Cenozoic Cenozoic Introduction Cenozoic Plate Motions Cenozoic Mountain Building Alpine-Himalayan Belt

Cenozoic Cenozoic Introduction Cenozoic Plate Motions Cenozoic Mountain Building Alpine-Himalayan Belt www.phwiki.com

Cenozoic Cenozoic Introduction Cenozoic Plate Motions Cenozoic Mountain Building Alpine-Himalayan Belt

Engelhardt, Loy, Host/ General Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Cenozoic Geology Cenozoic Introduction Tertiary (66-1.6 Ma) Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pliocene Quaternary (1.6 Ma-present) Pleistocene Present Earth features are Cenozoic Cenozoic Plate Motions Atlantic Ocean continues to widen India to Asia Himalayas Africa moves northward Mediterranean Sea E. Africa Rift zone born Australia & Antarctic separate North America & Greenl in addition to split from Europe Farallon Plate subducted

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Cenozoic Mountain Building 2 zones of orogenesis Alpine-Himalayan Belt Circum-Pacific Belt Alpine-Himalayan Belt Began during Mesozoic Most de as long as mation Eocene to L. Miocene Africa-Arabian Plate hit Eurasia India collided with Asia Himalayas Collision of Spain with France Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Atlas Mtns. Evolved Himalayas India-Asia X-section Birth of Himalayas Maybe evolved 40 to 50 Ma Decreased spreading rates (15-5cm/yr) 2000 km of India beneath Asia

Swiss Alps Alps showing Nappes Large, faulted overturned folds Circum-Pacific Belt Arc orogens – oceanic crust subducted Philippines, Japan, Aleutians as long as m Andes as long as m – Nazca & Cocos plate subducted Central America Arc connection develops Japan Evolution Sea of Japan thought to have as long as med by back-arc spreading

Andes Evolution Passive margin changed to active margin Followed by continued de as long as mation North America Cordillera Complex mountainous region Extends from Alaska to Central Mexico Laramide orogeny (Late K-Tertiary) Intrusive in addition to Extrusive volcanism Extension Basin & Range Uplift & Erosion Colorado Plateau Laramide Orogeny Begins in Cretaceous Orogenesis of Rocky Mtns. Ends in middle Miocene Caused by subduction of Farallon plate beneath North America

Laramide Orogeny Little volcanism or pluton emplacement Uplift is vertical Little compressional folding/faulting Angle of subduction decreases Arc Magmatism shifts inl in addition to Farallon subducted along with mantle plume De as long as mation occurs further inl in addition to Cordilleran Volcanism Continuous through Cenozoic Varied Eruptive Styles & location Columbia Plateau Cascade ranges Flood Basalts Tertiary Extrusive Volcanism Eocene lavas in Yellowstone Oligocene tuffs, flows, calderas—Colorado Pliocene to Quarternary volcanism—San Francisco Mtns. Columbia River basalts—Pacific Northwest Issued from long fissures One flow covers 40,000 km2 May result from hot spot Flow young to northeast Old Faithful

Cascade Ranges Built by in addition to esitic volcanism during Pliocene, Pleistocene, & Recent Mount St. Helens Mount Lassen Crater Lake North America Basin & Range Tensional as long as ces caused crustal extension—Nevada mostly Crustal blocks moved up in addition to down on normal faults Basin & Range Possible Causes Subduction of East Pacific Rise Mantle plume Back-arc spreading

Colorado Plateau Deep canyons, broad mesas, volcanic mtns Near sea level – Cretaceous Deposition of Red Beds Early Tertiary No deep canyons Late Tertiary uplift in addition to erosion Deposition ceased Erosion of canyons began Pacific Coast San Andreas Fault Results from Pacific-Farallon ridge collision with North America Subduction ceased Continental margin bounded by trans as long as m fault Continued subduction – Juan de Fuca & Cocos plates Continued volcanic activity in Cascades in addition to Mexico Quaternary Pleistocene

Cenozoic Tertiary (66-1.6 Ma) Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pliocene Quaternary (1.6 Ma-present) Pleistocene Quaternary Pleistocene Epoch The Ice Ages include glacial in addition to interglacial periods Glacials Widespread ice Interglacials Less ice Today’s climate Pleistocene Ice Age The last glacial maximum 30% of Earth covered with ice Sea level was about 100 m (300 ft) lower than today

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Ice Age Erosional Evidence Yosemite Valley U-shaped valley Hanging valleys (glacial tributary) Striations grooves Abrasions smooth, polished surface Ice Age Depositional Evidence Glacial till Poorly-sorted erratics drumlins Ice Age Effects Sea level change Pluvial Lakes Isostacy

Carbon Dioxide IPCC Report Atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased from pre-industrial value of about 280 ppm to 379 ppm in 2005 Atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by only 20 ppm over 8000 years prior to industrialization Since 1750, CO2 concentration has risen by nearly 100 ppm Annual CO2 growth rate larger during last 10 years (1995–2005 average: 1.9 ppm yr–1) than since continuous direct measurements began (1960–2005 average: 1.4 ppm yr–1). Classic CO2 Graph Carbon Dioxide has steadily increased—anthropogenic cause Probably began in industrial revolution Superimposed are variations with seasons More CO2 in winter, less in winter Due to photosynthesis

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