Cell Biology Outline Prokaryotes in addition to Eukaryotes Cell Organelles What is ATP
Khoury, Diane, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Cell Biology Outline Cell Structure in addition to Organelles Cell Molecular Components Water in addition to Chemical properties Cell Membrane Osmotic Properties of cells Cell molecule transportation Prokaryotes in addition to Eukaryotes
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Structure of Animal Cells Cell Organelles Nucleus 1 Nuclear envelope Chromatin in addition to DNA Nucleolus Mitochondria Double membrane Mitochondrial (maternal) DNA Power House of the cell Food converted into energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Consumes Oxygen, produces CO2 What is ATP Nucleotides Carry chemical energy from easily hydrolyzed phosphoanhydride bonds Combine to as long as m coenzymes (coenzyme A (CoA) Used as signaling molecules (cyclic AMP)
Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Site where cell membrane in addition to exported material is made Ribosomes (rough) Make protiens Smooth ER- lipids Golgi Apparatus Receives in addition to modifies Directs new materials Lysosomes Intracellular digestion Releases nutrients Breakdown of waste Cell Organelles Peroxisomes Hydrogen Peroxide generated in addition to degraded Cytosol Water based gel Chemical reactions Cytoskeleton Filaments (actin, intermediate in addition to microtubules) Movement of organelles in addition to cell Structure/strengthen cell Vessicles Material transport Membrane, ER, Golgi derived vessicles Organic Molecules of Cells Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids
Proteins Most diverse in addition to complex macromolecules in the cell Used as long as structure, function in addition to in as long as mation Made of linearly arranged amino acid residues folded up with active regions Types of Proteins 1) Enzymes catalyzes covalent bond breakage or as long as mation 2) Structural collagen, elastin, keratin, etc. 3) Motility actin, myosin, tubulin, etc. 4) Regulatory bind to DNA to switch genes on or off 5) Storage ovalbumin, casein, etc. 6) Hormonal insulin, nerve growth factor (NGF), etc. 7) Receptors hormone in addition to neurotransmitter receptors 8) Transport carries small molecules or irons 9) Special purpose proteins green fluorescent protein, etc.
Humans have around 30,000 genes. Each cell has the full set of the human genes but only makes specific protein. Why Implication in tissue engineering Hydrophobic molecules Energy storage, membrane components, signal molecules Triglycerides (fat), phospholipids, waxes, sterols Lipids Sugars, storage (glycogen, starch), Structural polymers (cellulose in addition to chitin) Major substrates of energy metabolism Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in addition to RNA encode genetic in as long as mation as long as synthesis of all proteins Blue print
Water Molecule Polarity of H2O allows H bonding Water disassociates into H+ in addition to OH- Imbalance of H+ in addition to OH- give rise to acids in addition to bases – Measured by the pH pH influence charges of amino acid groups on protein, causing a specific activity Buffering systems maintain intracellular in addition to extracellular pH Hydrophobic Water-fearing Molecule is not polar, cannot as long as m H bonds in addition to is repelled from water Insoluble Hydrophillic Water-loving Molecule is polar, as long as ms H bonds with water Soluble Water Molecule Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane Composition Plasma membrane encloses cell in addition to cell organelles Made of hydrophobic in addition to hydrophillic components Semi-permeable in addition to fluid-like lipid bilayer Integral proteins interact with lipid bilayer Passive transport pores in addition to channels Active transport pumps in addition to carriers Membrane-linked enzymes, receptors in addition to transducers Sterols stabilize the lipid bilayer Cholesterol Cell Membrane Composition
Osmosis (Greek, osmos to push) Movement of water down its concentration gradient Hydrostatic pressure Movement of water causes fluid mechanical pressure Pressure gradient across a semi-permeable membrane Osmotic Properties of Cells Hydrostatic Pressure Donnan Equilibrium Semi-permeable membrane Deionized water Add Ions Balanced charges among both sides
Add anion More Cl- leaves I to balance charges Donnan Equilibrium Diffusion Ionic Steady State Potaasium cations most abundant inside the cell Chloride anions ions most abundant outside the cell Sodium cations most abundant outside the cell Donnan Equilibrium [K+]i [K+]ii [Cl-]ii [Cl-]i =
Microtubules: hollow tube-like structure ~ 24 nm diameter Intermediate Filaments: 9-nm diameter Cell Locomotion Why do we care about cell locomotion Host defense Angiogenesis Wound healing Cancer metastasis Tissue engineering Steps: Protrusion Adhesion Traction External signals must dictate the direction of cell migration. Cell migration is initiated by the as long as mation of large membrane protrusion. Video microscopy showed that G-actin polymerizes to F-actin. (Drugs can alter this process). Actin exists as a globular monomer (G-actin) in addition to ; A filamentous polymer (F-actin) protein. The addition of Mg2+, K+ or Na+ to a solution of G-actin induces the as long as mation of F-actin in addition to this process is reversible. Elastic mechanical property of actin filament.
Khoury, Diane Managing Editor
Khoury, Diane is from United States and they belong to Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause and they are from Birmingham, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Khoury, Diane deal with the subjects like Healthcare Industry; Medical; Women’s Interest
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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l’Etat and short form of this particular Institution is FR and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.