CELL DEATH an overview How do cells die NECROSIS APOPTOSIS

CELL DEATH an overview How do cells die NECROSIS APOPTOSIS www.phwiki.com

CELL DEATH an overview How do cells die NECROSIS APOPTOSIS

LaChance, Diana, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CELL DEATH an overview Dr Cathy Baker 22nd October 2007 Intercalated BSc 2007-08 How do cells die Killed by injurious agents Induced to commit suicide NECROSIS APOPTOSIS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Underst in addition to , describe in addition to illustrate Differences: necrosis vs. apoptosis Morphological changes of apoptosis Function of apoptosis Principal biochemical mechanisms Role of apoptosis in pathologies

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Pathology Morphological changes Function Biochemistry Lecture overview Necrosis Mechanical injury & toxic agents Cell groups Membrane integrity destroyed Cells in addition to organelles swell, burst in addition to leak contents Inflammatory response Other cells in addition to tissues damaged Cell death by necrosis

John Kerr et al Br.J.Cancer 26: 239-257, 1972 Apoptosis Essential biological process Cells have role in own death – told or decide to commit suicide Programmed cell death (PCD) Apoptosis Distinct as long as m of single cell death Tightly regulated Very localised Energy consuming process Membranes intact (early stages) Safe disposal of cell corpse No inflammation

Changes in cell morphology Cells shrink in addition to become detached from adjoining cells Cytoskeleton collapses Mitochondria remain intact Plasma membrane develops bubbles (blebs) on surface Membrane blebs during apoptosis

Nucleus in addition to chromatin condense Aggregates at periphery of nucleus Nuclear envelope disintegrates DNA fragmentation Budding off in addition to breakage into small membrane wrapped fragments – apoptotic bodies Formation of apoptotic bodies What happens to apoptotic cells in addition to apoptotic bodies Ingested & degraded by phagocytes Macrophages in addition to dendritic cells Adjacent cells in tissue High speed in addition to efficiency Histologically inconspicuous No inflammation

Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in addition to bodies Function of apoptosis Deliberate removal of specific, unwanted cells Organised in addition to controlled manner Without damaging other cells or tissues Circumstances

Homeostasis Constancy of internal environment Tissue turnover Cell numbers have to be maintained Homeodynamics Removal of unwanted cells Damage Organ in addition to tissue differentiation Vestigial structures Alteration of tissue as long as m Embryonic development

Deletion of excess immature neurons that have failed to establish synaptic connections Occurs in CNS in addition to PNS Prevents redundant cell in mature nervous system Neurological development Endometrial breakdown prior to menstruation Regression of lactating breast tissue after weaning Involution of tissue Internal cell damage Inappropriate 3o protein structure Cell Infection Viral Stress Starvation DNA damage Ionizing radiation, ROS Cell damage

LaChance, Diana Culture & Leisure Managing Editor www.phwiki.com

Biochemistry of apoptosis Intense area of research Complicated integrated mechanisms Much more to be revealed! Common core process Underpins morphological changes Four stage process Stage 1 – The Death Signal

Stage 2 – Integration in addition to Transduction Stage 3 – Execution Stage 4 – Cell Removal

You should now be able to Underst in addition to , describe in addition to illustrate Differences: necrosis vs. apoptosis Morphological changes of apoptosis Function of apoptosis Principal biochemical mechanisms Role of apoptosis in pathologies

LaChance, Diana Managing Editor

LaChance, Diana is from United States and they belong to Culture & Leisure and they are from  Huntsville, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and LaChance, Diana deal with the subjects like Domestic Lifestyle (Regional)

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