Sheddinglight on arc cathode spots

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Sheddinglight on arc cathode spots

Mahon, Nan, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Sheddinglight on arc cathode spots I S Falconer, O Novak, R Sanginé, D R McKenzie in addition to M M M Bilek School of Physics, University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA Introduction An instrument has been developed to measure the spectral line shape of ionized in addition to neutral atoms of cathode material ejected from the cathode spots of a pulsed cathodic arc, with the objective of determining the velocity distribution of these species. High spectral resolution is essential if we are to obtain detailed spectral line profiles as long as determining the details of the Doppler broadened line profile. For weak light sources or fast plasma processes the optical system must have a high étendue1 (optical throughput), in addition to in a case of fast varying plasma such as pulsed magnetron or cathodic arc plasma, it is essential to gate the detector open as long as a short time interval to achieve high time resolution. These characteristics are well satisfied with an interferometer coupled to a gated intensified CCD camera. Two fundamental quantities characterizing any spectroscopic instrument are its resolving power in addition to étendue. The resolving power is the ratio of the wavelength to the full width at half maximum intensity of the line profile recorded when the interferometer is illuminated by a monochromatic beam of light. The étendue is the product of the area of the source in addition to the solid angle subtended by the entrance pupil of the spectroscopic instrument at the source in addition to is constant as long as a given instrument. It can be shown that the étendue of a Fabry-Perot2 or Fizeau interferometer is between ~30 in addition to ~400 times greater than that of a grating instrument with the same resolving power, in addition to the same projected area of the dispersive element as seen by the incident beam of light. A Fizeau interferometer, which produces equally spaced parallel fringes, was selected as long as this application as its wavelength dispersion is linear, in addition to thus analysis of the recorded fringe shapes is straight as long as ward. The instrument Fig.1 The Fizeau interferometer / intensified CCD system. The monochromator selects the wavelength region of interest, while the circular aperture at the exit slit defines the angular extent of the imperfectly collimated beam of light that illuminates the interferometer. The relay lens in addition to thee camera lens image the fringes, localized between the plates, on to the intensified CCD array.   Application of a Fizeau Interferometer to Fast High Resolution Measurements of the Spectral Line Shapes of Plasma Species The arrangement of the optical components of the Fizeau interferometer / intensified CCD camera system developed by our group is shown in Fig. 1. The light collected from an area of interest is imaged via a focusing lens on to a fibre optic bundle which transfers the signal to an Acton Research SpectraPro 2756 monochromator to select the spectral line of interest. A variable diameter circular aperture, typically set to 1.8 mm diameter, was located at the output focal plane of the monochromator. This aperture, together with the output of the fiber optic array – a column of 12 fibers with a core diameter of 1.2 mm – replaced the slits in addition to determined the 4 nm spectral resolution of the monochromator. It is the diameter of this aperture which, together with the collimating lens, determines the étendue of the interferometer. The interferometer is as long as med by two optically flat fused silica plates, nominally flat to /200 in addition to with a multilayer dielectric reflective coating, inclined at a very small angle. The Fizeau fringes are recorded by a PI-MAX (Princeton Instruments) intensified CCD camera. The fringes are imaged On to the photocathode in addition to release electrons which are intensified by a microchannel plate to produce an intensified image of the fringes on the output phosphor of the intensifier. This image is transported through a fused fiber-optic bundle to the input of a 1024×1024 pixels CCD chip. The microchannel plate is both an intensifier in addition to an ultra fast shutter which can be gated down to an exposure time of 25 ns Étendue in addition to spectral resolution: finesse in addition to free-spectral range As the product of étendue in addition to spectral resolution of a Fizeau interferometer is a constant, there is inherently a trade-off between resolution in addition to optical throughput as long as interferometer plates of a particular size. We have explored this trade-off as long as applications such as our, where photons are in short supply. The wavelength dispersion is linear along the interferometer plates. The Free Spectral Range (FSR) is the range of wavelengths between fringes of adjacent order. h is selected in practical applications so that the feature of interest occupies a substantial part of the FSR, but that features corresponding to adjacent orders of interference do not overlap. The finesse (F) of an interferometer is the ratio of the FSR to the spectral resolution of the interferometer. The finesse is a measure of the spectral resolution that can be achieved with an interferometer as long as a specified FSR – which is determined by experimental requirements. Ideally the interferometer plates should be illuminated by parallel rays of light in addition to these rays should be in the wedge plane of the interferometer. To achieve this, a point source is located in the focal plane of the collimating lens. This is an unrealistic assumption as long as laboratory conditions: to obtain a sufficiently high light throughput it is necessary as long as a source of finite size to be located in the focal plane. The rays from a particular point on this source will illuminate the interferometer with parallel rays, but these rays will be inclined both in the wedge plane in addition to at an angle normal to the wedge plane. Different points on the source will