Central in addition to South America Bixa Orellana Bixa Orellana
Shapiro, Bill, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Central in addition to South AmericaJenny Aleman-ZometaMonique QuirozAnnette Diaz-SantanaYessenia VelazcoBixa OrellanaBixa OrellanaTaxonomyFamily: Bixaceae (Lipstick-Tree family)Genus: Bixa Species name: Bixa OrellanaCommon English names: Annatto, Lipstick Tree Common Spanish names: Achote, BijaShrub, 6-20 meters high, age up to 50 yearsShade-intolerant, grow in disturbed areas
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Traditional UsesIndigenous groups in Piura, PeruShoots DiarrheaAphrodisiacastringent. Also used to treat liver disease in addition to hepatitis. Traditional healers in Peruvian Amazon squeezed juice from leaves Inflammation eye infectionsColumbian traditional healersAntivenin as long as snakebitesSeeds used as an expectorantRoots used as long as digestion in addition to as an anti-tussiveIn Guatemala leaves in addition to roots used as long as treatment of gonorrheaUsed in Caribbean folkloric medicine to treat diabetes mellitusModern UsesUsed as food colorant Brazilian herbal medicineLeaf decoction heartburnstomach distress caused by spicy foodsmild diuretic mild purgative.Also used as long as fevers, malaria in addition to topically to treat burnsPeruDried leaves boiled as long as 10 minutes in 1 liter of water. One cup is served warm or cold 3 times daily after meals to treat prostate disorders, internal inflammation, arterial hypertension, high cholesterol, obesity, kidney failure, in addition to to eliminate uric acid. Also recommended as a vaginal antiseptic in addition to as a wash as long as skin infections United StatesUsed to keep a healthy cholesterol balance, combat arterial plaque in addition to maintain healthy glucose in addition to triglyceride levels.Active compoundsNorbixin, water-soluble annatto derivative, found to retard oxidative deterioration (2003). Bixin is a carotenoid responsible as long as producing color.
ResearchThe leaves showed some activity against gonorrhea, however the roots did not. (1995)Crude ethanolic extracts from leaves showed potential antibacterial effect against S. aureus (2009)Preliminary investigations per as long as med on dogs given crude plant extracts indicate that it exhibits hypoglycaemic properties, it increased plasma insulin concentrations (2005).Annatto extracts showed good free radical scavenging capacity in addition to color properties, new functional applications as long as such extracts should be explored by the food in addition to cosmetic industries (2008).Literature CitedCaceres, A., H. Menendez, E. Mendez, E. Cohobon, B. E. Samayoa, E. Jauregul, E. Peralta, in addition to G. Carillo. Atigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala as long as the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (1995). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 48:85-88.Cardarelli, C.R., M. T., Benassi, in addition to A. Z. Mercadante. Characterization of different annatto extracts based on antioxidant in addition to colour properties. (2008). LWT-Food Science in addition to Technology. 41:1689-1693. Kiokias, S., in addition to M. H. Gordon. Antioxidant properties of annatto carotenoids (2003). Food Chemistry. 83: 523-529. Ongsakul, M., A. Jindarat, in addition to C. Rojanaworarit. Antibacterial effect of crude alcoholic in addition to aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants against staphylococcus aureus in addition to escherichia coli. (2009). 23:153-156.Russell, K.R.M., E.Y. St. A. Morrison, in addition to D. Ragoobirsingh. Hypoglycaemic activity of Bixa orellana extract in the dog. (2008). Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 30:301-305. http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Bixa%20orellana.pdf https://ntbg.org/plants/plant-details.phpplantid=1760http://www.virtualherbarium.org/gl/bixa/bixaorellana.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AnnattoCarica Papaya
