Change Your Focus! Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in the Classroom What is Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Why use it in the Classroom SFBT in the Classroom

Change Your Focus! Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in the Classroom What is Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Why use it in the Classroom SFBT in the Classroom www.phwiki.com

Change Your Focus! Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in the Classroom What is Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Why use it in the Classroom SFBT in the Classroom

Del Greco, Al, Morning Show Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Change Your Focus! Solution-Focused Brief Therapy in the Classroom What is Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Definition: the Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) approach assumes that all students have some knowledge of what would make their life better in addition to already possess at least the minimal skills necessary to create solutions. Why use it in the Classroom Promotes supportive in addition to positive teacher-student relationships. Teacher sensitivity Support Warmth Increases social competence. Reduces classroom problem behavior. (Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002)

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SFBT in the Classroom Teacher’s emphasis on relationship building to prevent or diffuse disciplinary problems appears to be well received by students. (Gregory & Ripski, 2008) A study on SFBT in the classroom, found that SFBT was a successful model as long as working with students who had a learning disability in addition to school-related behavior problems. There were “clear, observable, in addition to positive changes.” SFBT “appears to show promise as long as helping special education students with their academic difficulties in addition to classroom behaviors.” (Biever, et al., 2001) The Components of SFBT Exceptions Strength Based Language Miracle Question Scaling Present & future-focused questions vs. Past-oriented focus Exceptions Something that happens instead of the problem; often spontaneously in addition to without conscious intention. “What is different about the times when this is less of a problem”

Exceptions Dialogue Teacher: Hey, I noticed that I am missing a few homework assignments from you this week. I do have the assignment from Monday though in addition to I wanted to thank you as long as turning that in. I was wondering what you did to help you remember to turn that one in. Student: Um, I think I put it right back in my backpack after I was finished with it on Sunday. Teacher: Wow, that’s a great strategy! How did you come up with that Student: Well, I just figured that if I put it in my backpack, I wouldn’t as long as get. Teacher: That’s very true. What triggered that thought Did you do something different or give yourself a reminder Student: That day my mom talked to me about not getting my work turned in. I wanted to make sure I remembered to turn in my homework on Monday. Strength Based Language Powerful reminder to students that they engage in many useful things even in times of overwhelming difficulties. They possess abilities in addition to coping mechanisms. Highlights what the student is doing that is working. Invite them to do more of what is working or try changes. “How did you do that” “How have you managed to prevent things from becoming worse” Strength Based Dialogue Teacher: I think turning in your homework is a great way to bring your grades up. I bet we can find a way to use this strategy everyday! What do you think we could do to make sure your homework gets in your backpack every day Student: Maybe some kind of a reminder. Like a note. Teacher: You mean like a sticky note on your homework or a reminder at the top Student: Yeah like a sticky note. If there was a sticky note at the top, I wouldn’t as long as get that it belongs in my backpack. Teacher: Hey, I bet that would work. That sounds like a great strategy to me. How can I help you with that Student: Um, maybe you could put a sticky note on my homework in addition to I could write on it. Teacher: Good idea, I could definitely help you with that.

Miracle Question Helps to generate the first small steps of ‘solution thinking’ by helping students describe small, realistic doable steps they can take as soon as the next day. “If you woke up tomorrow in addition to discovered that a miracle had occurred overnight, what would be different as you went through your day that would tell you things were better as long as you” “How could you begin achieving that on a very small scale, on your own, just as long as the next week” Miracle Question Dialogue Teacher: You said your mom is concerned about your work. What do you think it would be like if you could wake up tomorrow in addition to you never had to worry about turning in your homework because somehow it always got turned in Student: That would be awesome! Teacher: What would be so awesome about it Student: Well, I’d never get in trouble as long as not turning it in in addition to my mom would be happy because I’d get good grades. Scaling Useful in helping students to assess their own situations, track their progress, or evaluate how others might rate them on a scale of 1 to 10. “On a scale of 1=the problem is in control, to 10=you are in control of the problem; where are you at today” “Where would you like to be next time in addition to what will you need to do to get there”

Scaling Dialogue Teacher: Right now, on a scale from 1 to 10, how good are you at turning in your homework 1 being “never turning it in” in addition to 10 being “always turning it in.” Student: Uh, well, like a 3 I guess. I sometimes remember, but not much lately. Teacher: Ok, let’s try to bring that up a few points by using our new strategy. What goal would you like to have by next month Student: If I went up a few points that would be like a 5. I’d like to be a 5. Teacher: Yeah, I think that’s a good goal. Let’s try to use your great sticky note strategy to help you get to a 5. Student: Ok, cool. Present & future-focused vs. Past-oriented Questions are based on the future or present. Reflects the basic belief that problems are best solved by focusing on what is already working rather than on the past in addition to the origin of the problem. “What will you be doing in the next week that would indicate to you that you are continuing to make progress.” Using SFBT in Consultation Within a consultative role, School Psychologists can help to enhance teachers’ capacity to build positive in addition to supportive relationships with students. Consultation with teachers should target increasing teachers’ attunement to students so that students feel understood in addition to establish greater trust in their teachers. (Gregory in addition to Ripski, 2008)

Sharing SFBT with Staff Staff need no previous experience or qualifications other than an open mind in addition to an ability to take a new approach on board. Solution focused strategies are truly inclusive providing new ways to empower staff in addition to pupils to bring about positive change in their schools. (Young & Holdorf, 2003) Training Large Group Professional Development Meetings Workshop as long as Teachers Small Group Interested Staff Individual Teachers Training: What to Highlight SFBT Techniques description in addition to examples Dialogue One student at a time An extension of what is already being done in the classroom Provides a researched-based framework or approach

Materials PowerPoint Presentation SBFT in the Classroom Packet Techniques Dialogue Teacher’s Guide – Teaching Toward Solutions by Laura Metcalf Further Research Corcoran, J. (2006). A comparison group study of solution-focused therapy versus treatment-as- usual as long as behavior problems in children. Journal of Social Service Research, 33, 69-81. Cothran, D.J., Kulinna, P.H., Garrahy, D.A. (2003). This is kind of giving a secret away : students’ perspectives on effective class management. Teaching in addition to Teacher Education, 19, 435-444. Lewis, R. (2001). Classroom discipline in addition to student responsibility: the student’s view. Teaching in addition to Teacher Education, 17, 307-319. Lewis, R., Romi, S., Qui, X., & Katz, Y.J. (2005). Teacher’s classroom discipline in addition to student misbehavior in Australia, China in addition to Israel. Teaching in addition to Teacher Education, 21, 729-741. Further Research, cont. Metcalf, L. (1999). Teaching towards Solutions: Step-by-step strategies as long as h in addition to ling academic, behavior & family issues in the classroom. New York: The Center as long as Applied Research in Education. Newsome, W.S. (2005). The impact of solution-focused brief therapy with at-risk Junior High school students. National Association of Social Workers, 27, 83-89. Rimm-Kaufman, S.E., Early, D.M., Cox, M.J. Saluja, G., Pinata, R.C., Bradley, R.H., et al. (2002). Early behavioral attributes in addition to teachers’ sensitivity as predictors of competent behavior in the kindergarten classroom. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 451- 470. Stoughton, E.H. (2007). How will I get them to behave : Preservice teachers reflect on classroom management. Teaching in addition to Teacher Education, 23, 1024-1037. Thomas, D.W., Bierman, K.L., Thompson, C., & Powers, C.J. (2008). Double jeopardy: Child in addition to school characteristics that predict aggressive- disruptive behavior in first grade. School Psychology Review, 37, 516-532.

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Del Greco, Al Morning Show Host

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