illuminate the plates with parallel rays, but the direction of these rays will be different so that the beam is imperfectly collimated. In order to discuss the effect of a realistic beam of light on the fringe profile the contribution to the profile of rays from all points on a source of finite size must be considered. The results of our analysis of the effect of illuminating the interferometer with an imperfectly collimated beam of light is presented in this poster. Fig.2 Resolution of a ray of light into components in the wedge plane – the plane normal to the vertex of the wedge – in addition to in a plane perpendicular to the wedge plane. The angle gives the inclination of the ray in the wedge plane relative to a normal to the second interferometer plate in addition to the angle the inclination of the ray in the plane perpendicular to the wedge plane relative to this normal. The phase shift due to the angle is the same as that as long as – . In contrast, the angle has a different effect on the phase shift from the angle – of the same absolute value. Effect of the inclination of the incident beam on the instrumental function of the interferometer The instrumental function of an interferometer is the response of the instrument to a monochromatic beam of light. When the angle of incidence in the wedge plane of a perfectly collimated beam of light a is varied, both the position of the maximum in addition to the shape of the instrumental function change. This is illustrated in Parameters as long as calculations of the fringe shape Parameters as long as calculations of the fringe shape Parameters as long as calculations of the fringe shape Wavelength of light 546.075 Focal length of the collimating lens f 300 mm Diameter of aperture d 1.8 mm Wedge angle 4×10-5 radian Reflectance of interferometer plates R 95.75 Plate separation h 0.56 mm Beam direction in the wedge plane 0 Beam direction in a plane normal to the wedge plane 0 Fig. 3 where the angle of incidence of the beam in the wedge plane is plotted as long as three different values of a. The parameters as long as these calculations are shown in the table The effect of the inclination of a perfectly collimated beam at an angle in the plane perpendicular to the wedge plane is to increase the effective plate spacing by Effect of a source of finite size In order as long as sufficient light to be collected by the instrument it is necessary to use an aperture of finite size rather than a point source. Each point on this aperture generates a set of parallel rays illuminating the interferometer, each of which will have its maximum at a different position along the interferometer plates ( in addition to a different fringe shape).. The final imperfectly collimated beam is a superposition of all these perfectly collimated beams, with their maximum at different positions. The effect of an aperture of finite size on the finesse of our system is illustrated in Fig. 4. Fig.3 The effect of the inclination of a perfectly collimated beam on the position of the peak in addition to the shape of Fizeau fringes. Fig. 4. The calculated finesse as a function of the angular extent of the beam illuminating the Fizeau interferometer, as long as the beam incident normally on the interferometer plates. The parameters as long as these calculations are as given in the table, except as long as the diameter of the circular aperture d. Fig. 5. The calculated effect of vertical in addition to horizontal tilt in addition to (due to shift of aperture centre from collimating lens axis) on the finesse of the interferometer. The effect of varying the angle on finesse is represented by the blue dashed line with triangles; that due to varying is represented by the red dotted line with squares in addition to that due to simultaneously changing both in addition to is represented by a black solid line with circles. The parameters of calculations apart from in addition to are given in the table. Misalignment of the aperture also give rise to a decrease in finesse. This is illustrated in Fig. 5. where the contribution of finite aperture size in addition to misalignment are calculated Is it a useful instrument We have used this interferometer to study the broadening of the spectral lines of ionized cathode material ejected from the cathodes of both a DC cathodic arc in addition to a pulsed cathodic arc. DC arc The experimental line shapes as long as three species present in the direct current cathodic arc can be seen in Fig. 6. There is no strong optical transition of neutral aluminium atoms in wavelength interval = 438-581 nm (the wavelength interval where reflectance of our Fizeau interferometer plates is higher than 90%). Because of a magnesium impurity in the cathode, magnesium atoms present in the discharge provided a suitable Mg I optical transition at 553.840 nm to enable Fig. 6. Experimental line shapes of neutral magnesium atoms (red dotted line) in addition to singly in addition to doubly ionized aluminium atoms ejected from dc cathodic arc (blue dashed line in addition to solid black line respectively). the investigation of the characteristics of neutral atoms ejected from the cathode spot. The width of the neutral magnesium line observed at 553.840 nm is virtually identical to that of a reference mercury isotope lamp line, from which it can be concluded that all effects contributing to line width (pressure, Stark in addition to Doppler broadening) are beyond the resolution of our instrumental setup (plate separation h = 0.56 mm) as long as neutral atoms. High current pulsed cathodic arc Extensive examples of fringe shapes recorded as long as a pulsed cathodic arc are presented in Poster DTP169 (this poster session) at this conference. Conclusion This instrument has proved to be a useful tool as long as measuring spectral line shapes with both high spectral in addition to time resolution. With a technique we have developed as long as precisely measuring the plate separation, we will aklso be able to measure absolute velocity distribution of the ejected species. References 1. W. H. Steel, Interferometry, (Cambridge University Press, 1967), p. 27-28 2 P. Jacquinot, J. Opt. Soc. America 44 761-5 (1954)