TaxonomyDivision: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Brassicales Family: Caricaceae Common names: Papaya, pawpaw, mugua, fruta bomba, lechosa, melon tree -not to be confused with pawpaw (Asimina triloba) or mugua (Chaenomeles speciosa or Pseudocydonia sinensis )Papaya is closely related to the passionflowers (Passiflora spp)Fruit tree, grows 6-20 ft. It has a branchless trunk in addition to a palm like head foliage at the top. They flower in addition to produce fruit. The trunk remains soft wooded in addition to does not develop true bark.Growth HabitPapaya is native to southern Mexico, Central America in addition to northern South America.It thrives in tropical in addition to frost free subtropical regions in addition to is now cultivated in most tropical countries (Brazil, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Philippines in addition to Jamaica). -In the U.S., papaya is cultivated in Hawaii, southern Cali as long as nia in addition to South Florida.First fruit tree to have its genome deciphered. Active CompoundsPapain in addition to ChymopapainProteolitic enzyme that aids in digestion (breaks down proteins, carbohydrates, in addition to fats)Papain is obtained from a milky sap (latex) produced by the papaya. -Unripe fruit & leaves -Sex of treeProcesses of attaining the latex must be done manually in addition to is time consuming
Uses of C. PapayaFood -The ripe fruit is usually eaten raw, without its skin or seeds. Unripe fruit is eaten cooked in curries, salads, in addition to stews. Has a high amount of pectin, which can be used to make jellies. -Fruit juice is a popular beverage. -Black seeds are edible in addition to have a spicy taste. Sometimes ground up in addition to used as a substitute as long as black pepper -In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed in addition to eaten like spinachCooking -Unripe fruit in addition to trees leaves are rich in papain, used in tenderizing meat (check your powdered meat tenderizers) – Also used in chewing gum Uses of C. PapayaCosmetically -used in some toothpaste, shampoos, in addition to face-lifting preparations Medicine -Digestive problems, antihelmenthic (seeds also known to cause this), treatment of arthritis,diabetes, applied topically to remove freckles or brown spots on the skin -Juice is used to treat cuts, rashes, stings, ulcers, warts, burns, in addition to cancerous growths on the skin -Infusion prepared with the flowers stimulates menstruation -Decoction prepared by boiling the ripe papaya in water is said to cure diarrhea in addition to dysentery among children -Leaves are also made into tea as a preventative as long as malaria -Harrison Ford was treated as long as a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones by papain injectionsUses of C. PapayaWomen in many countries (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka ) have long used green papaya as long as its contraception in addition to abortion properties. -Enslaved women from the West IndiesMedical research in animals has confirmed its contraceptive in addition to abortion properties. -0.1-3.2 mg/ml induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles -Papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys (decrease in sperm viability in addition to increase in sperm abnormality) -Unripe papaya in large dosages may cause this effect, however, ripe papaya is not teratogenic in addition to will not cause miscarriage in small amounts.
A few more research findings Fruit in addition to seed extracts have pronounced bacterial activity as antibacterial agents against E. Coli in addition to Staphylococcus aureusExtract made from papaya leaves into a tea showed dramatic anticancer effects including cancers of the cervix, breast, liver, lung, in addition to the pancreasJuice of papaya seems to inhibit cancer growth in in vitro studies, thought to be due to lycopene or the immune system stimulationSeed extract may help protect the kidneysReferences”Papaya.” Herbs To Herbs. 1 Jan. 2002. Web. 28 Nov. 2010.
Taxonomy, distribution in addition to ecology: Smilax RegeliiFamily: SmilacaceaeGenus: SmilaxSpecies: regeliiTermed: Honduran or brown sarsaparillaRelated to LilyBrambled Vine that can grow up to 50mPart used: Root 6-8 feet, odorless in addition to tastelessRange: Northern Central America: Honduras, Caribbean in addition to MexicoActive CompoundsPlant Steroids: sarasapogening, smilagenin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, in addition to pollinastanolSaponins: sarsasaponin, smilasaponin, sarsaparilloside, in addition to silosterol glucosideCan be synthetized into human steroidss in lab such as estrogen in addition to testoreneEthnomedical usesUsed as long as centuries by the indigenous people of Central in addition to South America as long as sexual impotence, rheumatism, skin ailments, in addition to as a general tonic as long as physical weakness found by New World trader in addition to introduced into European medicine in the 1500sTribes in Peru in addition to Honduras used it as long as headaches, joint pain in addition to common cold. Shamans in the amazon use the root internally in addition to externally as long as leprosy in addition to other skin problems.
