Ch 20: The Blood Functions of Blood Plasma Composition Plasma Proteins

Ch 20: The Blood Functions of Blood Plasma Composition Plasma Proteins www.phwiki.com

Ch 20: The Blood Functions of Blood Plasma Composition Plasma Proteins

Buchanan, Gary, On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Ch 20: The Blood Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components Explain the anatomy in addition to functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood in addition to give the functions of each Give a brief accounting of the platelets Review hemopoiesis, including RBC in addition to leukocyte as long as mation Functions of Blood Distribution – nutrients, wastes, hormones, gases, etc. Self-sealing – hemostasis Disease/ infection fighting Blood = connective tissue extracellular matrix: Plasma specialized cells: (= Formed elements) RBCs WBCs Platelets color volume

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Plasma Composition Water 92% Plasma proteins 7% Other solutes 1% Transports organic in addition to inorganic molecules, as long as med elements, in addition to heat Plasma Proteins Albumin (60%) Major contributor to osmotic concentration of plasma. Transport of lipids in addition to steroid hormones Globulins (35%) Transport ions, hormones, lipids; immune function Fibrinogen (4%) Essential component of clotting system (conversion to insoluble fibrin) Regulatory proteins (< 1%) Other Solutes Electrolytes: Normal extracellular fluid ion composition () Organic nutrients: glucose, FA, AA Organic wastes: urea, bilirubin Difference between Plasma in addition to Interstitial Fluid : Plasma has more: Dissolved O2 O2 diffuses out into tissue Dissolved proteins (too big to cross caps.) Albumins Globulins globulins in addition to globulins Fibrinogen Similar concentration: Salts & small molecules serum = plasma - Difference between plasma in addition to serum . 2 more things: Most plasma proteins are made in liver. Exception: Lipoproteins = particles containing lipids (cholesterol & triglycerids) in addition to proteins (albumins & globulins) Formed Elements Red in addition to White Blood Cells Platelets Platelets WBCs RBCs .1% 99.9% Formed Elements cont. Why white blood cells RBCs = Erythrocytes Measured by hematocrit or PCV Most abundant blood cell: 1000 RBCs/1 WBC Contain hemoglobin, carry O2 Very regular shape - biconcave discs Anucleate: Lifespan ~ 120 days replacement rate ~ 3 mio RBCs / sec Structure of Hemoglobin (Hb) Fe ion in heme group reversibly binds O2 How many oxygen molecules can 1 Hb molecule carry a b ABO & Rh Blood Types Blood groups (types) based on specific RBC surface antigens (= proteins) > 30 common varieties of antigens known. Most important ABO & Rh blood type ABO Blood typing: 4 combinations possible A surface antigen = blood type A B surface antigen = blood type B both surface antigens = type AB neither surface antigen = type O Rh surface antigen = + blood type no Rh antigen = negative blood type

2 – 8 months after birth: Anti-A in addition to anti-B antibodies can be as long as med in plasma ! normally NO anti Rh present Transfusion Reaction Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal! Universal Donor vs. Universal Recipient Only as long as emergencies – must be given slowly ! Clinical Brief Anemia: p. 536 Reduced oxygen carrying ability of blood. Causes Polycythemia: Erythrocytosis: excessive increase in RBCs Polycythemia vera: Blood Doping: p. 545 Via direct transfusion, or EPO use

WBCs = Leukocytes Quantity in addition to type determined by differential WBC count Circulating WBCs are only a small fraction of total WBCs. Most are located in Diapedesis Chemotaxis Granulocytes in addition to Agranulocytes Neutrophil (= PMN) Up to ~ 70% (~ 2/3) of circulating WBCs Cytoplasm packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes phagocytic Eosinophil ~ 2% – 4% of circulating WBCs Granules stain with eosin Increased in allergies in addition to parasitic infections

Basophil < 1% of circulating WBCs Granules stain with basic dyes in addition to contain histamine Discharge of histamine promotes inflammation at site of injury (Similar to mast cells) Monocyte ~ 2% - 8% of circulating WBCs Large kidney shaped nucleus In tissue called Macrophage Lymphocytes ~ 20% - 30% of circulating WBCs Relatively small (slightly larger than RBCs) Large round nucleus B, T, NK Buchanan, Gary WTLS-AM On-Air Personality www.phwiki.com

Platelets = Thrombocytes Cell fragments of Megakaryocytes (~ 4,000 thrombocytes per Megakaryocyte) ~ 160 m Lifespan ~ 12 days involved in blood clotting Abnormal Blood Cell Counts Leukopenia < 2,500/ L (normal 6000 – 9000) Leukocytosis > 30,000/ L Thrombocytopenia: < 80,000/ L (normal ~ 350,000) Thrombocytosis: > 1,000,000/ L Also Lymphopenia vs. — –vs. Neutrophilia Hemopoiesis = Blood Cell Formation Hemocytoblasts: One type of stem cell as long as all blood cells In red bone marrow then differentiation into 4 types of progenitor stem cells: Erythroblast Myeloblast Monoblast Lymphoblast Fig 20.8

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