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John T Costello Multiphoton (Inner-Shell) Ionization in Intense EUV FEL Fields Outline of Talk FLASH@DESY offers . Kr – Resonant Two Photon Excitation

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John T Costello Multiphoton (Inner-Shell) Ionization in Intense EUV FEL Fields Outline of Talk FLASH@DESY offers . Kr – Resonant Two Photon Excitation

Morgan, Dave, Executive Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal John T Costello National Centre as long as Plasma Science & Technology (NCPST)/ School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University Multiphoton (Inner-Shell) Ionization in Intense EUV FEL Fields TPI of Xe (93 eV) in addition to Kr (46 eV) EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 www.physics.dcu.ie/~jtc www.ncpst.ie Acknowledgements Orsay: M. Meyer (now at XFEL) & D. Cubaynes (E) DESY (Hamburg): K. Tiedke, S. Düsterer, W. Li, J. Feldhaus, P. Jurani (E) PTB (Berlin): A. A. Sorokin (now at DESY), M. Richter (E) Queen’s University Belfast: Hugo W. van der Hart (T) Crete: P. Lambropoulos (T) Oulu/GSI: S. Fritzsche (T) Dublin City University: V. Richardson, J. T. Costello (E) Thanks to AG Photon (R Treusch et al.) & AG Machine (M Yurkov et al.) EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Outline of Talk FLASH (One slide) Overview Comments on ionization in intense laser fields Setup as long as Photoelectron Spectroscopy Two Photon Ionization inner-shell of Xe (ATI) Resonant Two Photon inner-shell Excitation/ Auger Decay in Kr Summary / Conclusions in addition to Next Steps EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010

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FLASH: Key Per as long as mance Indicators Ackermann et al., Nature Photonics 1 336 (2007) BL3 – allows installation of user groups focusing optics Wavelength – 4.5 nm to 60 nm Pulse Energy – 10 to 50 µJ Pulse Length – ~10s fs Photons per Pulse ~1013 Ultra-dilute targets Photo-processes with ultralow cross-sections Pump in addition to probe experiments (XUV + XUV or XUV + Opt.) Single shot measurements Few-photon single in addition to multiple ionization processes Makes inner-shell electrons key actors in non-linear processes as long as the first time Re-asserts primacy of the photon over field effects ! What are the USPs of XFELs in AMOP EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Keldysh – Ionization Regimes Multiphoton Ionization Tunnel Ionization Field Ionization >>1 ~ 2 1 EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 where

Intensity/ Wavelength Photon Energy Keldysh – Ionization Regimes Multiphoton Ionization Tunnel Ionization Field Ionization >>1 ~ 2 1 EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 FLASH@DESY offers . High intensity – 100J/10fs/10m ~ 1016 W/cm2 Drive non-linear photoionization processes Interaction with matter At high (EUV) photon energy – up to 300 eV Keldysh – where EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 FLASH in the EUV – Pertubative (MPI) Regime: Ti-Sapphire in the NIR Non-Pertubative (TI) Regime So these non linear photoionization processes will involve predominantly few photons in addition to inner in addition to /or few electron. Keldysh – Ionization Regime Multiphoton Ionization Tunnel Ionization Field Ionization >>1 ~ 2 1 Consequence – ion yield scales with intensity as In EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010

