Routers learn full path from their neighbors And select the most desirable path Many Kinds of Routing Protocols (Continued) Source routing End host or edge router learn the topology And select the end-to-end path Route servers Set of servers learn topology in addition to compute routes And tell all the routers how so that forward packets Ad hoc routing Routers keep track of a small neighborhood And forward packets in (hopefully) right direction

Intrusion Detection Systems Definitions Elements of Intrusion Detection Components of Intrusion Detection System Intrusion Detection Approaches Misuse Detection Anomaly Detection Monitoring Networks in addition to Hosts Key Performance Metrics Host-Based IDSs Network IDSs Architecture of Network IDS Firewall Versus Network IDS Requirements of Network IDS Case Study: Snort IDS Problems alongside Current IDSs Next Generation IDSs Adaptive IDSs

Internet Routing Architecture Two-Tiered Internet Routing Architecture Goal: distributed management of resources Internetworking of multiple networks Networks under separate administrative control Solution: two-tiered routing architecture Intradomain: inside a region of control Okay in consideration of routers so that share topology information Routers configured so that achieve a common goal Interdomain: between regions of control Not okay so that share complete information Networks may have different/conflicting goals Intradomain Routing: E.g., Shortest Path Routers belong so that the same institution Share a common, network-wide goal Metric-based routing protocols Typically shortest-path routing With configurable link weights 3 2 2 1 1 3 1 4 5 3

Interdomain Routing: Between Networks AS-level topology Nodes are Autonomous Systems (ASes) Destinations are prefixes (e.g., 12.0.0.0/8) Edges are links in addition to business relationships 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Client Web server AS Numbers (ASNs) ASNs are 16 bit values. 64512 through 65535 are ?private? Level 3: 1 MIT: 3 Harvard: 11 Yale: 29 Princeton: 88 AT&T: 7018, 6341, 5074, ? UUNET: 701, 702, 284, 12199, ? Sprint: 1239, 1240, 6211, 6242, ? ? ASNs represent units of routing policy Currently around 30,000 in use. Interdomain Routing: Border Gateway Protocol ASes exchange info about who they can reach IP prefix: block of destination IP addresses AS path: sequence of ASes along the path Policies configured by the AS?s operator Path selection: which of the paths so that use? Path export: which neighbors so that tell? 1 12.34.158.5 data traffic data traffic

Measuring Internet Routing Motivations in consideration of Measuring the Routing System Characterizing the Internet Internet path properties Demands on Internet routers Routing convergence Improving Internet health Protocol design problems Protocol implementation problems Configuration errors or attacks Operating a network Detecting in addition to diagnosing routing problems Traffic shifts, routing attacks, flaky equipment, ? Techniques in consideration of Measuring Internet Routing Active probing Inject probes along path through the data plane E.g., using traceroute Passive route monitoring Capture control-plane messages between routers E.g., using tcpdump or a software router E.g., dumping the routing table on a router Injecting network events Cause failure/recovery at planned time in addition to place E.g., BGP route beacon, or planned maintenance

Internet Routing is Hard so that Measure Nobody knows the Internet topology No central registry of the AS-level graph Little public information about intra-AS topologies Deploying monitoring infrastructure is hard Forwarding: active probes of end-to-end paths Routing: passive monitoring of routing messages Many measurement challenges Network conditions vary by location Network conditions change over time One-way measurements are hard so that collect Controlled experiments are hard so that do Two Papers in consideration of Today Both early measurement studies of routing Initially appeared at SIGCOMM?96 in addition to ?97 Both won the ?best student paper? award ? And recently won the SIGCOMM ?test of time? award! Early glimpses into the health of Internet routing Early wave of papers on Internet measurement Differences in emphasis Paxson96: end-to-end active probing so that measure the characteristics of the data plane Labovitz97: passive monitoring of BGP update messages from several ISPs so that characterize (in)stability of the interdomain routing system Active Measurement: Traceroute Time-To-Live field in IP packet header Source sends a packet alongside a TTL of n Each router along the path decrements the TTL ?TTL exceeded? sent when TTL reaches 0 Traceroute tool exploits this TTL behavior source destination TTL=1 Time exceeded Send packets alongside TTL=1, 2, 3, ? in addition to record source of ?time exceeded? message

Paxson Study: Forwarding Loops Forwarding loop Packet returns so that same router multiple times May cause traceroute so that show a loop If loop lasted long enough So many packets traverse the loopy path Traceroute may reveal false loops Path change that leads so that a longer path Causing later probe packets so that hit same nodes Heuristic solution Require traceroute so that return same path 3 times Paxson Study: Causes of Loops Transient vs. persistent Transient: routing-protocol convergence Persistent: likely configuration problem Challenges Appropriate time boundary between the two? What about flaky equipment going up in addition to down? Determining the cause of persistent loops? Causes of persistent loops E.g., misconfiguration 0.0.0.0/0 12.1.2.0/24 Paxson Study: Path Fluttering Rapid changes between paths Multiple paths between a pair of hosts Load balancing policies inside the network Packet-based load balancing Round-robin or random Multiple paths in consideration of packets in a single flow Flow-based load balancing Hash of some fields in the packet header E.g., IP addresses, port numbers, etc. To keep packets in a flow on one path

Paxson Study: Routing Stability Route prevalence Likelihood of observing a particular route Relatively easy so that measure alongside sound sampling Poisson arrivals see time averages (PASTA) Most host pairs have a dominant route Route persistence How long a route endures before a change Much harder so that measure through active probes Look in consideration of cases of multiple observations Typical host pair has path persistence of a week Paxson Study: Route Asymmetry Hot-potato routing Other causes Asymmetric link weights in intradomain routing Cold-potato routing, where AS requests traffic enter at particular place Consequences Lots of asymmetry One-way delay is not necessarily half of the round-trip time Customer A Customer B multiple peering points Provider A Provider B Early-exit routing Conclusions Internet routing architecture Two-tiered system Intradomain is metric-based, alongside common goal Interdomain is policy-based, reconciling different goals across ASes Behavior of complete systems is mysterious Challenging so that measure Challenging so that characterize, in addition to diagnose Next time Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Discussion of the Labovitz97 paper

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Paxson Study: Routing Stability Route prevalence Likelihood of observing a particular route Relatively easy so that measure alongside sound sampling Poisson arrivals see time averages (PASTA) Most host pairs have a dominant route Route persistence How long a route endures before a change Much harder so that measure through active probes Look in consideration of cases of multiple observations Typical host pair has path persistence of a week Paxson Study: Route Asymmetry Hot-potato routing Other causes Asymmetric link weights in intradomain routing Cold-potato routing, where AS requests traffic enter at particular place Consequences Lots of asymmetry One-way delay is not necessarily half of the round-trip time Customer A Customer B multiple peering points Provider A Provider B Early-exit routing Conclusions Internet routing architecture Two-tiered system Intradomain is metric-based, alongside common goal Interdomain is policy-based, reconciling different goals across ASes Behavior of complete systems is mysterious Challenging so that measure Challenging so that characterize, in addition to diagnose Next time Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Discussion of the Labovitz97 paper and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.