CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE

CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE www.phwiki.com

CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE

Alexander, Ed, Operations Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Introduction. GCM in addition to ice sheet simulations. Conclusions. Other mechanisms as long as inception. Future plans. The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation: Cause or Coincidence D.J. Lunt, P.J. Valdes A. Haywood I.C. Rutt The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence Zachos et al, 2001 CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE Bartoli et al, 2005 Hypothesis to test Closure of the Seaway enhancement of Atlantic circulation warmer SSTs increased evaporation at high latitudes. increase in precipitation inception of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation + increase underst in addition to ing of climate / ice sheet interactions as long as future climate change! Ruddiman, Earth’s Climate The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence

Kent State University - Trumbull US www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

~ 370 m depth Closed Seaway (late Pliocene) Open Seaway (early Pliocene) The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence 2 experiments with a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM), HadCM3. Surface air temperature, closed Seaway – open Seaway Bi-polar response. Max 7oC warming in North Atlantic following closure. Global average: +0.25oC The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence Atlantic Circulation [Sv] Atlantic circulation, Pliocene closed Seaway Atlantic circulation, Pliocene open Seaway The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence

Precipitation change, Closed-Open The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence Ice-sheet model – GLIMMER. Based on Payne (1999). Predicts evolution of ice-sheet geometry (extent, elevation), given a driving climate (temp in addition to precip). Annual PDD scheme as long as surface mass-balance Temperature downscaled using high-resolution (40 km) orography in addition to a constant lapse rate. The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence Modelled Pliocene (closed) Modelled Pliocene (open) Closed – open The closure of the Panama Seaway in addition to the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: Cause or Coincidence

Conclusions Model results indicate that the closure of the Panama Seaway did not directly cause Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Pliocene. The process as long as the slight enhancement of glaciation following closure of the seaway is as proposed in the original hypothesis, i.e. mixing of Atlantic in addition to Pacific waters leading to a massive enhancement of the Atlantic MOC, increased evaporation in addition to precipitation over Greenl in addition to , which leads to enhanced glaciation. Climate Dynamics, in press. CAUSE OR COINCIDENCE Given caveats! Other mechanisms as long as inception Atmospheric composition changes (e.g. CO2). Orbital fluctuations. Open Seaway CO2 = 400ppmv Modern orbit Closed Seaway CO2 = 400ppmv Modern orbit Closed Seaway CO2 = 280ppmv Modern orbit Closed Seaway CO2 = 280ppmv Glacial Inception orbit Future work Validation with paleodata: Daniela Schmidt, Richard Pancost, Bristol Earth Sciences in addition to Bristol Chemistry Other effects Rockies uplift . Gavin Foster, Bristol Earth Sciences Effect of the closure on the Antarctic ice sheet Complete sensitivity studies e.g. Solely orbital as long as cing.

Alexander, Ed KVOI-AM Operations Manager www.phwiki.com

Alexander, Ed Operations Manager

Alexander, Ed is from United States and they belong to KVOI-AM and they are from  Tucson, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Alexander, Ed deal with the subjects like Entertainment; Music

Journal Ratings by Kent State University – Trumbull

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Kent State University – Trumbull and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.