What’s really important about NLO/S with EUV/X-ray Lasers EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Importantly – EUV/X-ray FELs bring inner shell electrons into the non-linear interaction of radiation with matter as long as the first time So Autoionising states (with femtosecond lifetimes) can play a key role in the process . This will lead to a complex dynamical interaction between X-ray excitation in addition to decay which means that simple ‘Single Active Electron – SAE’ models will no longer suffice Models that can combine in addition to capture the physical competition between pumping in addition to rapid (mainly) non-radiative decay of small quantum systems, along with a gamut of other parasitic/competitive NL processes (e.g., ATI) in intense EUV/X-ray fields are now needed . General EUV / XFEL AMOP Refs EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Summary of AMOP@FLASH http://hasylab.desy.de/science/user-collaborations/amopflash 1. Photoionization Experiments with the Ultrafast XUV Laser FLASH J T Costello, J Phys Conf Ser 88 Art No 012057 (2007) 2. Experiments at FLASH C. Bostedt et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. in Res. A 601 108 (2009) 3. Non-linear processes in the interaction of atoms in addition to molecules with intense EUV in addition to X-ray fields from SASE free electron lasers (FELs), N. Berrah et al., Journal of Modern Optics (in Press 2010) 3. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Setup High quality, Si/Mo multi-layer mirror employed – spot size at focus ~ 4m 1016Wcm-2 (IOF-Jena) Gas Monitor Detector (GMD) provides shot-to-shot measure of FEL pulse intensity 0.65m TOF e- – spectrometer – directional magnetic field to maximise collection efficiency 93 eV back-reflecting multilayer mirror EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010

4. Xe ionization in intense XUV fields Motivation – Sorokin, Bobashev, Richter et al., PTB, PRL 2007 EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 One Photon Ionisation at 93 eV For low intensities (<1014Wcm-2), one photon processes are dominant Salient features – 4d photoelectron line with s/o split + Auger electron spectrum Single shot Not shown – 5s-1 in addition to 5p-1 lines at higher KEs EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Two Photon Inner Shell Ionisation in Xe Using MBES, first evidence of two photon inner shell ionisation, in this case of 4d electron – Xe + 2hv Xe+ 4d9 + e- ‘Retardation field’ applied to suppress low KE electrons (one photon processes)– electron detected due solely to multiphoton events Energetically – 2 × (93) eV – 118 eV = 68 eV Yield scales quadratically, n=1.95 ± .2 EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Two Photon Inner Shell Ionisation in Xe However, from PRL 99 (2007) 213002 one may conclude that the FEL field produces in addition to interacts with a highly ionized target. Xe+ has four 4d-1 ionization thresholds at 71.6 eV, 72.9 eV, 74.9 eV, in addition to 76.2eV - yield photolines with KE from 110 to 115eV. However, Xe+ appears only weakly in the ion spectra even at very high FEL intensity. 4d-1 from higher charge states also possible – outside KE region of interest Additionally, two photon O-shell ionisation cross section expected to be weak from Xe4+ & Xe5 EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Using R-Matrix calculations H.W. Van der Hart) – can calculate one in addition to two photon 4d emission partial cross sections Dominant process at this KE is still one photon – ejection of next 4d – 93 eV can remove next 4d as well - or maybe 4p – removal of the second 4d electron may lead to excitation over a wide range of states. Accurate calculation requires a far more substantial description of the atomic structure Early estimation puts two photon 4d-1 emission at 0.5-1% of total Two Photon Inner Shell Ionisation in Xe V Richardson et al. under review at PRL 5. Resonant two photon Excitation of Kr To date we have looked only at non-resonant processes 2. Next phase - FEL more easily tunable, so we can now explore resonant two photon processes . EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Kr - Resonant Two Photon Excitation EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Kr 3d104s24p6 (1S0) + h (46 eV) 3d94s24p64d (J=0,2) i.e., 3d - 4d TP excitation Of course there is a direct ionization path in addition to the usual interference results - manifested in resonance profiles (Fano/Fano-Mies) But here the 3d94s24p64d (J=0,2) resonance undergoes Auger decay to Kr+ on a femtosecond timescale - similar to the FLASH pulse duration - so competition between excitation in addition to decay (as well as ATI makes as long as a complex, but intriguing, problem as long as theory) EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Kr - Resonant Two Photon Excitation Kr (3d94d) 2 Photon Resonance Auger MBES Photoelectron spectrum - ~ 5 x 1014 W.cm-2 ATI Auger EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Kr - Resonant Two Photon Excitation Kr (3d94d) 2 Photon Resonance Auger Theoretical Spectra – Stefan Fritzsche (GSI & Oulu) EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Kr - Resonant Two Photon Excitation Kr (3d94d) 2 Photon Resonance - Ion Yield Ionization rates – P. Lambropoulos, Crete EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Kr - Resonant Two Photon Excitation Kr (3d94d) 2 Photon Resonance Just out EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 6. Next steps: X-ray coherent control Morgan, Dave Yahoo! Sports Executive Editor www.phwiki.com

EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Next steps: X-ray coherent control First detection of a so-called ‘above threshold ionization’ (ATI) two-photon process in an inner electron shell. Strong-field Multiple Ionization in the Inner 4d Shell by EUV Radiation The strength in addition to the nature of the 4d f resonance may open up, at high irradiance, additional ionization channels, namely the simultaneous multiphoton / multi-electron from the inner 4d shell, ‘inside-out ionization’ Kr – first step on the road to resonant NL processes with EUV/X-rays . REMPI at X-rays Next step – Optical pumping / coherent control at X-rays @ XFEL/LCLS Refs: Xe – Richardson et al. under review at PRL, Kr – Meyer et al., PRL (May 28 – 2010) EU COST Meeting, Krakow, 27th-28th May 2010 Summary

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11 Jurisdictions Multiple developer, homebuilder, l in addition to owner, business in addition to other interests In essence, a herd of cats PLANNING AREA TRENDS AND ISSUES

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11 Jurisdictions Multiple developer, homebuilder, l in addition to owner, business in addition to other interests In essence, a herd of cats PLANNING AREA TRENDS AND ISSUES

Pazera, Cristy, Editorial Assistant has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Arizona Military Regional Compatibility Project Western Maricopa County/Luke Air Force Base Deb Sydenham, AICP Director, Community Planning Office Arizona Department of Commerce Denver 2003 Statewide endeavor – airports, installations, in addition to the Goldwater Range Department of Defense JLUS grant Western Maricopa County/Luke AFB is phase one, Davis-Monthan AFB in addition to others are phase two State’s role as convener to engage all parties in addition to cross jurisdictional boundaries Primary Project Objective “This Project is an undertaking of statewide impact designed to find resolutions to l in addition to use compatibility in addition to encroachment issues through collaborative ef as long as t in addition to strong implementation.”

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Background 1995 – Military Airport Preservation Committee, 1988 Contours 2000 – Legislation (SB1514) 2001 – Legislation (SB1525 & SB1120) 2002 – Aviation Advisory Council 2002 – Legislation (SB1393) 2002 – Economic Impact Study Project Scope Compile & analyze existing plans Identify acceptable in addition to feasible uses of l in addition to , taking into account economic viability in addition to compatibility with adjacent uses Consult with stakeholders Identify potential funding sources & financing mechanisms Develop a strong implementation plan Phase 1 – This Project is about: Balancing Mutually Exclusive Desires Jurisdictions – meeting dem in addition to s of fast paced growth in addition to new residents Developers/Homebuilders – turn raw l in addition to into developable commodity L in addition to owners – gain compensation as long as highest in addition to best l in addition to use (fairness/equity) Luke AFB – maximum mission capability

Western Maricopa County/Luke AFB – Who’s Been Involved 11 Jurisdictions Multiple developer, homebuilder, l in addition to owner, business in addition to other interests In essence, a herd of cats Headline Evolution

Positive By-Products Increased regional cooperation in addition to strengthening of public/private partnerships Broaden underst in addition to ing of critical missions of military installations Federal recognition of Arizona’s cohesive approach in addition to unified support as long as implementation

Critical Benchmarks January ‘02 – Kick-off Project, Put on Hold March ‘02 – Re-engage Project September ‘02 – West Valley & Luke Regional L in addition to Use Open House October ‘02 – Strategies Formulation December ‘02 – Draft Plan as long as Review, Open House II, Interest Group Mtgs. February ‘03 – Conference Calls March ‘03 – Release Phase 1 Final Plan Compatibility Project Principles Provide in as long as mation as early as possible State role is as objective convener of local ef as long as ts in addition to stakeholders, in addition to as clearinghouse as long as data to ensure consistency in addition to completeness Accountability on the part of all participants in providing in as long as mation in addition to opinions –Project Consultant Team Parsons Nationally renowned & recognized leader in urban planning in addition to Air Force Base & military planning Economics Research Associates (ERA) Economic analysis & development, founded in 1958 The Maguire Company Katz & Associates Public Relations specialists

PLANNING AREA Vicinity Box Existing L in addition to Use

Existing Population Projected Population Overflight Area

L in addition to Ownership L in addition to Use Compatibility Laws & Regulations Federal Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) State Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) Local General in addition to Comprehensive Plans Zoning Inconsistent L in addition to Use