Modern UsesMain uses Psoriasis, dermatitis, leprosy in addition to other skin disorders blood purifier in addition to general detoxification aidgeneral tonic, stimulant in addition to hormonal regulator arthritis, rheumatism in addition to autoimmune disorders which cause inflammation Syphilis treatmentBiological ResearchIn 1942, it was reported in the New Engl in addition to Journal of Medicine to improve the condition of psoriasis dramatically Possible mechanism of actionSarsaponin binding to endotoxins in skinTraditional preparationOne-half to 1 cup of a st in addition to ard root decoction 2-3 timesdaily. 1-2grams of root powder in tablets or capsule daily2-3 ml of a st in addition to ard tincture of fluid extract may be taken twice a daySoft drinks in addition to beveragesSources”Database Entry: Sarsaparilla – Smilax Officinalis, Sarsaparilla, Smilax Aristolochiaefolia, Smilax Glabra, Sarsaparilla, Smilax Febrifuga, Smilx Ornata, Chinese Sarsaparilla, Smilax Regelii, Smilax Japicanga.” Wealth of the Rain as long as est – Pharmacy to the World from Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
Mimosa pudicaYessenia Velazco Mimosa pudica (Sensitive Plant) (pudica = shy), is a creeping annual or perennial herb. Also known as sensitive plant, humble plant, shameful plant, sleeping grass, touch-me-not. It belongs to the Magnoliopsida group, familiy Fabaceae, in addition to sub-family MimosaceaeThe species is native to South America in addition to Central America, but is now a pantropical weed.It grows in most well-drained soils in addition to soils with low concentrations of nutrients. Repeated burning encourage its spread in pastures.Sensitive plant is shade intolerant in addition to does not compete with tall vegetation or grow under as long as est canopies. GENERAL INFORMATIONTRADITIONAL USES Ayurvedic medicine used its root in the treatment of leprosy, dysentery, vaginal in addition to uterine complaints, inflammations, burning sensation, asthma, in addition to blood diseases. Unani healthcare system used its root in the treatment of diseases arising from blood impurities in addition to bile, bilious fevers, jaundice, in addition to leprosy. Decoction of root was used with water to gargle to reduce toothache. It is very useful in diarrhea (athisaara), amoebic dysentery (raktaatisaara), bleeding piles, in addition to urinary infections. It is mainly used in herbal preparations as long as gynecological disorders, bronchitis, general weakness in addition to impotence.
In Western medicine, Mimosa pudicas root is used as long as treating insomnia, irritability, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hemorrhoids, skin wounds, in addition to diarrhea. It is also used to treat whooping cough in addition to fevers in children, in addition to there is some evidence to suggest that it effective in relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. All parts of the Mimosa plant are reportedly toxic if taken directly. Its consumption is not recommended to pregnant or nursing ladies. Due to these reports, it seems to be best to consult a physician be as long as e using Mimosa internally.Modern Uses RESEARCH Research regarding safety in young children or those with severe liver or kidney disease have not been found. Mimosa mucilage is a promising mucoadhesive polymer as long as deliver of buccal drugs. A research study was conducted at the Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Assam, India (August 2007). The researchers found that the components present in the roots of the herb changed the timings of the release of many birth associated hormones leading to extension of pregnancy. They concluded that the herb posses anti-fertility properties.Active componentsMimosine:Toxic alkaloid.Immobilizes the filari as long as m larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in less than one hour.Potent antiproliferative in addition to apoptotic effects.Appears to inhibit the myotoxicity in addition to enzyme activity of cobra venom. Adrenalin like substance has been identified in the extract of its leaves. Some workers have reported the presence of Crocetin dimethyl Easter in the extract of the plant. Roots contain tannin up to 10% in addition to seeds contain a mucilage. The plant extract contains green yellow fatty oil up to 17%. The plant is reported to contain tubuline in addition to a new class phytohormone turgorines is found to be active in the plant. Remarkable Feature Mimosa pudica is remarkable because of its: Nyctinastic in addition to seismonastic movements. The movements are the result of a rapid loss of pressure in strategically situated cells that cause the leaves to droop right be as long as e ones eyes. This evidence led to the rejection of the hypothesis that Mimosa pudica had nerves in addition to muscles. http://www.youtube.com/watchv=g0LFBM3hOLs&feature=related
REFERENCESAhuja M., S. Kumar, M. Yadav. Evaluation of Mimosa Seed Mucilage as Bucoadhesive Polymer. (2010). The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 130: 937-944.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimosa-pudicahttp://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Mimosa%20pudica.pdfhttp://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-ombrello/pow/sensitive-plant.htmhttp://www.ecosensorium.org/2010/03/mimosa-pudica- in addition to -its-applications-in.htmlhttp://herbs.ygoy.com/2009/11/04/can-the-herb-mimosa-pudica-replace-the-contraceptive-pills/
Shapiro, Bill Managing Editor
Shapiro, Bill is from United States and they belong to Coastal Living and they are from New York, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Shapiro, Bill deal with the subjects like Domestic Lifestyle; Society
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