Ch 20: The Blood Functions of Blood Plasma Composition Plasma Proteins

Ch 20: The Blood Functions of Blood Plasma Composition Plasma Proteins

Ch 20: The Blood Functions of Blood Plasma Composition Plasma Proteins

Buchanan, Gary, On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Ch 20: The Blood Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components Explain the anatomy in addition to functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood in addition to give the functions of each Give a brief accounting of the platelets Review hemopoiesis, including RBC in addition to leukocyte as long as mation Functions of Blood Distribution – nutrients, wastes, hormones, gases, etc. Self-sealing – hemostasis Disease/ infection fighting Blood = connective tissue extracellular matrix: Plasma specialized cells: (= Formed elements) RBCs WBCs Platelets color volume

Kodolanyi Janos University College HU

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

Plasma Composition Water 92% Plasma proteins 7% Other solutes 1% Transports organic in addition to inorganic molecules, as long as med elements, in addition to heat Plasma Proteins Albumin (60%) Major contributor to osmotic concentration of plasma. Transport of lipids in addition to steroid hormones Globulins (35%) Transport ions, hormones, lipids; immune function Fibrinogen (4%) Essential component of clotting system (conversion to insoluble fibrin) Regulatory proteins (< 1%) Other Solutes Electrolytes: Normal extracellular fluid ion composition () Organic nutrients: glucose, FA, AA Organic wastes: urea, bilirubin Difference between Plasma in addition to Interstitial Fluid : Plasma has more: Dissolved O2 O2 diffuses out into tissue Dissolved proteins (too big to cross caps.) Albumins Globulins globulins in addition to globulins Fibrinogen Similar concentration: Salts & small molecules serum = plasma - Difference between plasma in addition to serum . 2 more things: Most plasma proteins are made in liver. Exception: Lipoproteins = particles containing lipids (cholesterol & triglycerids) in addition to proteins (albumins & globulins) Formed Elements Red in addition to White Blood Cells Platelets Platelets WBCs RBCs .1% 99.9% Formed Elements cont. Why white blood cells RBCs = Erythrocytes Measured by hematocrit or PCV Most abundant blood cell: 1000 RBCs/1 WBC Contain hemoglobin, carry O2 Very regular shape - biconcave discs Anucleate: Lifespan ~ 120 days replacement rate ~ 3 mio RBCs / sec Structure of Hemoglobin (Hb) Fe ion in heme group reversibly binds O2 How many oxygen molecules can 1 Hb molecule carry a b ABO & Rh Blood Types Blood groups (types) based on specific RBC surface antigens (= proteins) > 30 common varieties of antigens known. Most important ABO & Rh blood type ABO Blood typing: 4 combinations possible A surface antigen = blood type A B surface antigen = blood type B both surface antigens = type AB neither surface antigen = type O Rh surface antigen = + blood type no Rh antigen = negative blood type

2 – 8 months after birth: Anti-A in addition to anti-B antibodies can be as long as med in plasma ! normally NO anti Rh present Transfusion Reaction Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal! Universal Donor vs. Universal Recipient Only as long as emergencies – must be given slowly ! Clinical Brief Anemia: p. 536 Reduced oxygen carrying ability of blood. Causes Polycythemia: Erythrocytosis: excessive increase in RBCs Polycythemia vera: Blood Doping: p. 545 Via direct transfusion, or EPO use

WBCs = Leukocytes Quantity in addition to type determined by differential WBC count Circulating WBCs are only a small fraction of total WBCs. Most are located in Diapedesis Chemotaxis Granulocytes in addition to Agranulocytes Neutrophil (= PMN) Up to ~ 70% (~ 2/3) of circulating WBCs Cytoplasm packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes phagocytic Eosinophil ~ 2% – 4% of circulating WBCs Granules stain with eosin Increased in allergies in addition to parasitic infections

Basophil < 1% of circulating WBCs Granules stain with basic dyes in addition to contain histamine Discharge of histamine promotes inflammation at site of injury (Similar to mast cells) Monocyte ~ 2% - 8% of circulating WBCs Large kidney shaped nucleus In tissue called Macrophage Lymphocytes ~ 20% - 30% of circulating WBCs Relatively small (slightly larger than RBCs) Large round nucleus B, T, NK Buchanan, Gary WTLS-AM On-Air Personality

Platelets = Thrombocytes Cell fragments of Megakaryocytes (~ 4,000 thrombocytes per Megakaryocyte) ~ 160 m Lifespan ~ 12 days involved in blood clotting Abnormal Blood Cell Counts Leukopenia < 2,500/ L (normal 6000 – 9000) Leukocytosis > 30,000/ L Thrombocytopenia: < 80,000/ L (normal ~ 350,000) Thrombocytosis: > 1,000,000/ L Also Lymphopenia vs. — –vs. Neutrophilia Hemopoiesis = Blood Cell Formation Hemocytoblasts: One type of stem cell as long as all blood cells In red bone marrow then differentiation into 4 types of progenitor stem cells: Erythroblast Myeloblast Monoblast Lymphoblast Fig 20.8

Buchanan, Gary On-Air Personality

Buchanan, Gary is from United States and they belong to WTLS-AM and they are from  Tallassee, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Buchanan, Gary deal with the subjects like Local News; National News; Sports

Journal Ratings by Kodolanyi Janos University College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Kodolanyi Janos University College and short form of this particular Institution is HU and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.