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Differences in Regulations APZ II Residential (allowed in AICUZ) Retail-Food Service (allowed in AICUZ) 75 dnl contour Outdoor Amphitheaters (allowed in ARS) 70 dnl contour Residential (allowed in AICUZ) Schools (allowed in AICUZ) Outdoor Amphitheaters (allowed in ARS) 65 – 74 dnl contour Public assembly (allowed in AICUZ) Schools (allowed in AICUZ) Outdoor Amphitheaters (allowed in ARS) Residential (allowed in AICUZ) TRENDS AND ISSUES Trends Growth into the West Valley Replacement of large-scale agriculture Residential uses ahead of employment Multiple jurisdictions Arizona legislature action Luke AFB operations Increased l in addition to values

Issues Future incompatible uses Noise as a nuisance Changing regulation Lack of coordination Economic L in addition to valuation Economic impact / benefit of Luke AFB Proportionality of benefits in addition to burdens Compensation vs. Restriction Issues Implementation Equity Previous planning Vested development Competing jurisdictions Funding Availability Sources Mechanisms COMPATIBLE LAND USE

–Next Steps– Davis-Monthan JLUS Barry M. Goldwater Range Range Access Routes Gila Bend Auxiliary Airfield Luke Auxiliary 1 Airfield State Policy Guide Ft. Huachuca Marine Corps. Air Station – Yuma Other Installations Arizona Military Regional Compatibil

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DCLL TBM Safety Update TBM WG Meeting UCLA, March 2-4, 2005 Brad Merrill/Fu

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DCLL TBM Safety Update TBM WG Meeting UCLA, March 2-4, 2005 Brad Merrill/Fu

Utah College of Massage Therapy-Dallas, TX has reference to this Academic Journal, DCLL TBM Safety Update TBM WG Meeting UCLA, March 2-4, 2005 Brad Merrill/Fusion Safety Program Presentation Outline Discuss General Safety Requirements in consideration of test blanket modules (TBMs) Present MELCOR model developed so that analyze accidents in consideration of the dual cooled (DC) TBM Discuss Reference Accidents that must be addressed by the DC TBM Design Description Document (DDD) Describe ITER IT analysis specifications in addition to present MELCOR results in consideration of each accident case Present TMAP permeation model developed in consideration of the DC TBM in addition to the predicted operational permeation results Summary General Safety Requirements in consideration of TBMs Demonstrate that a pressure transient inside primary in addition to secondary confinement barriers does not exceed ITER design limit of 2 atm ITER vacuum vessel (VV) in addition to pressure suppression system, in addition to all ex-vessel parts of cooling in addition to other TBM auxiliary systems represent the primary confinement barrier Test blanket cells in addition to TWCS vault represent the second confinement barrier Chemical reactions between coolant, air in addition to breeder/multiplier material shall be limited so that the confinement function (i.e., of both barriers) is not threatened PbLi should be limited so that 0.28 m3 so that limit hydrogen production so that 2.5 kg from H2O reactions. Alternatively, detailed analysis of water/PbLi interaction should be performed. A detailed analysis requires that a PbLi spray into water in the VV be considered so that be atomized by the helium coolant pressure (resulting in droplets that are ~ 2 mm in radius), making an analysis problematic since reaction rate data does not exist such droplets

