Ch 15: Brain in addition to Cranial Nerves Major Brain Subdivisions Cranial Meninges Four Ventricles

Ch 15: Brain in addition to Cranial Nerves Major Brain Subdivisions Cranial Meninges Four Ventricles www.phwiki.com

Ch 15: Brain in addition to Cranial Nerves Major Brain Subdivisions Cranial Meninges Four Ventricles

Brandon, Leah, On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Ch 15: Brain in addition to Cranial Nerves Discuss the organization of the brain, including the major structures in addition to their functions Describe the meninges of the spinal cord in addition to brain, in addition to integrate the as long as mation in addition to flow of CSF with this in as long as mation. Describe the structures that constitute the BBB in addition to their functions Review the cranial nerves, again giving a brief function of each. Major Brain Subdivisions Telencephalon (= Cerebrum) Diencephalon (Thalamus in addition to hypothalamus) Mesencephalon Metencephalon (Pons in addition to cerebellum) Myelencephalon (= Medulla oblongata) Brainstem Gray & White Matter Organization In brain stem similar to spinal cord (nuclei around ventricles, tracts on outside) In cerebrum in addition to cerebellum: white matter covered with layer of neural cortex (grey)

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Cranial Meninges 1. Dura mater – strong, “tough mother” a. falx cerebri b. falx cerebelli c. tentorum cerebelli 2. Arachnoid – spidery, holds blood vessels 3. Pia mater – “delicate mother” Arachnoid granulations: This is where the CSF produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles in addition to which has circulated into the subarachnoid space is reabsorbed. Longitudinal fissure Four Ventricles CSF filled chambers Communicating with central canal of spinal cord Lined by ependymal cells

Formation in ventricles by specialized ependymal cells of choroid plexuses (~500 mL/day; total volume ~ 150 mL) Functions transport medium, in shock absorption buoyancy (floats the brain) CSF circulation: Ventricles central canal subarachnoid space Reabsorption into circulation via arachnoid granulations into superior sagittal sinus. CSF: Cerebro-Spinal Fluid Fig 15.6 Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) what is it 3 areas in brain don’t have BBB portion of hypothalamus pineal gl in addition to (in diencephalon) choroid plexus Cerebrum Two hemispheres separated by longitudinal fissure Gyrus (gyri) separated by sulcus (sulci) Major lobes named after overlaying bones

Cerebral Hemispheres . have functional regions (motor, sensory in addition to association areas) have some functional differences (in spite of anatomical resemblance) Lateralization of cortical functioning receive in as long as mation in addition to generate comm in addition to s as long as opposite side of body Cerebral Cortex in addition to Central White Matter Gray surface (cortex) with white tracts internally Commissures – connect corresponding gyri of the two hemispheres 1) corpus callosum 2) anterior commissure Projection tracts (fibers) – connect more or less vertically Association tracts (fibers) – connect one gyrus to another in the same hemisphere Basal (or cerebral) Nuclei Misnomer: basal ganglia Gray matter internal to the cerebral cortex, below floor of lateral ventricles. Function: modulate motor output from the cerebral cortex. Subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone in addition to coordination of learned movement patterns. Parkinson’s disease is caused by the loss of at least 80% of the dopaminergic neurons in basal nuclei in addition to substantia nigra (resting tremor) Fig 15.11

Diencephalon Epithalamus Pineal gl in addition to – produces melatonin, sets diurnal cycles Thalamus (~12 nuclei) Hypothalamus Just superior to optic chiasma Infundibulum – connects to pituitary gl in addition to Some functions: Control of autonomic nervous system Coordination of nervous in addition to endocrine systems Secretion of hormones – ADH in addition to oxytocin Mesencephalon) = Midbrain Corpora quadrigemina = 2 pairs of sensory nuclei Superior colliculi (relay station as long as visual in as long as mation) Inferior colliculi (relay station as long as auditory in as long as mation Substantia nigra – regulates motor output Cerebral peduncles – ascending in addition to descending tracts to thalamus Nuclei of ori as long as CN III in addition to IV Metencephalon: Cerebellum Hemispheres in addition to lobes Cortex -gray surface with folia – fine ridges in addition to sulci – grooves between the ridges Purkinje cells , axons of which become arbor vitae (white matter) in center Regulation of posture in addition to balance

Metencephalon: Pons Myelencephalon: Medulla oblongata Mostly ascending in addition to descending tracts Nuclei of ori as long as many cranial nerves Location of autonomic nuclei involved in respiratory in addition to cardiovascular control Relay stations as long as sensory in addition to motor neurons Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs: 2 attach to as long as ebrain (Telen- & Diencephalon) 10 attach to brainstem (Mes-, Met- in addition to Myelencephalon) Names relate to appearance or function Classification Olfactory Nerve (= CN or N I) 1º function Origin Destination —(By way of cribi as long as m plate of ethmoid) Only CN directly attached to Cerebrum

Optic Nerve (N II) 1º fu ori dest – by way of optic as long as amen of sphenoid to Diencephalon (optic chiasma) in addition to to occipital lobe Oculomotor (N III) C: Motor O: Mesencephalon D: Somatic motor to superior, inferior, medial recti in addition to inferior oblique; visceral motor to intrinsic eye muscles by way of superior orbital fissure Trochlear (N IV) C: Motor O: Mesencephalon D: superior oblique by way of superior orbital fissure

Trigeminal (N V) C: Mixed three major branches 1. ophthalmic (sensory) 2. Maxillary (sensory) 3. M in addition to ibular (mixed) O: face / nuclei of pons D: sensory nuclei in pons / muscles of mastication Abducens (CN VI) C: Motor O: Pons D: Runs lateral rectus eye muscle Facial (N VII) C: Mixed O: sensory from taste receptors of anterior 2/3 of tongue / motor from pons D: Sensory to sensory nuclei of pons / motor muscles of facial expression, visceral motor to tear gl in addition to .

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Vestibulocochlear (N VIII) C O D Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) C: mixed O: sensory from posterior 1/3 of tongue / motor from medulla oblongata D: medulla / muscles as long as swallowing, parotid gl in addition to Vagus (N X) C: Mixed O: Sensation from pharyngeal area in addition to outer ear / motor from medulla D: Sensory to medulla / visceral motor to thoracic in addition to abdominal cavities in addition to their organs. Major motor pathway as long as ANS

Accessory (N XI) in addition to C: Motor O: Motor nuclei of medulla in addition to spinal cord D: Swallowing, trapezius & scm muscles Hypoglossal (N XII) C: Motor O: Motor nuclei of medulla D: Tongue musculature Mnemonic Out On Our Table Top Are Fruits, Very Green Veggies And Hamburgers

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