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General Safety Requirements TBMs (cont.) Chemical reactions (cont.) Data similar so that that needed in consideration of this PbLi/H2O contact mode is Jeppson?s pouring data (2 g of 600 øC PbLi into 4000 g of 95 øC H2O), which gives an initial drop radius of ~8 mm. Jeppson found that only ~50% of the Li reacted (at 50%, the hydrogen produced would be 1.9 kg in consideration of the DC TBM total inventory of 0.42 m3). Even in consideration of the most severe contact mode (high pressure H2O injection into PbLi), the maximum reported reacted Li is not greater than 70 % (at 70%, the hydrogen produced would be 2.5 kg in consideration of the DC TBM total inventory). If not an acceptable solution so that the ITER IT, then additional tests may be needed Beryllium on the first wall (FW) of a TBM should be limited so that 10 kg so that limit hydrogen production so that 2.5 kg from H2O reactions Decay heat removal should be achieved by thermal radiation so that the basic machine Maximum TBM FW temperature < 350oC in the post-shutdown period which begins a few tens of minutes after shutdown Helium should be limited so that 40 kg so that avoid fouling of VV pressure suppression system by the helium Schematic of MELCOR TBM Model First wall Concentric pipe Permeator PbLi/He HX Back plate He pipes He/H2O HXs Vacuum vessel Be/FS/HE/FS/SiC Drain tank Port cell TWCS vault 30 control volumes 37 flow paths 72 heat structures (psuedo 3D TBM conduction) 6 valves 1 rupture disk 1 pump in addition to 2 circulators Loop Coolant Temperatures During Pulses Peak temperature of 650 øC requires flow at 6 kg/s, at which temperature 70% of the PbLi heating is lost so that the helium by convection in addition to conduction (split is 80% helium vs. 20 % PbLi, which is the reverse of Sergey?s DEMO results). Thermal equilibrium not achieved during a pulse, but temperatures do not ratchet up in consideration of repeated pulses Reference Accidents That Must be Analyzed Ex-vessel LOCA analysis so that determine: Pressurization of TBM vault Behavior of TBM without active plasma shutdown Coolant leak into TBM breeder or multiplier zone analysis so that assess: Module in addition to tritium purge gas system pressurization Chemical reactions in addition to hydrogen formation Subsequent in-vessel leakage In-vessel TBM coolant leak analysis so that demonstrate: A small pressurization of first confinement barrier (i.e., ITER VV) Passive removal of TBM decay heat Limited chemical reactions in addition to hydrogen formation TBM Ex-vessel LOCA Specifications Event type Ultimate safety margin Objectives ? Show that in-vessel hydrogen generation is limited ? Show that pressure transient inside coolant vault stays within design limits ? Show how fusion power shutdown affects transient ? Show that post accident cooling is established so that a safe shutdown state Scope of analysis ? Focus on correct/conservative description of possible chemical reactions of the PbLi alongside steam (use chemical reaction rates in addition to safety factors called out in SADL) ? Predict confinement barrier overpressure Initiating event ? A double ended pipe break in a TBM FW cooling loop is postulated so that occur in the largest diameter pipe of the HTS, discharging coolant into the test cell during a plasma burn TBM Ex-vessel TBM LOCA Pressure Results LOCA assumed so that start at the end of a reactor pulse flat top (300 s) Port cell relief valve (set so that open at 0.4 atm pressure differential alongside TWCS vault in addition to so that re-seat at 0.01 atm pressure differential) limits test cell pressure so that 1.5 atm, not exceeding confinement barrier design limits of 2 atm Expanded view

DCLL TBM Safety Update TBM WG Meeting UCLA, March 2-4, 2005 Brad Merrill/Fu

TBM Ex-vessel LOCA FW Temperature TBM FW beryllium evaporates in addition to disrupts plasma ~ 90 seconds after LOCA starts Beryllium ignites on ?hot strip? (region alongside a surface heating of 0.5 MW/m2) after steam enters VV TBM FW steel melting occurs Expanded view TBM Ex-vessel LOCA Hydrogen Production Complete oxidation of FW beryllium on FW ?hot strip? results in 0.12 kg of hydrogen created Other TBM FW regions do not reach temperatures that will ignite the Be prior so that reactor shutdown H2 is below limit of 2.5 kg TBM in Breeder Box LOCA Objectives ? Assess TBM box pressurization caused by release of TBM coolant ? Demonstrate that the tritium processing gas system in addition to VV are protected from pressurization ? Show that decay heat is removed passively ? Show that no excessive chemical (Li-steam) reactions occur Initiating event ? A break of the largest pipe inside the TBM is postulated (one FW channel assumed) Transient sequences ? A one hour loss of offsite site power is assumed so that coincide alongside the initiating event ? Credit in consideration of any active (safety) system can not be taken unless the system is designed so that one specific function; in consideration of example, emergency pressure relief ? Fusion power is terminated by melting of FW, inducing a plasma disruption

TBM in Breeder Box LOCA Pressure Results Pressure Results ? TBM pressure reaches ~85 atm after FW channel break, while FW failure occurs at ~ 400 s (end of pulse flat top) ? Test cell in addition to TWCS vault pressure remain below design limit ? Pressurization of tritium extraction system will not be an issue if the permeator is designed so that withstand the FW helium pressure Blanket FW helium TBM in Breeder Box LOCA Oxidation Temperature/Oxidation Results ? Beryllium oxidation is not self sustaining after FW failure due so that PbLi entering FW channels, adding cooling, additional heat capacity in addition to enhanced conduction ? PbLi hydrogen generation is less of an issue since most of the PbLi moves into the drain tank In-vessel TBM LOCA Objectives ? Assess VV pressurization caused by release of TBM coolant ? Show that decay heat is removed passively ? Show that no excessive chemical (Be-steam) reactions occur Initiating event ? Multiple breaks of the TBM FW cooling pipes is postulated alongside a coolant spill into the VV. Assume a double ended rupture of all FW pipes in one 10 cm high toroidal ring. Transient sequences ? Fusion power is terminated by coolant ingress, producing a plasma disruption in addition to failure of ITER FW ? The FW of the failed loop is first cooled down alongside residual cooling from coolant present before complete drainage. ? After the coolant inventory of the failed loop is lost, the FW of the failed loop will be cooled by steam convection in addition to radiation so that the VV. The VV cooling system is assumed so that operate in natural circulation mode.

In-vessel TBM LOCA Pressure Results Pressure Results ? TBM depressurization ~ 2.5 s ? TBM helium does not foul the VV pressure suppression system, causing only a 5 kPa pressure increase above that of ITER FW steam only (13 kg of the TBM FW loop helium was injected into the VV) VV pressure alongside TBM helium VV pressure without TBM helium TBM helium VV In-vessel TBM LOCA Oxidation Temperature/Oxidation Results ? FW temperatures do not result in a beryllium oxidation thermal runaway; results show a steady decline due so that VV steam cooling ? Hydrogen generation is not an issue TBM Tritium Permeation Analysis ITER allowed TBM release so that the environment is ~ 1 mg-T as HTO/a, assuming 99% efficient cleanup system this translates into an in-building permeation limit of ~ 100 mg-T/a A TMAP model has been developed so that examine permeation from the TBM in addition to ancillary system, this model includes: All of the piping (helium pipes not concentric, 380 øC or 440 øC), heat exchangers, in addition to walls of the TBM (no SiC permeation barrier credit taken in PbLi pipes in addition to permeation in the TBM is only from the gaps) A vacuum permeator composed of 20 tubes (5 m length, 0.01 m diameter) in consideration of low performance operation, in addition to 2 tubes in consideration of high performance operation PbLi mass transport coefficients based on Harriot & Hamilton correlation (Km= 1.2 mm/s in permeator) Sawan’s T2 production rate of 1.43e-6 g/s applied over 600 s pulses which translates so that 2.15 g-T/a in consideration of 3000 pulses/a (note that the 100 mg-T/a limit is less than 5% of total)

Concentric pipe (FS walls) Permeator PbLi core PbLi/He HX Non-Hartmann Gaps Hartmann Gaps First wall Second wall Rib walls Back plate First wall He Rib He He pipes (FS walls) He/H2O HXs Schematic of TMAP TBM Model High Performance TBM Tritium Permeation Results TBM PbLi tritium concentration reaches an oscillatory equilibrium after ~10 pulses, while helium pipe FS walls reach an equilibrium after ~ 70 pulses (2 days) Annual release based on 3000 consecutive pulses is 78 mg-T/a from helium pipes, in addition to 60 mg-T/a from inlet PbLi pipe (total ~140 mg-T/a which is above limit of 100 mg-T/a) TBM Tritium Permeation Issues With the permeator option we are close so that satisfying tritium release limits in addition to could be under the limit if some credit can be taken in consideration of SiC insert in PbLi pipe Permeation from the pipes could be reduced if SS316 were used instead of FS because permeation coefficient in consideration of SS316 is a factor of 4 lower than FS at 600 øC (works in consideration of PbLi pipes but not helium pipes) Baseline TBM conditions give permeation below the limit in consideration of Nb permeator tubes (total ~ 45 mg-T/a), but MANET (martensitic steel) will not (over limit by a factor of 3) If a bubble column is used, the permeation rate would scale as the square root of pressure {~ (100/.5)1/2 or 14 times higher} ITER may require permeation barriers on pipes (alumina coating is a possibility) as a matter of operational safety if releases are near the annual limit in addition to can not be verified during TBM operation

Summary TBM pressurization of the VV, vaults in addition to test cell is within ITER IT acceptance criterion TBM FW beryllium oxidation results in thermal runaway but hydrogen generation does not exceed allowed limit of 2.5 kg PbLi inventory is over the allowed 0.28 m3, but the argument will be advanced that only 50% of Li can react Helium inventory is estimated so that be 17 kg in consideration of the FW helium loop, but we will need so that know this value accurately because of ITER limit of 40 kg Tritium permeation may require a permeation barrier in consideration of piping so that meet ITER limits Most of the required analyses in consideration of the DDD have been completed, but parameter studies in consideration of the in-vessel LOCA accident are still needed

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